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The cryoprotective effects of soybean lecithin on boar spermatozoa quality
S Zhang, J Hu, Q Li, Z Jiang, X Zhang
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2009,
Abstract: Soybean lecithin has been attracted increasing attention and has been used to replace egg yolk in the cryopreservation of domestic animal semen. However, its effects on freezing boar spermatozoa have never been evaluated. In the present study, semen was collected from five Duroc boars and frozenthawed in extender with different concentrations of soybean lecithin (3, 6, 9 and 12%) and 20% egg yolk. Semen parameters including sperm motion characteristics (the percentage of total motile sperm and motility), plasma membrane integrity and acrosome integrity were assessed with a computer-aided semen analysis (CASA) system, hypoosmotic swelling test (HOST) and fluorescein isothiocyanateconjugated peanut agglutinin (FITC-PNA) method, respectively. The result best result was obtained for the extender supplemented with 6% soybean lecithin, with values of 59.7% for the percentage of total motile sperm (TM%), 44.3% for motility, 45.3% for plasma membrane integrity and 61.9% for acrosome integrity. TM%, motility, acrosome integrity and plasma membrane integrity in the extender containing 6% soybean lecithin were significantly higher than that of other concentrations of soybean lecithin and 20% egg yolk (P < 0.05). However, the percentages of TM, acrosome integrity and plasma membrane integrity decreased with the increasing concentration of soybean lecithin in extender. In summary, the effect of soybean lecithin on spermatozoa quality was superior and the effective concentration of soybean lecithin in extender was 6% (w/v). Soybean lecithin might replace egg yolk in extender in the cryopreservation of boar semen.
Effects of dietary vitamin C and soybean lecithin in the nutrition of brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus L.) fingerlings  [cached]
Ivica Ani?i?,Tomislav Treer,Daniel Matuli?,Roman Safner
Italian Journal of Animal Science , 2013, DOI: 10.4081/ijas.2013.e27
Abstract: The effects of different forms of vitamin C and soybean lecithin on growth performance, feed utilization and body composition of brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus, Lesuer 1819) were evaluated during a 9-week growth trial. A special interest was to investigate a possible combine effect of these nutritional components. The diets used contained three forms of vitamin C (crystallized ascorbic acid, encapsulated L-ascorbic acid and Ca-L-threonate) (100 mg/kg) with and without the combination of soybean lecithin. Besides control diet (K), one more diet was supplemented with soybean lecithin (L) only. One-hundred-ninety-two brown bullhead of about 45 g initial body weight was randomly divided in 24 tanks (115 L each). Testing conditions included 8 fish per tank, with triplicate tanks for treatment. All diets with supplemented components had higher final weight. Specific growth rate, feed conversion rate and condition factor were significantly higher with encapsulated vitamin C diets (CC, CCL), followed by the results of enriched ascorbic acid diets. Vitamin C and lecithin supplementation showed positive influence on significantly higher number of erythrocytes, haematocrit, triglycerides and total protein. Vitamin C content of muscle and liver tissue was not uniform and was significantly higher in AAL, CCL, CC and AA feeding groups. The fatty acids profile of muscle and liver tissue showed that phospholipids from soybean lecithin and vitamin C diets enhanced the quality of usable part of the fish body. Combine supplementation of vitamin C and soy lecithin indicated positive production effects, but did not cause a statistically significant difference.
Chemical compositions as quality parameters of ZP soybean and wheat genotypes
?ili? Sla?ana,Had?i-Ta?kovi?-?ukalovi? Vesna,Srebri? Mirjana,Dodig Dejan
Genetika , 2009, DOI: 10.2298/gensr0903297z
Abstract: This research is focused on the analysis of chemical characteristics of ZP soybean and wheat genotypes, as well as, on nutritional differences between this two complementary plant species. The experimental material consisted of two bread (ZP 96/I and ZP 87/Ip), two durum (ZP 34/I ZP and ZP DSP/01-66M) wheat genotypes and four soybean varieties (Nena, Lidija, Lana and Bosa) of different genetic background. All ZP soybean genotypes, except the Lana, had over 40% of total proteins by dry matter. Lana and Lidija, variety of recent creation, developed as a result of selection for specific traits, had high oil content. Wheat genotypes had much a lower content of ash, oil, total and water soluble proteins than soybean cultivars. The highest oil, total and water soluble proteins content was detected in grain of durum genotype ZP DSP/01-66M. Lignin content varies much more among soybean than among the wheat genotypes. Generally, contents of total phenolics, carotenes and tocopherol were more abundant in ZP soybean than bread and durum wheat genotypes.
An Investigation on Quality Parameters of the Silages Made by Corn and Soybean Grown in Different Seeding Rates
Aydan Yilmaz,Suzan Altinok,Zahide Kocabas
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012,
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine, the best seeding rates for corn and soybean for the highest quality of silage. To do this, the field experiments were carried out in randomized block design with 3 replications using corn variety P.32K61 and soybean variety OAC Salem in 2001 and 2002 as materials. They were seeded as monocropping and intercropping in alternated rows with the seeding rates of 100% corn + 0% soybean (SR1), 100% corn + 50% soybean (SR2), 100% corn + 100% soybean (SR3), 50% corn + 50% soybean (SR4), 50% corn + 100% soybean (SR5) and 0% corn + 100% soybean (SR6). The nutriments components, namely, Dry Matter (DM), Crude Ash (CA), Crude Protein (CP), Crude Fat (CF), Crude Cellulose (CC) and cell wall components, namely Neutral Detergent Fiber (NDF), Acid Detergent Fiber (ADF) and Acid Detergent Lignin (ADL) were analyzed Before Ensiling (BE) and After Ensiling (AE) in both years. Hemicelluloses, cellulose and lignin were derived from the cell wall components. To determine the silage quality value, the Flieg points were calculated. The silages made using corn grown intercropped with soybean were good or very good quality in terms of physical characteristics. The soybean grown as mono-crop did not achieve high quality silages. The results substantiated that the mono-cropped corn and corn grown together with soybean at the different seeding rates gave rise to high quality silages. The digestibility of the silages mode from corn and soybean after ensiling was higher than that observed before ensiling.
In vitro relative protein digestibility and lipoxygenase activity used as parameters to test and compare quality in five varieties of soybean meals.
Elizabeth Maforimbo
Journal of Food Technology in Africa , 2001,
Abstract: Proximate composition, In Vitro Relative Protein Digestibility of 5 varieties of soybean (glycine max), was done. Meals from whole seeds and dehulled seeds were both investigated. Stability to photoxidation was also monitored on the oils over a period after sunlight exposure and finally the extent of oil oxidation was determined after 10 months of ambient storage. There was an intervarietal similarity in proximate composition for the whole seeds as confirmed by the low coefficients of variation, i e, 4.73%; 2.23%; 5.09%; 3.87% and 11.76% for moisture, crude protein, ether extract, ash and fibre respectively. An intervarietal similarity was also shown in dehulled seeds with coefficients of variation at 11.9%, 3.49%, 2.3%, 4.0% for moisture, crude protein, ether extract and ash respectively, except for the fibre content which had a higher coefficient of variation of 31.62%. Significant differences in relative protein digestibility were shown among varieties for both the whole and dehulled seeds. Dehulling significantly improved relative digestibility in all varieties as confirmed by the t-test at a 5% level. Nyala variety gave the highest relative protein digestibility both for the whole and dehulled seeds, at 78.03% and 87.02% respectively. The yield of oil after petroleum ether extraction was highest in the Roan and least in the Duiker seed variety at 20.70% and 17.8% respectively. Stability to photoxidation (lipoxygenase activity) for the oils was least in the Duiker variety, giving an E1%1cm (UV absorbance at 232 nm) of 11.26 after 12 hours exposure to sunlight and 62,0 after 10 months of ambient storage. The most stable oil to photoxidation was from the Soma variety giving an E1%1cm of 6.23 after 12 hours of sunlight exposure and 15.63 after ambient storage of 10 months. The t-test indicated that there was no significant difference (P <0.05) in the rate of oil oxidation between the Roan and the Soma varieties up to a period of 10 months at ambient storage. Ranking for the following quality parameters, protein, relative protein digestibility, oil content and its stability to oxidation were in the following order; Roan, Nyala, Soma, Nondo and Duiker. The Journal of Food Technology in Africa Volume 6 Number 2 (April-June 2001), pp. 48-52 KEY WORDS: relative digestibility, stability, photoxidation, lipoxygenase activity, soybean meals.
Optimization and Thermodynamics Studies on Enzymatic Milk Fat Splitting Process using Soybean Lecithin
G. Baskar,J.H. Panwal; T. Viruthagiri
Advance Journal of Food Science and Technology , 2010,
Abstract: Lecithin a natural product with unique surface active properties makes it ideal in food processing particularly for fat splitting applications. In the present work the effect of initial fat content, process time, initial enzyme concentration and temperature on splitting of milk was studied using soybean lecithin. The optimum conditions for the maximum percentage fat splitting and unsaturated fatty acid formation were found to be an initial fat content 0.3 g, processing time 90 min, lecithin concentration 5 mL of 3% (v/v) and temperature 40oC. The maximum percentage fat splitting and unsaturated fatty acid formation were found to be 6.26% (w/w) and 23.24% (w/w) respectively. Activation energy (Ea) required for the milk fat splitting using soybean lecithin was found to be 0.44 J/mol.
Effects of the Partial Replacement of Soybean Meal by Insect or Algae Meal in Chicken Diets with Graded Amino Acid Supply on Parameters of Gut Microbiology and Dietary Protein Quality  [PDF]
Susanne Velten, Carmen Neumann, Jenny Sch?fer, Frank Liebert
Open Journal of Animal Sciences (OJAS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojas.2018.83020
Abstract: Insects or algae are considered future solutions to substitute imported feed proteins like soybean meal (SBM) in animal nutrition. The objective of this research, as part of the multidisciplinary project “Sustainability transitions”, focused on replacing 50% SBM by partly defatted larvae meal from black soldier flies (Hermetia illucens) or the blue-green algae Spirulina platensis in meat type chicken diets. The current study aimed to evaluate the effects on body composition, protein quality, apparent precaecal digestibility (apcD) and parameters of intestinal microbiota. In total, 288 one-day-old male growing chickens (Ross 308) from a commercial hatchery were randomly allotted to 48 pens (6 birds per pen) across five diets, which were fed at a free choice level. The control diet utilized SBM, wheat and corn as main ingredients, and experimental diets replaced 50% of SBM by the alternative proteins under study. Amino acid (AA) supplementation of the final diets was conducted both at a basic level (diets HM, SM; Lys and Met added equal to the control diet) and an extended level of AA fortification (diets HM+, SM+; extended supplementation of Lys, Met, Thr, Arg). After finishing the growth study, 4 individual birds per diet were slaughtered for whole body analyses to derive nutrient utilization and dietary protein quality parameters. Additionally, pooled chyme samples from 16 birds per diet (control, HM and SM) were analyzed to assess apcD and microbial parameters. Diets HM and SM with a basic level of AA fortification led to significant depressions in nutrient deposition and dietary protein quality. However, HM+ and SM+ diets with an extended level of AA supplementation led to significantly improved responses; however these were still generally not on par with the control diet. The HM+ diet provided superior CP deposition and dietary protein quality, as compared to the SM+ diet, but equal to the control diet. Results of gut microbiology yielded no significant effects due to feeding the alternative protein sources under study.
Soybean lecithin: acetone insoluble residue fractionation and their volatile components
El-Shattory, Y.,Aly, Saadia M.
Grasas y Aceites , 2002,
Abstract: The acetone insoluble residue was isolated from soybean lecithin. This residue was solvent fractionated resulted in four fractions, namely, acetic acid soluble, acetic acid insoluble, benzene phase and benzene insoluble phase. Concerning phospholipid constitution of these four fractions, it was found that the first fraction contains PC, PE and PI in percentages of 56.0, 21.6 and 19.0 respectively. The 2nd fraction makes 39 % PC and 60 % CER, besides some traces of PE and PI. The benzene phase is mainly all PC with some traces of PE. The last fraction is 80.6 % CER and 20 % PC. The fatty acid composition of these four fractions besides soluble in acetone, crude and degummed soybean oil and total phospholipids was recorded. Generally, it was found that the major saturated and unsaturated fatty acids were palmitic and linoleic. Volatile components of these samples except acetic acid insoluble were reported. Fourty nine compounds were separated. Thirty two components including aliphatic aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, esters and acids were identified. Aldehydes and ketones showed a changed through the seven samples. They increased by degumming. 4,5-Dimethylelisoxazole had a strong lecithin like flavour, so it can be used as an indicator for the degumming process.2-Pentylfuran showed a significant decrease by degumming. Other compounds, such as esters and alcohols had no distinguish effect on the volatile products through process. El residuo insoluble en acetona fue aislado de la lecitina de soja. Este residuo fue fraccionado por solventes en cuatro fracciones: soluble en ácido acético, insoluble en ácido acético, fase benceno y fase insoluble en benceno. Concerniente a la constitución de los fosfolípidos de estas cuatro fracciones, se encontró que la primera fracción contiene PC, PE y PI en porcentajes del 56.0, 21.6 y 19.0 respectivamente. La segunda fracción tuvo 39 % PC y 60 % CER, junto a algunas trazas de PE y PI. La fase benceno está constituida principalmente por PC con algunas trazas de PE. La última fracción tuvo 80.6 % CER y 20 % PC. La composición en ácidos grasos de estas cuatro fracciones junto a los solubles en acetona, aceite de soja crudo y desgomado y fosfolípidos totales fueron registradas. Por lo general, se encontró que los ácidos grasos mayoritarios saturados e insaturados fueron el palmítico y linoléico. Los componentes volátiles de estas muestras excepto la insoluble en ácido acético fueron determinadas. Cuarenta y nueve compuestos fueron separados. Treinta y dos componentes incluyendo aldehidos alifáticos, cetonas, alcoholes, ésteres y
A Comparative Study of Household Groundwater Arsenic Removal Technologies and their Water Quality Parameters
Hossain K.M. Delowar,Imtiaz Uddin,W.H. Abou EL Hassan,Mst. Farida Perveen
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2006,
Abstract: Groundwater arsenic contamination is one of the most important concerns in Bangladesh. We performed a comparative study of three available groundwater arsenic removal methods used in Bangladesh. Among the three methods, the Three-Pitcher system removed arsenic up to 96% whereas AAN-Filter and NIFSF methods removed arsenic 88 and 84%, respectively. The arsenic removal efficiency and water flow rate decreased significantly after three-month continuous operation in Three-Pitcher and AAN Filter methods and two-month continuous operation for NIFSF method. Calcium concentration was decreased to half by Three-Pitcher and AAN Filter methods but increased substantially in the NIFSF method due to the addition of bleaching powder. Anion concentrations in the filtered water changed in both directions. A significant increased in chloride was found in NIFSF water probably due to the chlorination of bleaching powder. Total Dissolved Solid (TDS) decreased 63 and 58% in Three-Pitcher and AAN Filter methods, respectively and increased 25% in NIFSF method. Considering all of the parameters, Three-Pitcher method was the best, but the others were effective, too. The choice of methods largely depends on the socio-economic conditions of the rural people. Before recommending any method for large-scale use in arsenic removal, further study needs to be done.
Growth Parameters and Carcass Quality of Broilers Fed a Corn-Soybean Diet Supplemented with Creatine Monohydrate  [PDF]
C.A. Stahl,M.W. Greenwood,E.P. Berg
International Journal of Poultry Science , 2003,
Abstract: A six-week study was conducted to determine the feed efficiency and carcass quality of broilers supplemented creatine monohydrate. Day-old (unsexed) broiler chicks (n = 288) were allotted to one of three dietary treatments (12 chicks/pen, eight replications/treatment) using a completely randomized design. The control diet (diet A) contained 0% creatine throughout the entirety of the six week study. Diet B contained 0% creatine weeks 1-3 and 0.63% creatine weeks 4-6, while diet C contained 1.05% creatine weeks 1-3 and 0.63% creatine weeks 4-6. Each diet was formulated to meet or exceeded the nutrient requirements of broilers. During week four of the experiment, the feed efficiency of chicks fed diet B was superior (P < 0.05) to that of birds fed diet A. Intramuscular pH measured at 30 min postmortem was lower (P < 0.05) in the breast meat of broilers fed diet C. Moreover, the breast meat from broilers fed diets B and C was paler (higher L*-values) than that of birds fed the control diet (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the data indicate that feed efficiency was improved from weeks three to four after a creatine loading period. However, the carcasses from broilers fed creatine exhibited a paler breast meat color and a lower breast muscle pH (diet C) when compared to diet A.
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