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Affinity (tropism) of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus for brain cells
IA Adebayo, TAM Awoniyi, OD Olaleye
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2008,
Abstract: One of the constraints in unraveling the mysteries blurring the advancement of research in the quest to totally put HIV problems under control is getting the appropriate animal model that would truly simulate human cases. This problem is more apparent in studies involving the central nervous system. Consequently, a viable animal model to generate information for the production of drugs and vaccines for the prevention and or control of lentiviral induced dementia in affected host animals is pertinent and vital. In this study, explant cultures prepared from the brain of new-born goat-kid were infected with Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis (CAE) virus- a retrovirus affecting goats. The specific brain cell types infected by the (CAE) virus were determined using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RTPCR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM techniques). TEM showed that in 85 – 90% cases, microglia were the cells specifically infected by the virus. Amplification of the genomic sequence of the envelope and the gag genes by RT-PCR confirmed the presence of CAEV proviral DNA in the brain cells of affected animals. No productive infection of the astrocytes was observed. The results of this study showed a lot of similarities in the tropism of CAE virus infection of goat brain cells to that of HIV infection in humans thus suggesting the potential usefulness of the caprine model for the study of HIV neuropathology. The goat model system as a non-primate model therefore could be more adaptable as a simple animal model than primate models with their complexity of anthropological, environmental and safety problems.
Vírus da artrite encefalite caprina: isolamento e caracteriza??o de parte do gene gag
Lima, P.P.;Rocha, M.A.;Stancek, D.;Gouveia, A.M.G.;Oliveira, G.D.R.;
Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-09352004000200001
Abstract: blood samples from 12 seropositive animals by agar gel immunodifusion test (agid) showing no evident clinical signs of disease were taken to attempt caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (caev) isolation. monocyte-derived macrophages were co-cultured with goat synovial membrane cells (gsm) resulting in five virus isolations, which presented cytophatic effects of the persistent type, resembling those observed for caev. a polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assay was designed to amplify a portion of the gag proviral gene coding for the major core protein (p25). all of the five isolates were amplified by this pcr and three of them named br-ufmg/pl1, br-ufmg/pl2 and br-ufmg/pl3, were sequenced directly from their pcr products. multiple sequence analysis and a dendrogram including other sequences from the genbank database showed that these brazilian isolates are unique and distinct from those of known caprine and ovine lentiviruses, with a higher identity of nucleotide and deduced aminoacids to each other and to caev than to maedi-visna virus.
Goat uterine epithelial cells are susceptible to infection with Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis Virus (CAEV) in vivo
Mohamad Z Ali Al Ahmad, Laurence Dubreil, Gérard Chatagnon, Zakaria Khayli, Marine Theret, Lionel Martignat, Yahia Chebloune, Francis Fieni
Veterinary Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1297-9716-43-5
Abstract: Caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) was first described as a cause of chronic arthritis in American goats [1-3], and has since been found to be widespread in goat herds worldwide [4,5]. CAEV is an RNA virus belonging to the lentivirus genus of the family retroviridae [1]. In France, the infection is present in around 80 to 95% of breeding herds [6] and causes economic losses through reduced milk production, early culling, and loss of export potential [7]. Symptoms of infection may include lung disease and, more often, indurative mastitis as well as classical arthritis. Leucoencephalitis in young kids [1] remains rare.Infection can be transmitted by any means involving the transfer of infected cells to a na?ve recipient. In the field, the principal route of transmission is vertical from dam to kids through colostrum and milk [5], with additional horizontal transmission following prolonged contact between infected and na?ve adult animals [8]. Attempts to reduce infection by treating colostrum and milk, and separating infected and na?ve animals have been disappointing [8,9], and attempts have been made to identify other risk factors [10,11].Although the oral route remains the principal mode of natural transmission, sexual transmission has yet to be fully explored. CAEV proviral DNA has been identified using PCR in tissues of the genital tract (uterus, oviduct, and ovary [12]), and in uterine flushing media recovered four days after fecundation [13,14].The virus primarily infects cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage, with viral production being linked to cell differentiation from monocytes to macrophages [15,16]; however, viral transcripts have been detected in epithelial cells in the small intestine, thyroid gland, and kidneys of infected goats [17]. In vitro, granulosa cells, oviduct epithelial cells [18,19] and caprine early embryonic cells [20] are susceptible to CAEV infection, and infection with this virus is productive. Nevertheless, no information is
Partial Characterization of Small Ruminant Lentiviruses from Goat from Sudan Based on GAG Gene Sequence Analysis
Abdelghafar M. Elfahal,Mohammed A. Bakheit,Zakia A. Mohammed,Abdelrahim M. Elhussein
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/javaa.2010.1804.1810
Abstract: Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis Virus (CAEV) infection is widespread in the world; positive serology of the disease in Sudan was recently reported but genetic studies of the virus have not been carried out. In this study, a sequence of 354 nucleotides of the gag gene was presented covering part of the coding sequences for the Capsid (CA) p25 proteins for eight Sudanese isolates. Resulting nucleotide sequences were aligned along with those from other ovine/caprine prototypic and all Sudanese sequences appear to be closely related at both nucleotide and amino acid sequences to each other and to the prototypic CAEV-Co isolate. They were also found to be clearly divergent from ovine isolates which clustered in a separate group. Hypothesis as to how this virus was introduced into Sudan was discussed.
Immunological Response of West-Africa Dwarf Goats to Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis Virus Infection
Adebayo I. A.,T. A. M. Awoniyi
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012,
Abstract: One hundred and seventeen West African Dwarf (WAD) goats suspected of Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis Virus (CAEV) infection were isolated to study immunological responses to the infection. Employing the sodium-dodecil-sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) technique, the expression of the different immuno-dominant glycoproteins were monitored over a ten-month period. The immunological response of each goat as the infection progressed was determined by titrating the serum antibody level against the viral load using Goat Synovial Membrane Cells (GSMC) as the indicator medium. A pattern that was consistent in all the infected goats was that both neutralizing antibody and virus were detectable throughout the period of the study. Immunoblotting assays showed that there were slight differences in the pattern of immune responses of the goats to the infection as manifested by the expression of different glycoproteins though based on the advancement of the disease in the different animals. The immunological implications of these findings are discussed.
Phage display identifies two Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis Virus env epitopes
Karlen Gazarian, Alvaro Setién, Tatiana Gazarian, Sebastian Pierle
Veterinary Research , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1297-9716-42-87
Abstract: Caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus, CAEV [1], and ovine maedi-visna virus, MVV [2] belong to the Lentivirus genus of the Retroviridae family. Since the first comparison in 1995 of pol gene sequences of French MVV isolates with CAEV [3] and subsequent extensive analyses (reviewed by [4]), studies have established that ovine MVV and caprine CAEV constitute a genetically heterogeneous group of pathogens that have evolved in small ruminants and are known as small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV) [5-7]. Multiple observations support interspecies transmission of CAEV and MVV [5,8,9] in small domestic and wild ruminants, causing neurological, pulmonary, articular and mammary symptoms [1,4,10]. As transmission of CAEV repeatedly occurs in different regions [6,8,11,12], it affects herds worldwide and has a significant economic impact. The infection is clinically difficult to detect, hence sensitive diagnostic methods are of primary importance to prevent further distribution of the virus. Despite the availability of a large number of serological tests for CAEV [13], immunological detection is challenging due to the lack of low-cost and readily available recombinant antigens (see [14]). Testing sera with recombinant and synthetic peptides from different CAEV envelope (Env) regions permitted identification of several immunogenic regions [15-18]. Here we describe the first phage display mapping of epitopes of CAEV.We used the VR905, CAEV 75-G63 strain, cloned lot 2D, 91-12, ATCC (American Type Culture Collection). Cell cultures of Mycoplasma-free goat synovial membrane (GSM) cells that had been propagated in Dulbecco-modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) containing 10% fetal bovine serum, penicillin 100 U/mL, streptomycin 100 mg/mL, and 2 μM L-glutamine were used. Goat synovial membrane cell monolayers were used for virus multiplication and were monitored twice a week for evidence of cytopathic effects (multinucleated giant cells, syncytia). The virus in cell supernatants was then titere
Culture and Identification of Goat Synovial Membrane Cells for aprine Arthritis Encephalitis Virus Diagnosis
Niorn Ratanapob,Theera Rukkwamsuk
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/javaa.2012.1827.1830
Abstract: Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis Virus (CAEV) is an important pathogen in goats. Definitive diagnosis depends on viral isolation and this method is beneficial for studying CAEV infection. Synovial fibroblast is the most appropriate cell for CAEV isolation. The objectives of this study were to culture synovial membrane cells and to identify whether the cultured cells were fibroblast. Synovial membrane tissue was collected from a CAEV-seronegative, 5 months old, male goat. The tissue was digested by collagenase. Synovial cells were cultured in RPMI 1640 at 37°C and 5% carbon dioxide. The cultured synovial cells were detected for vimentin, a marker for fibroblastic cell type, using immunocytochemistry. Phagocytic activity of the synovial cells was also tested by adding carbon particle in culture media to confirm whether or not the cells were synovial macrophages. Results revealed that the cultured synovial cells were spindle-shaped and were attached to the bottom of the flasks. These primary cultured cells could be subcultured >9 passages. Vimentin could be detected but phagocytic activity could not be detected in these cultured synovial cells indicating that these cultured cells were fibroblast.
Comparison of serological methods for the diagnostic of Caprine arthritis-encephalitis (CAE) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Cortez-Moreira, Madelayne;Oelemann, Walter M.R.;Lilenbaum, Walter;
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S1517-83822005000100010
Abstract: serum samples of 562 goats were tested for caprine arthritis-encephalitis using agar gel immunodiffusion test (agid) and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). seventy-nine samples (14.1%) were reactive by both testes but 141 (25.1%) were reactive only by elisa. elisa, when compared to agid, presented 100% sensitivity and 70.8% specificity.
Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of small ruminant lentiviruses isolated from Canadian sheep and goats
Yvan L'Homme, Mourad Ouardani, Valérie Lévesque, Giuseppe Bertoni, Carole Simard, Giuliano Pisoni
Virology Journal , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1743-422x-8-271
Abstract: We performed a molecular and phylogenetic analysis of sheep and goat lentiviruses from a small geographic area in Canada using long sequences from the gag region of 30 infected sheep and 36 infected goats originating from 14 different flocks. Pairwise DNA distance and phylogenetic analyses revealed that all SRLV sequences obtained from sheep clustered tightly with prototypical Maedi visna sequences from America. Similarly, all SRLV strains obtained from goats clustered tightly with prototypical US CAEV-Cork strain.The data reported in this study suggests that Canadian and US SRLV strains share common origins. In addition, the molecular data failed to bring to light any evidence of past cross species transmission between sheep and goats, which is consistent with the type of farming practiced in this part of the country where single species flocks predominate and where opportunities of cross species transmissions are proportionately low.Caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) and ovine Maedi-visna virus (MVV) are members of the small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs) group in the retroviridae family infecting goats and sheep worldwide [1,2]. Lentiviruses from different animal species have in common their genomic organization, the induction of slowly progressive diseases, the large spectrum of targeted organs and symptoms and the ability to persist in their hosts despite a strong immunological response. Transmission of SRLVs is thought to occur predominantly through ingestion of infected milk but, at least in sheep, horizontal transmission may also play a prominent role [3,4]. Common clinical signs caused by SRLV infections include neurological disorders, dyspnoea, emaciation, mastitis and arthritis [2,5,6]. The genomic organization of SRLVs is typical of lentiviruses: positive sense RNA dimmers of approximately 9 kb in size which consist of long terminal repeats (LTRs), gag (group specific antigens), pol (polymerase) env (envelope) genes in addition to a number of reg
First Report of Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis Virus Infection in Sudan
A.M. Elfahal,A.M. Zakia,A.M. El-Hussien
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/javaa.2010.736.740
Abstract: Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis Virus (CAEV) infection of goats has a worldwide distribution and trade in live animals is considered the main reason for the widespread of the disease. The disease has not been previously recognized in the Sudan neither by serological nor molecular biological methods. The objective of this study was to investigate CAEV infection among the imported purebred goats and their crossbred lines in the Sudan, generate information about the disease and to establish methods for diagnosis of CAEV infections, as a base line for further epidemiological and virological studies. In this study, samples (273 serum and 173 whole blood) were collected from goats in different areas of Khartoum state, Sudan. Enzyme Linked Immunosorbant Assay (ELISA) was used to detect CAEV-specific antibodies in serum and Polymerase Chain Reaction assay (PCR) was performed to detect CAEV nucleic acid in blood samples. Out of 273 animals tested, 20 (7.3%) were confirmed as CAEV infected by ELISA and nucleic acid of CAEV was detected in 41 (23.7%) out of 173 animals by PCR. ELISA failed to detect 24 samples that were positive by PCR, while PCR failed to detect only two samples that were positive by ELISA. In the present study, we reported for the first time the existence of CAEV infection, using ELISA and PCR in goats in Sudan.
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