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Serological Evidence of Selected Abortifacients in a Dairy Herd with History of Abortion
Muhammad Zubair Shabbir*, Rana Khurram Khalid, Derek Matthew Freitas1, Muhammad Tariq Javed2, Masood Rabbani, Tahir Yaqub, Arfan Ahmad, Muhammad Abu Bakr Shabbir1 and Muhammad Abbas3
Pakistan Veterinary Journal , 2013,
Abstract: Abortion is common among dairy herds in Pakistan. However, except for Brucella abortus, little is known about other prevalent abortifacients. Therefore, a sero-epidemiological study was conducted in a dairy herd with a history of abortion located in Lahore, Pakistan. Blood samples (3–5 mL) were taken from each animal (cows, n = 43; buffaloes, n = 47) in the herd. Seropositivity to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR), B. abortus, blue tongue virus (BTV), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and Toxoplasma gondii was determined using commercially available kits. Among cows and buffaloes, seropositivity was most frequent for IBR (69.8 and 70.3%, P>0.05), followed by B. abortus (32.6 and 42.6%, P>0.05), BVDV (9.3 and 6.4%, P>0.05) and BTV (4.7 and 6.4%, P>0.05), whereas, all the animals were seronegative to T. gondii. With respect to age, there was a significant difference (P<0.05) in seropositivity to B. abortus, BTV, and to multiple infectious agents in buffaloes. Additionally, a history of prior abortion was found to be significantly associated with current abortion in buffaloes and cows (P<0.001). While several significant associations between seropositivity to various agents and abortion were initially found, further analyses showed no significant associations in cows or buffaloes. The study concludes that seropositivity to the studied infectious agents was not significantly associated with abortion when accounting for other covariates, while prior abortion was found to be significantly associated with current abortion in both cows and buffaloes. However, owing to the small preliminary nature of the study, small sample size, and small number of abortion events, further studies are needed to ascertain the validity of these results.
Leptospirosis
K. Sandow,W. Ramírez.
REDVET , 2005,
Abstract: La Leptospirosis en una enfermedad infecto-contagiosa, aguda y febril causada por una bacteria del género Leptospira que afecta sobre todo a los animales salvajes y domésticos, que sirven como fuente de infección para el hombre, presenta una epidemiología compleja y de distribución cosmopolita, en la que varias especies, principalmente los roedores actúan como hospederos de mantenimiento de muchos serovariedades en todo el mundo, siendo al hombre y los animales de explotación económica y social hospederos accidentales.Las prevalencias y tasas de incidencias publicadas para esta enfermedad en el mundo varían notablemente según la zona y pueden llegar a alcanzar valores elevados en tiempos de inundaciones y en los países tropicales y subtropicales.Además, presenta un importante aspecto socio-económico y sanitario, que radica principalmente en las pérdidas económicas de carácter reproductivo y productivo en la ganadería y en el hecho de que es una zooantroponosis (zoonosis).
Experimental Skin Graft In Hairless Descendants Of Mexican Hairless Dogs  [cached]
Kimura Tohru,Doi Kunio
Indian Journal of Dermatology , 2004,
Abstract: In order to enhance the successful rate of skin transplantation, tie-over method and occlusive dressings were investigated using the skin of hairless dogs. Tie-over method had no accelerative effects of the skin grafting of hairless dogs. In contrast, at 2 weeks after grafting, the graft skin has taken well under the moist environment. The hydrocolloid dressing accelerated wound healing in the donor sites. In both the graft and the donor sites, wound contraction and crust formation were not found throughout the study, although the skin of hairless dogs lagged considerably behind that of other haired dogs in wound healing. At 2 weeks after the skin grafting, histologically, the epidermis of the grafts showed thickening and irregular hyperplasia with prominent rete ridges, suggesting a relatively high rate of cell proliferation and/or differentiation. In the dermis, the formation of granulation tissues was found, and neovascularization was obscure. At 4 weeks after skin grating, the epidermis remained thick and hair follicles with well-developed sebaceous glands were observed in some portions. In the donor sites, at 2 weeks after the treatment with hydrocolloid dressing, there was reepithelialization arising from the wound margin. In the dermis, dense granulation tissues containing many fibroblasts and collagen fibers were formed. At 4 weeks after the treatment, the regenerated skin exhibited a remarkable thickening of the epidermis, especially the granular layer, and well-developed rete ridges. These findings revealed that the treatment with the hydrocolloid dressing was a valuable measure in accelerating graft take and wound healing in the donor sites of hairless dogs.
Skin morphology of the mutant hairless USP mouse
Massironi, S.M.G.;Giacóia, M.R.;Maiorka, P.C.;Kipnis, T.L.;Dagli, M.L.Z.;
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-879X2005000100006
Abstract: the morphology of the skin of the mutant hairless usp mouse was studied by histological, histochemical and immunohistochemical methods and compared to the skin of balb/c mice. representative sections of the dorsal skin from mice of both strains aged 18 days, and 1, 3, 6, and 8 months were studied. sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin showed cystic formations called utricles and dermal cysts in the dermis that increased in size and number during growth. skin thickness increased significantly at 8 months. sections stained with picrosirius and examined with polarized light, displayed different colors, suggesting different thicknesses of dermal collagen fibers (probably types i and iii). weigert, verhoeff and resorcin-fuchsin stains revealed fibers of the elastic system. the pas and alcian blue methods revealed neutral and acid glycosaminoglycans in the skin ground substance of both mouse strains. immunohistochemical staining for fibronectin and laminin did not show differences between the mutant and balb/c mice. mast cells stained by the gomori method and macrophages positive for ham 56 antibodies were observed in both mouse strains. except for the presence of enlarged cysts in the hairless strain, no qualitative differences were found during development of the skin of balb/c and the mutant hairless mice.
Skin morphology of the mutant hairless USP mouse  [cached]
Massironi S.M.G.,Giacóia M.R.,Maiorka P.C.,Kipnis T.L.
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research , 2005,
Abstract: The morphology of the skin of the mutant hairless USP mouse was studied by histological, histochemical and immunohistochemical methods and compared to the skin of BALB/c mice. Representative sections of the dorsal skin from mice of both strains aged 18 days, and 1, 3, 6, and 8 months were studied. Sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin showed cystic formations called utricles and dermal cysts in the dermis that increased in size and number during growth. Skin thickness increased significantly at 8 months. Sections stained with picrosirius and examined with polarized light, displayed different colors, suggesting different thicknesses of dermal collagen fibers (probably types I and III). Weigert, Verhoeff and resorcin-fuchsin stains revealed fibers of the elastic system. The PAS and Alcian blue methods revealed neutral and acid glycosaminoglycans in the skin ground substance of both mouse strains. Immunohistochemical staining for fibronectin and laminin did not show differences between the mutant and BALB/c mice. Mast cells stained by the Gomori method and macrophages positive for HAM 56 antibodies were observed in both mouse strains. Except for the presence of enlarged cysts in the hairless strain, no qualitative differences were found during development of the skin of BALB/c and the mutant hairless mice.
Leptospirosis vaccines
Zhijun Wang, Li Jin, Alicja W?grzyn
Microbial Cell Factories , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2859-6-39
Abstract: Leptospirosis is a widespread disease [1], caused by infection with the spirochete bacterium Leptospira, which affects almost all mammals [1-13]. Leptospirosis was initially described as Weil's syndrome [8,14]. It is predominantly an occupational disease which affects humans who come into frequently contact with rodents, pets or polluted water [15-18] (Fig. 1). Infection is facilitated with penetrating leptospires through mucosa or an open skin [19]. After gaining entry through the skin, the bacterium causes a serious disease [19]. The symptoms of leptospirosis are extremely broad from meningitis [20], pneumonitis [21,22], hepatitis [23], nephritis [24-27], pancreatitis [28] and erythema nodosum [29] and death [30,31]. Fig. 2 shows the data of human leptospirosis cases reported by Ministry of Health of the People's Republic of China from January 2002 to October 2007 in China mainland. During this time, about 1,500 infected cases and 50 dead were reported. However, many human leptospirosis cases might be misdiagnosed or omitted due to poor medical care and information. Leptospira has over 200 pathogenic serovars, and divides into 25 serogroups, and many different strains with small antigenic differences can be found in some serovars [2,17].Leptospires have evolved ways to escape the immune defense. Pathogenic leptospires are able to translocate through cell monolayers at a rate significantly greater than that of nonpathogenic leptospires [32]. The rapid translocation of pathogenic leptospires between mammalian cells allows the bacteria to quickly reach the bloodstream and disseminate to multiple organs [32]. Virulent leptospires can rapidly enter kidney fibroblasts and induce a programmed cell death [33]. Thus, it is a challenge for immunologists to develop an effective and safe leptospirosis vaccine [34-37]. Currently, molecular and cellular studies on leptospirosis vaccines have been focused on bacterial motility [38,39], lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) [10,40-47], lipo
Molecular Analysis of the Notch Repressor-Complex in Drosophila: Characterization of Potential Hairless Binding Sites on Suppressor of Hairless  [PDF]
Patricia Kurth, Anette Preiss, Rhett A. Kovall, Dieter Maier
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0027986
Abstract: The Notch signalling pathway mediates cell-cell communication in a wide variety of organisms. The major components, as well as the basic mechanisms of Notch signal transduction, are remarkably well conserved amongst vertebrates and invertebrates. Notch signalling results in transcriptional activation of Notch target genes, which is mediated by an activator complex composed of the DNA binding protein CSL, the intracellular domain of the Notch receptor, and the transcriptional coactivator Mastermind. In the absence of active signalling, CSL represses transcription from Notch target genes by the recruitment of corepressors. The Notch activator complex is extremely well conserved and has been studied in great detail. However, Notch repressor complexes are far less understood. In Drosophila melanogaster, the CSL protein is termed Suppressor of Hairless [Su(H)]. Su(H) functions as a transcriptional repressor by binding Hairless, the major antagonist of Notch signalling in Drosophila, which in turn recruits two general corepressors – Groucho and C-terminal binding protein CtBP. Recently, we determined that the C-terminal domain (CTD) of Su(H) binds Hairless and identified a single site in Hairless, which is essential for contacting Su(H). Here we present additional biochemical and in vivo studies aimed at mapping the residues in Su(H) that contact Hairless. Focusing on surface exposed residues in the CTD, we identified two sites that affect Hairless binding in biochemical assays. Mutation of these sites neither affects binding to DNA nor to Notch. Subsequently, these Su(H) mutants were found to function normally in cellular and in vivo assays using transgenic flies. However, these experiments rely on Su(H) overexpression, which does not allow for detection of quantitative or subtle differences in activity. We discuss the implications of our results.
Herd-level risk factors associated with Leptospira Hardjo seroprevalence in Beef/Suckler herds in the Republic of Ireland
Eoin Ryan, Nola Leonard, Luke O'Grady, Michael L Doherty, Simon J More
Irish Veterinary Journal , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/2046-0481-65-6
Abstract: Questionnaires were posted to 320 farmers chosen randomly from 6 regions, encompassing 25 counties, of the Republic of Ireland. The questionnaire was designed to obtain information about vaccination; reproductive disease; breeding herd details; the presence of recognized risk factors from previous studies; and husbandry on each farm. Data collected from 128 eligible herds were subjected to statistical analysis.Following the use of Pearson's Chi-Square Test, those variables associated with a herd being "infected" with a significance level of P < 0.2 were considered as candidates for multivariable logistic regression modelling. Breeding herd size was found to be a statistically significant risk factor after multivariable logistic regression. The odds of a herd being positive for leptospiral infection were 5.47 times higher (P = 0.032) in herds with 14 to 23 breeding animals compared with herds with ≤ 13 breeding animals, adjusting for Region, and 7.08 times higher (P = 0.033) in herds with 32.6 to 142 breeding animals.Breeding herd size was identified as a significant risk factor for leptospiral infection in Irish suckler herds, which was similar to findings of previous studies of leptospirosis in dairy herds.Leptospirosis, due to Leptospira Hardjo, is a disease of cattle worldwide [1-7]. In Ireland there are two species of leptospires that are associated with disease: Leptospira interrogans serovar Hardjo and Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo. Collectively, both species can be referred to as Leptospira Hardjo. L. Hardjo mainly causes reproductive disease, i.e. abortion, mummification, stillbirth, premature and term birth of weak calves [8-11], as well as causing milk drop syndrome in dairy herds [12,13]. Leptospirosis is recognised as a significant zoonotic disease of farmers, farm workers and workers involved in the agricultural industry [14-19].Herd-level risk factors for leptospirosis due to L. Hardjo in dairy herds include: larger herd size; co-grazing wit
Nephropathy in leptospirosis  [cached]
Visith S,Kearkiat P
Journal of Postgraduate Medicine , 2005,
Abstract: Renal involvement is common in leptospirosis. Bacterial invasion, inflammatory process, haemodynamic alterations and direct toxicity of bacterial products are thought to be responsible for the development of nephropathy. Pathologically, all renal structures are involved. Interstitial nephritis is the basic lesion, and is observed even in patients without clinical renal manifestations. Tubular necrosis is the important pathological counterpart of acute renal failure. The clinical spectrum of renal manifestations includes mild urinary sediment change, hypokalemia, tubular dysfunction, decreased response to fluid load and acute renal failure (ARF). ARF reflects the severity of leptospirosis, is catabolic and is commonly associated with cholestatic jaundice. Severe renal failure may be complicated by multiple organ involvement. Renal failure with hyperbilirubinemia represents a severe form of renal dysfunction with oligo-anuria and prolonged clinical course. Mild renal failure is usually anicteric and non-oliguric and without complication. Besides antibiotic treatment, early and frequent dialysis is life saving. ARF with major organ failure has unfavorable outcome. Plasmapheresis and continuous venovenous hemofiltration improve hemodynamics and are beneficial for the patients with acute renal failure and multiorgan involvement. Recovery of renal function is usually complete in most patients.
Thrombocytopenia and leptospirosis
Nicodemo, Antonio Carlos;Del Negro, Gildo;Amato Neto, Vicente;
Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de S?o Paulo , 1990, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-46651990000400004
Abstract: the present study has intended to contribute to the elucidation of the pathogenic mechanisms, involved in the thrombocytopenia and in the bleeding diathesis seen in the course of leptospirosis. the group of cases included in the present prospective study consisted of 30 patients with leptospirosis, admitted to the infectious and parasitic diseases ward, hospital das clínicas, faculty of medicine, university of s?o paulo. the following possible mechanisms of thrombocytopenia have been considered and therefore investigated: platelet consumption, due to disseminated intravascular coagulation; immune-mediated platelet destruction, due to platelet-associated antibodies and an inhibited platelet production in the bone marrow. thrombocytopenia occurred in 86.6% of 30 patients and did not seem to be immune-mediated by platelet-associated antibodies. furthermore it did not seem to be due to a disseminated intravascular coagulation consumption. although there was a statistically-significant correlation between bone marrow platelet production and platelet counts we think that the static microscopic examination of a bone marrow aspirate cannot accurately depict the dynamic mechanisms of platelet production when these cells are being consumed in peripheral blood. vasculitis should be considered as the most important factor for the pathogenesis of the bleeding disturbances in leptospirosis. however, we believe that thrombocytopenia, uremia and coagulation disorders, individually or as a group, should be included among the contributing factors that lead to and worsen bleeding episodes, which represent the leading cause of death in this disease.
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