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 Research Journal of Medical Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/rjmsci.2010.187.194 Abstract: The purpose of the study is to review and present the aims and the applications of Forensic dentistry. Bite marks are usually seen in cases involving sexual assault, murder, child abuse and can be a major factor in leading to a conviction. Bite marks can be found anywhere on a body particularly on soft and fleshy tissue such as the stomach or buttocks. In addition, bite marks can be found on objects present at the scene of the crime. However, there are two types of family violence, the child abuse and the adult violence in the house or marital abuse or elder abuse. These types of family violence can happen to any of environment. Child abuse, intimate partner abuse and elder abuse victims often have signs of injury or bite marks that are readily visible to dentists. Dentists have a moral and legal obligation to recognize and report suspected abuse. It is important to realize that all dentists have a unique opportunity and ethical obligation to assist in the struggle against child abuse. The dentists are likely to be in contact with these individuals who have been exposed to this kind of violence. The dental team that is alert to the fact that many elderly or vulnerable person or child are abused and that many of these abused individuals have injuries to the head and around the mouth may be able to identify an abused person and institute steps that might save someone s life. Finally, the important role of forensic odontology in archaeological research is reported.
 Journal of Dental Medicine , 2006, Abstract: Dentistry has always benefited from photography as an adjunct tool in diagnosis treatment planning and presentations. The main reason for taking dental photographs is to provide documents and supplements for treatment. A photograph facilitates communication between dentists and laboratories. Quality control will become more important to dental practice in near future and photographs can be used by dentists as self-checking tools. Nowadays performing lectures or publications without presenting pictures is inconceivable. The camera system must be easy to use and accessories should be always available. Although a good variety of equipments are now available and can be used for close-up photography, the special requirements of dental clinical photography are not always provided by the manufacturers and dealers' recommendations are not always correct. This article tries to help the readers to find and use the most suitable equipments for their routine dental practice.
 Research Journal of Medical Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/rjmsci.2010.334.339 Abstract: During the last years, DNA analysis methods are applied to forensic cases. Also, forensic dental record comparison has been used for human identification in cases where destruction of bodily tissues or prolonged exposure to the environment has made other means of identification impractical, i.e., after fire exposure, aircraft inflammation or mass disasters. Dental DNA represent an excellent source of genomic DNA. The interest in using dental tissues as a DNA-source of individual identification falls within the particular character of resistance of this organ towards physical or chemical exterior aggressions. DNA can be used for determination of the found remains identity. The identification of individuals is not the only use for DNA. The technique has allowed criminal investigators to link victims to crime scenes once the body has been removed and incinerated. Therefore, it is prudent for the forensic odontologist to become familiar with the DNA analysis methods. The purpose of the Part I of this report is to review of the DNA structure and explain of some common terms which are used for the description of current methods of DNA analysis. Furthermore, the importance of mitochondrial DNA is reported because of its difference from the nuclear or chromosomal DNA in a number of ways that make it an attractive alternative for forensic analysis.
 Emergency Care Journal , 2007, DOI: 10.4081/ecj.2007.1.30 Abstract: The letters containing anthrax, sent in 2001 in USA, showed that pathogens and toxins can be effectively used for terrorist purposes. A new subfield of forensic science, called “microbial forensics”, has been developed. It is a new scientific discipline dedicated to collect and analyze microbiological evidence from a scene of crime. In addition to collecting and analyzing traditional forensic evidences, the microbial forensic investigation will attempt to determine the identity of the causal agent, as so as epidemiologic investigation, but with higher-resolution characterization. The tools for a successful attribution include genetically based-assays to determine the exact strain of isolate, aiming the individualization of the source of the pathogen used in a biological weapon. Following the 2001 anthrax attacks, genotyping of B. anthracis was done on 8 variable number tandem repeats loci (VNTR polymorphisms), with multilocus variable number tandem repeats (MLVA) method. In recent years some research groups have increased the VNTR markers number to 25 loci, while other groups have identified single nucleotide repeat (SNR) polymorphisms, which display very high mutation rates. SNR marker system allows the distinguishing of isolates with extremely low levels of genetic diversity within the same MLVA genotype.
 Annals and Essences of Dentistry , 2010, Abstract: The subject of Forensic Odontology has been generating as an area of emphasis for all interested and properly trained dentists in all hazards response. Many States have recognized the role of forensic dentist in the areas of emergency/hazard readiness. Forensic Odontology or Forensic Dentistry has been a discipline within the oral medicine fold and has been a well-accepted role for dentists. When the Tsunami in the Tamilnadu in 2001 and Bomb blasts in Mumbai in 2008 struck the people , another facet in the role of dentists and dentistry in emergency response as a forensic expert came to the collective consciousness of oral health professionals. The dentists participating in such events should be properly trained to have a meaning full role in disaster response. The dental evidence in forensic investigation is legally accepted. However there are certain pitfalls associated with the various methods in forensic dentistry. In this review various methods employed in the forenic odontology for personal identification such as Bite marks, Cheiloscopy , Rugoscopy , photographs and radiographs are discussed.
 Journal of Applied Oral Science , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S1678-77572007000300002 Abstract: the established importance of forensic dentistry for human identification, mainly when there is little remaining material to perform such identification (e.g., in fires, explosions, decomposing bodies or skeletonized bodies), has led dentists working with forensic investigation to become more familiar with the new molecular biology techniques. the currently available dna tests have high reliability and are accepted as legal proofs in courts. this article presents a literature review referring to the main studies on forensic dentistry that involve the use of dna for human identification, and makes an overview of the evolution of this technology in the last years, highlighting the importance of molecular biology in forensic sciences.
 Salvatore Tringali Mathematics , 2013, Abstract: The primary goal of this paper is to abstract notions, results and constructions from the theory of categories to the broader setting of plots. Loosely speaking, a plot can be thought of as a non-associative non-unital category with a "relaxed" composition law: Besides categories, this includes as a special case graphs and neocategories in the sense of Ehresmann, Gabriel's quivers, Mitchell's semicategories, and composition graphs, precategories and semicategories in the sense of Schr\"oder. Among other things, we formulate an "identity-free" definition of isomorphisms, equivalences, and limits, for which we introduce regular representations, punctors, $\mathcal M$-connections, and $\mathcal M$-factorizations. Part of the material will be used in subsequent work to lay the foundation for an abstract theory of "normed structures" serving as a unifying framework for the development of fundamental aspects of the theory of normed spaces, normed groups, etc., on the one hand, and measure spaces, perhaps surprisingly, on the other.
 Sovremennye Tehnologii v Medicine , 2012, Abstract: There have been studied the possibilities of forensic dentistry application for individual ethnic identification by the example of the analysis of dentomaxillar system features of the population of the Republic of Armenia. Complex study included clinical, morphometric, X-ray techniques and statistical analysis. The obtained data were correlated with the data of other ethnic groups living in North Caucasus, and Russian population. The investigation results after statistical data manipulation showed ethnicity to be likely identified according to the specified measurements of tooth width, height, and thickness. The study carried out can be used for ethnicity identification.
 Diane Osborne Forensic Medicine and Anatomy Research (FMAR) , 2013, Abstract: This course is an introduction to the basics of forensic dentistry beginning with its historical origins to modern advancements. After an introduction to basic principles, application of this information will be demonstrated in current cases, training in mass fatalities and participation in a mass fatality workshop scenario using dry skull remains. Time permitting, a tour of the Las Vegas Coroner’s Office will be available.
 Bulletin of the International Association for Paleodontology , 2010, Abstract: Estimation of sex is one of the most important procedures in the identification of an unknown person. Teeth are a potential source of information in that process. Estimation of sex in paleodontology is based on two approaches: visual inspection and statistical analysis. Many techniques have been developed within these two approaches. Forensic dentistry and paleodontology are two disciplines that share common observation platforms and methodology.
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