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The Effects of Tourists on Bird Diversity in Tourist Area Compared to Restricted Area of Seasonal Evergreen Forest at Tung Salang Luang National Park, Phetchabun Province, Thailand
Auttpol Nakwa,Narit Sitasuwan,Araya Jatisatein,Porntip Chantaramongko
International Journal of Zoological Research , 2008,
Abstract: A survey of bird similarity, diversity and density were carried out at Tung Salang Luang National Park during March 2004 - February 2005, in 3 sites of seasonal evergreen forest, one site in a restricted area (SE1) and two sites in tourist areas (SE2 and SE3). Three sites were located in the same forest structure. The point count and line transect methods were used for data collection. The results revealed the following information: 133 species, 34 families and 11 orders of birds in SE1 (102 species), SE2 (100 species) and SE3 (89 species) were observed. Seven species of birds in all sites i.e. Criniger pallidus, Hypsipetes propinquus, Pycnonotus melanicterus, Irena puella, Garrulax leucolophus, Yuhina zantholeuca and Gracula religiosa were the co-dominant species in this forest that will be used indicator for future investigation. Base on similarity, tourist activities may be disturbed some bird groups in tourist area such as carnivorous and omnivorous (SE2 and SE3) and nectarivorous (SE3); base on densities, carnivorous (SE3), nectarivorous (SE2 and SE3) and garnivorous (SE3) were decreased 46-78 % in tourist sites compared with restricted site (SE1). Moreover, bird diversity index in restricted area was higher value than tourist area. This phenomenon indicated that some bird groups in tourist area at the seasonal evergreen forest had negative effect correlation with human activities and similarity, diversity and density indices were a proper indicator for further impact investigation for conservation and management strategies of avifauna. Finally, this result was the first report about avifauna dynamic of Tung Salang Luang National Park.
An Analysis on Flavonoids Contents in Mao Luang Fruits of Fifteen Cultivars (Antidesma bunius), Grown in Northeast Thailand  [PDF]
L. Butkhup,S. Samappito
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2008,
Abstract: This investigation was carried out at the Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Technology, Mahasarakham University, Mahasarakham Province, Northeast Thailand. The study aimed to analyze flavonoids contents in ripe fruits of fifteen Mao Luang cultivars (Antidesma bunius) harvested from dipterocarp forest of the mountainous areas of Phupan Valley, Sakon Nakhon Province, Northeast Thailand. The experiment was laid in a Completely Randomised Design (CRD) with five replications. The fifteen cultivars were used as treatments. An amount of 2 kg of ripe fruits of each cultivar was collected and extracted for juice solutions. The analysis was carried out with the use of RP-HPLC laboratory system. The results showed that fruits of the fifteen Mao Luang cultivars contained three different kinds of flavonoids, i.e., catechin, procyanidin B1 and procyanidin B2. These three chemical compounds were the major flavonoids in all analyzed fruit samples of the fifteen cultivars. The highest amount of procyanidin B1 was found with Lompat followed by Maeloogdog with values of 4,122.75 and 3,993.88 mg 100 g-1 of fresh weight, respectively and the highest amount of procyanidin B2 was found with Sangkrow 2 followed by Fapratan with values of 5,006.39 and 3,689.42 mg 100 g-1 of fresh weight, respectively. Catechin contents in fruits of the fifteen cultivars varied from 73.39 to 316.22 mg 100 g-1 of fresh weight for Sangkrow 5 and Fapratan, respectively where Fapratan was the highest among the fifteen cultivars followed by Sangkrow 2 with values of 316.22 and 175.40 mg 100 g-1 of fresh weight, respectively. In terms of grand total amounts of flavonoids, Sangkrow 2 was the best followed by Fapratan, Sangkrow 1 and Maeloogdog, whilst the rest were of secondary importance.
Zingiberaceae Diversity in Khao Nan and Khao Luang National Parks, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Thailand  [cached]
Napat KITTIPANANGKUL,Chatchai NGAMRIABSAKUL
Walailak Journal of Science and Technology , 2008, DOI: 10.2004/vol5iss1pp17-27
Abstract: Zingiberaceae diversity in Khao Nan and Khao Luang National Parks was determined from September 2006 - August 2007. Twenty-nine species in 11 genera in 3 tribes of the family were collected from 9 stations, less than 30 % of the Zingiberaceae recorded in southern Thailand. Tribe Alpinieae, the highest diversity, comprises 5 genera and 15 species. Tribe Zingibereae, the second highest diversity, includes 5 genera and 12 species. The lowest diversity, tribe Globbeae consists of only 2 species in the genus Globba. The checklist, illustrations and distributions of the 29 species found are given. Most species of Zingiberaceae in this study grow in a Tropical Evergreen Rain Forest. Four species, Amomum sp., Globba leucantha, Boesenbergia basispicata and B. plicata grow in the Lower Montane Rain Forest. Soils at the stations where most species are found are partly composed of sand. Only 1 species, Amomum aculeatum is found in a loam soil type. There are few species found in the interior part of the forest and they are less abundant and sparsely distributed. The diversity of species is mostly distributed at an altitude of 90 - 300 m and the number of species decrease as the altitude increases. It is observed that at least 6 species of Zingiberaceae of Khao Nan National Park are also found in the northern part of Khao Luang National Park, such as Zingiber newmanii which is distributed around the Klong Klai Basin. At least 5 species, due to their bright distinctive flower parts, could be developed to be ornamental plants, i.e. Alpinia mutica, A. zerumbet, Etlingera fulgens, Curcuma rubescens and Z. newmanii, in addition to the well known ornamental species such as E. elatior, C. aurantiaca and Kaempferia pulchra. Eight species are edible, i.e. Amomum biflorum, E. elatior, E. fulgens, E. littoralis, C. longa, C. zedoaria, Z. officinale and Z. zerumbet. The seeds of 3 species, Z. newmanii, E. fulgens and E. elatior may prove to be important resources for medicinal essential oils because they produce a lot of seeds in natural conditions and their seeds are mainly composed of essential oils.
An Analysis on Organic Acids Contents in Ripe Fruits of Fifteen Mao Luang (Antidesma bunius) Cultivars, Harvested From Dipterocarp Forest of Phupan Valley in Northeast Thailand  [PDF]
S. Samappito,L. Butkhup
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2008,
Abstract: This experiment was carried out in the rainy season (May-October) of the 2006 at the Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Technology, Mahasarakham University, Mahasarakham 44000, Thailand to analyse organic acids contents in ripe fruits of fifteen Mao Luang cultivars harvested from dipterocarp forest, Phupan Valley, Sakon Nakhon, Northeast Thailand. The experiment was laid in a Completely Randomised Design (CRD) with four replications. The fifteen Mao Luang cultivars were used as treatments. The results showed that there were two groups of organic acids contents in ripe fruits of Mao Luang cultivars i.e., major and minor. The major group of organic acids includes: tartaric acid (7.97-12.16 mg g-1 of fresh weight), ascorbic acid (10.01-16.55 mg g-1 of fresh weight), citric acid (4.44-11.73 mg g-1 of fresh weight) and benzoic acid (8.13-17.43 mg g-1 of fresh weight) and the minor group includes malic acid (3.05-4.52 mg g-1 of fresh weight), lactic acid (1.12-4.09 mg g-1 of fresh weight), oxalic acid (1.00-1.45 mg g-1 of fresh weight) and acetic acid (0.19-0.69 mg g-1 of fresh weight). Khumlhai cultivar gave the highest amount of ascorbic acid followed by Lompat, Phuchong, Sangkrow 2 and Maelookdog cultivars. Sangkrow 2 and Phuchong cultivars gave the highest ratio between tartaric and malic acids. Total soluble solid content (TSS%) was highest with Sangkrow 5 cultivar, whilst Total Organic Acids (TOA) was highest with Phuchong cultivar and ratio between TSS:TOA was highest with Sangkrow 2 cultivar. Juice % was highest with both Sangkrow 2 and 3 cultivars, whilst Fapratan and Lompat cultivars ranked the second.
BIRD ASSEMBLAGES IN THE THALE NOI NON-HUNTING AREA, SOUTHERN THAILAND  [PDF]
KUA RITTIBOON, PHATTRAWAN TONGKUMCHUM* AND WANCHAMAI KARNTANUT
Journal of Sustainability Science and Management , 2012,
Abstract: Bird assemblages in the Thale Noi protected area of southern Thailand were investigated using data concerning 23 common resident species routinely reported every month from January 2004 to December 2007 at seven wetland locations. These common resident species were selected using three requirements: (1) they are defined in Lekagul and Round (2005), (2) they were seen in each of the four years, and (3) they had median incidence rate per day greater than zero. The aim of this study was to classify groups of species with respect to incidence rates by season and location. Using factor analysis to find groups of species with common incidence patterns, we isolated five groups of birds that correlated with respect to their habitats and availability of food. The first group (seven species) was found in habitats predominantly providing continuous flooding and aquatic plants. The second group (six species) was found in terrestrial habitats containing various food supplies, especially grain and insects. The third group (six species) was found in habitats connecting from shallow fresh water to suburban environments and typically providing insect food sources both in water and on land. The fourth group (two species) was found in similar habitats to that of the second group, but related to fruit trees. The fifth group (two species) was found in lowland habitats with dense undergrowth providing different food types including insects, seeds and fruit, particularly figs. The classification reflects bird behaviours rather than bird taxonomies.
An Analysis on Flavonoids, Phenolics and Organic Acids Contents in Brewed Red Wines of Both Non-Skin Contact and Skin Contact Fermentation Techniques of Mao Luang Ripe Fruits (Antidesma bunius) Harvested From Phupan Valley in Northeast Thailand
S. Samappito,L. Butkhup
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2008,
Abstract: The experiment was carried out at the Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Technology, Mahasarakham University, Northeast Thailand during the 2006. The study aimed to determine amounts of flavonoids, phenolics and organic acids in ripe fruits and brewed red wines of both non-skin contact and skin contact winemaking techniques where Mao Luang ripe fruits of both Fapratan and Sangkrow2 cultivars were used. The experiment was laid in a Completely Randomised Design (CRD) with four replications. The results showed that mean values of primary data of fresh Mao Luang ripe fruits on weight of 100 berries (g) and mean values of juice:solids, pH, total soluble solid (TSS,0brix), total organic acids (TOA, mg L-1), TSS:TOA (%), total flavonoids contents (TFC, mg L-1), total phenolic acids (TPA, mg L-1), total procyanidins contents (TPC, mg L-1) and reducing sugar (g L-1) were 65.62, 3.28, 3.51, 16.50, 49.36, 28.10, 397.90, 76.04, 156.21 and 184.32, respectively. Skin contact Mao Luang red wine gave higher amounts of flavonoids, phenolic acids, anthocyanins of procyanidin B1 and procyanidin B2, organic acids than non-skin contact red wine. The differences were highly significant. Furthermore, ethanol (%) and total acidity (g L-1 citric acid) were much higher for skin contact wine than non-skin contact wine but a reverse was found with total soluble solids (0brix), pH where non-skin contact wine gave higher mean values than skin contact wine.
Luang Prabang, Economy, Society and Culture
Songkoon Chantachon
The Social Sciences , 2013,
Abstract: Laos is a nation rich in historical background and culture. The earliest evidence of a united nation is during the ancient Laos kingdom of Lan Chang. Major changes in government occurred in 1975 when the government changed to Socialism bringing in Socialist economic policies and Communist ideology. Trade and commerce was mostly with Communist governments and allies. New economic policies were introduced in 1986 due to the collapse of the Soviet Union. The implementation of New Economic Mechanism has brought many benefits to communities, raising the level of income and a growing tourism industry. The economy is advancing with the rise of both imports and exports. Laos has opened up and accepted foreign aid and many joint projects and investment ventures with >30 foreign nations. Educational system development is progressing but needs continued support and financial resources. There are 20 educational projects funded by foreign nations and international groups to develop and modernize educational systems. Luang Prabang is Laos 4th largest city and is recognized by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. The city is famously known as the Best preserved City in Southeast Asia. Luang Prabang has many cultural tourist attractions and beautiful natural surroundings. Thailand and Laos are neighbors and have close relations with one another. Thailand is also a preferred choice and destination for Lao students seeking degrees in many campuses and studies. Cooperation between both countries will contribute and benefit the society, culture, economy and tourism bringing prosperity to both nations.
Orthogonius species and diversity in Thailand (Coleoptera, Caraboidea, Orthogoniini), a result from the TIGER project  [cached]
Mingyi Tian,Thierry Deuve,Ron Felix
ZooKeys , 2012, DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.164.1992
Abstract: The carabid genus Orthogonius MacLeay is treated, based mainly on materials collected in Thailand through the TIGER project (the Thailand Inventory Group for Entomological Research). Among 290 specimens, 20 species are identified in total, 10 of them are new species: O. taghavianae sp. n. (Nakhon Nayok: Khao Yai National Park), O. coomanioides sp. n. (Phetchabun: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park), O. similaris sp. n. (Phetchabun: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park; Loei: Phu Kradueng National Park), O. setosopalpiger sp. n. (Phetchabun: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park), O. gracililamella sp. n. (Loei: Phu Kradueng National Park; Chaiyaphum: Tat Tone National Park), O. pseudochaudoiri sp. n. (Phetchabum: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park; Nakhon Nayok: Khao Yai National Park), O. constrictus sp. n. (Phetchabum: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park), O. pinophilus sp. n. (Phetchabum: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park), O. vari sp. n. (Cambodia: Siem Reap; Thailand: Ubon Ratchathani: Pha Taem National Park; Phetchabun: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park) and O. variabilis sp. n. (Thailand: Phetchabun: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park; Nakhon Nayok: Khao Yai National Park; Phetchabun: Nam Nao National Park; China: Yunnan). In addition, O. mouhoti Chaudoir, 1871 and O. kirirom Tian & Deuve, 2008 are recorded in Thailand for the first time. In total, 30 species of Orthogonius have been recorded from Thailand, indicating that Thailand holds one of the richest Orthogonius faunas in the world. A provisional key to all Thai species is provided. A majority of Thai Orthogonius species are endemic. Among the ten national parks in which orthogonine beetles were collected, Thung Salaeng Luang holds the richest fauna, including 16 species.
Genetic characterization of avian influenza subtype H4N6 and H4N9 from live bird market, Thailand
Trong Wisedchanwet, Manoosak Wongphatcharachai, Supanat Boonyapisitsopa, Napawan Bunpapong, Pravina Kitikoon, Alongkorn Amonsin
Virology Journal , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1743-422x-8-131
Abstract: Live-bird markets (LBMs) are the places where wild birds, pet birds, meat birds and domestic poultry are sold to households. In Asia including Thailand, due to the cultural preference of consuming freshly slaughtered poultry, LBMs are located in both suburban areas and center of the communities. In the markets, thousands of birds from different sources are sold in wire stacked cages containing densely packed and mixed bird populations. These conditions provide excellent environments for animal to animal and animal to human influenza virus transmissions and may result in an outbreak of influenza A virus in both animals [1,2] and humans [3,4]. Therefore, LBMs are considered a major source of influenza A virus dissemination and potential influenza A virus reassortment [5,6].Up to date, many studies on influenza A in LBMs from various countries have been reported. During 2000-2001, 6 subtypes (9 genotypes) of low-pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) were identified in LBMs in China [7]. Apart from Asian countries, in the US, H5N2 low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses have been isolated from LBMs in several states in the 80 s [8]. In Thailand, only one study of influenza A viruses recovered from LBMs has ever been reported [9]. In that study, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses were isolated from both bird carcasses and healthy birds during the 2006-2007 LBM and local food market (LFM) surveillance program. The findings suggested that animal movement from H5N1 outbreak areas may introduce the virus into the markets and play an important role in emergence or re-emergence of influenza A in animals in Thailand [9]. Since LBMs play an important role in the dissemination of avian influenza virus, active surveillance of influenza A virus in LBMs is important in order to develop an early warning system and implement prevention and control strategies for influenza A outbreaks. In this study, a one year active surveillance program for influenza A viruses am
Luang in Mekong River: The Change of Socio-Economic Space of Communities in Thai-Laos Boundary
Sopsan Petchkam
The Social Sciences , 2013, DOI: 10.3923/sscience.2011.404.407
Abstract: This study presents the study on the ethnography of the communities at Thai-Laos boundary. Its aim is to examine the socio-economic change of the communities located along the Mekong river, the border between Thailand and Lao PDR. The concept of space and boundary is employed as the key method to conduct this study. This research desires to indicate that the Luang space in the Thai-Laos boundary is not only a physical space where people can do fishing but as the status of the socio-economic space. It is a flexible area in Thai-Lao bordering area as well as a contested space caused by governmental power, upholders and local communities; this disputed borderline was originated from the state of being a modern nation state during the French colonization of Laos. Yet the people living on both sides of the river do not surrender to government power. Conversely, they have undergone an operation to reinforce their community power to overlap the political power.
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