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Short-Term Repeated Dose Biochemical Effects of Catha edulis (Khat) Crude Extract Administration in Rats
Adel S. Al-Zubairi,Patimah Ismail,Chong Pei Pei,Ahmad B. Abdul,Reyadh Saif Ali,Siddig I. Abdel Wahab,Asmah Rahmat
International Journal of Tropical Medicine , 2012,
Abstract: The leaves of khat (Catha edulis) are reported to have stimulating and pleasurable effects and are chewed habitually by people of East Africa and Arabian Peninsula. Due to various effects of khat the present study was undertaken to evaluate the short-term repeated dose effects of freeze dried khat leaves crude extract administration to male Sprague-Dawley rats. In this study, the effects of catha edulis leaves extract oral administration on plasma concentration of Malonyldialdehyde (MDA), triglycerides, cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, uric acid, albumin and testosterone and liver enzymes activities were examined. Four groups of rats were exposed to 0, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg kg 1 body weight/day for 6 consecutive weeks. Our results demonstrated that food consumption and body weights changes were non-significantly different relative to the control. There were no significant effects observed on the levels of plasma MDA, cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, uric acid, albumin, liver enzymes or Acid Phosphatase (ACP) in the treatment groups relative to the control. Administration of freeze dried crude catha edulis leaves extract for 6 weeks was found to increase plasma testosterone levels in the two high doses treatment groups (1000 and 2000 mg kg 1 body weight) in more than 2 folds, while it was non-significantly increased in the 500 mg kg 1 body weight treatment group, as compared to control. The data indicated that at the doses and time period tested, catha edulis freeze dried crude extract could be considered as aphrodisiac. Moreover, it did not produce any significant effect on the normal biological markers of liver toxicity or prostatic adverse effects.
Toxicological Features of Catha edulis (Khat) on Livers and Kidneys of Male and Female Sprague-Dawley Rats: A Subchronic Study
Abdulsamad Alsalahi,Mahmood Ameen Abdulla,Mohammed Al-Mamary,Mohamed Ibrahim Noordin,Siddig Ibrahim Abdelwahab,Aied M. Alabsi,Abdrabuh Shwter,Mohammed A. Alshawsh
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/829401
Abstract: Hepato- and nephrotoxicity of Khat consumption (Catha edulis Forskal) have been evoked. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate such possible hepatorenal toxicity in female and male Sprague-Dawley rats (SD rats) focusing primarily on liver and kidney. In addition, female and male rats were investigated separately. Accordingly, forty-eight SD-rats (100–120 g) were distributed randomly into four groups of males and female (). Normal controls (NCs) received distilled water, whereas test groups received 500 mg/kg (low dose (LD)), 1000 mg/kg (medium dose (MD)), or 2000 mg/kg (high dose (HD)) of crude extract of Catha edulis orally for 4 weeks. Then, physical, biochemical, hematological, and histological parameters were analyzed. Results in Khat-fed rats showed hepatic enlargement, abnormal findings in serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) of male and female SD-rats and serum albumin (A) and serum creatinine (Cr) of female as compared to controls. In addition, histopathological abnormalities confirmed hepatic and renal toxicities of Khat that were related to heavy Khat consumption. In summary, Khat could be associated with hepatic hypertrophy and hepatotoxicity in male and female SD-rats and nephrotoxicity only in female SD-rats.
Acute oral administration of Khat (Catha edulis) aqueous extract elevates blood pressure and prolongs QT and QTC intervals in Wistar albino rats
Fahaid H. Al-Hashem,Abdullah S. Shatoor
Saudi Medical Journal , 2012,
Abstract: Objectives: To investigate the effect of Khat (Catha edulis) acute administration on blood pressure (BP) and electrocardiogram (ECG) in vivo. Methods: This study was performed between January and February 2009 at the Physiology Laboratory, Medical College of King Khalid University, Abha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Two groups of Wistar rats (n=10), weighing 190-200 g were divided into control group and Khat treated group. Throughout the study, arterial BP and ECG were recorded for 60 consecutive minutes. The data were collected and analyzed by Power Lab Data Acquisition System every 10 minutes, and were compared within and between the groups. Results: Oral administration of Khat resulted in significant time dependent increases in both systolic and diastolic BP with a maximum increase at minute 60 after extract administration (systolic BP - 34.1%; and diastolic BP - 46.2%). Heart rate was significantly increased at all minutes of the study with a maximum increase occurring at minute 40 (12.8%). There was a significant decrease in PR interval through the experiment, and the maximum decrease was observed at minute 40 (-15.2%). However, QT and QTc started to widen 20 minutes after extract administration with a maximum prolongation in both intervals to occur at minute 40 (QT - 11.6%; QTc - 9.1%). Conclusion: These newly reported changes in the ECG of rats after Khat administration should be a warning regarding the cardiac hazards of Khat chewing.
Algunas consideraciones farmacológicas y medicolegales relativas al consumo de Catha edulis Forsk (Khat)
Fernández Pérez,Felipe Segundo; Lorié González,Alfredo F.; Arias Gallardo,Ana Isis;
Revista Cubana de Estomatolog?-a , 2008,
Abstract: a bibliographic review of the history and antecedents of the consumption of catha edulis, khat (chat in amaric) in ethiopia (erithrea today), a botanical and pharmacological analysis of its chemical components and of its effects on the human body, from the pharmacological, medicolegal and social point of view, are made.
Algunas consideraciones farmacológicas y medicolegales relativas al consumo de Catha edulis Forsk (Khat) Some pharmacological and medicolegal considerations related to the consumption of Catha edulis Forsk (Khat)
Felipe Segundo Fernández Pérez,Alfredo F. Lorié González,Ana Isis Arias Gallardo
Revista Cubana de Estomatolog?-a , 2008,
Abstract: Se realiza una revisión bibliográfica acerca de la historia y antecedentes históricos del consumo de la Catha edulis, Khat (Chat en amárico) en Etiopía (hoy Eritrea), un análisis botánico-farmacológico de sus componentes químicos y sus efectos sobre el organismo humano, tanto del punto de vista farmacológico como medicolegal y social. A bibliographic review of the history and antecedents of the consumption of Catha edulis, Khat (Chat in Amaric) in Ethiopia (Erithrea today), a botanical and pharmacological analysis of its chemical components and of its effects on the human body, from the pharmacological, medicolegal and social point of view, are made.
Khat (Catha edulis): The herb with officio-legal, socio-cultural and economic uncertainty
Sikiru Lamina
South African Journal of Science , 2010, DOI: 10.4102/sajs.v106i3/4.155
Abstract: Khat (Catha edulis) is a plant of uncertain and highly controversial status grown in the countries around the Red Sea and on the eastern coast of Africa. The chewing of khat leaves has a deep-rooted religious and socio-cultural tradition. Khat is considered a cash crop and its cultivation is a source of economic value to the societies and nations involved. There have, however, been reports of negative economic effects on the individuals engaging in the habit of khat chewing. The increasing use of khat worldwide, along with the negative international attention that this has garnered, has led to the present status of uncertainty of the once indigenous practice of khat chewing. Scientists, mostly western Europeans, have tended to focus on problems related to khat with little attention to the positive role of khat chewing in society and the world at large. In addition, no report has directly associated khat with any organised crime, violence or antisocial activity, particularly in countries where khat is legalised. This paper reviewed the various areas of uncertainty and controversy relating to khat. Based on the findings of the review, further qualitative and quantitative research is required and a positive international approach to khat use at economic, religious and socio-cultural levels is advocated.
What science says about khat (Catha edulis Forsk)? Overview of chemistry, toxicology and pharmacology
Nasir Tajure Wabe,Mohammed Adem Mohammed
Journal of Experimental and Integrative Medicine , 2012,
Abstract: Catha edulis (khat) is a plant grown commonly in the horn of Africa. The leaves of khat are chewed by the people for its stimulant action. Khat is an evergreen shrub, which is cultivated as a bush or small tree. The leaves have an aromatic odour. The taste is astringent and slightly sweet. The plant is seedless and hardy, growing in a variety of climates and soils. Khat contains more than 40 alkaloids, glycosides, tannins, amino acids, vitamins and minerals. Many different compounds are found in khat including alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids, sterols, glycosides, tannins, amino acids, vitamins and minerals. The phenylalkylamines and the cathedulins are the major alkaloids which are structurally related to amphetamine. The major effects of khat include those on the gastro-intestinal system and on the nervous system. Constipation, urine retention and acute cardiovascular effects may be regarded as autonomic (peripheral) nervous system effects; increased alertness, dependence, tolerance and psychiatric symptoms as effects on the central nervous system. The main toxic effects include increased blood pressure, tachycardia, insomnia, anorexia, constipation, general malaise, irritability, migraine and impaired sexual potency in men. The purpose of this review is to summarize the chemistry, pharmacology, toxicology of khat (Catha edulis Forsk). [J Exp Integr Med 2012; 2(1.000): 29-37]
Expressed sequence tag analysis of khat (Catha edulis) provides a putative molecular biochemical basis for the biosynthesis of phenylpropylamino alkaloids
Hagel, Jillian M.;Krizevski, Raz;Kilpatrick, Korey;Sitrit, Yaron;Marsolais, Frédéric;Lewinsohn, Efraim;Facchini, Peter J.;
Genetics and Molecular Biology , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S1415-47572011000400017
Abstract: khat (catha edulis forsk.) is a flowering perennial shrub cultivated for its neurostimulant properties resulting mainly from the occurrence of (s)-cathinone in young leaves. the biosynthesis of (s)-cathinone and the related phenylpropylamino alkaloids (1s,2s)-cathine and (1r,2s)-norephedrine is not well characterized in plants. we prepared a cdna library from young khat leaves and sequenced 4,896 random clones, generating an expressed sequence tag (est) library of 3,293 unigenes. putative functions were assigned to > 98% of the ests, providing a key resource for gene discovery. candidates potentially involved at various stages of phenylpropylamino alkaloid biosynthesis from l-phenylalanine to (1s,2s)-cathine were identified.
Fluoride levels and its safety in Tea (Camellia sinensis) and Khat (Catha edulis) imported and produced in Ethiopia
A Ashenef, E Engidawork
Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management , 2013,
Abstract: The fluoride contents of sixteen(16) different packed tea leaves (Camellia sinensis) available in Ethiopian market and ten(10) samples of Khat leaves (Catha edulis) obtained from different localities were assessed using fluoride ion selective electrode. Amounts measured varies from 33.29 to 946 μg/gm on dried weight basis (DW) with an average value of 321.27±234.1 in tea samples and 13 to 20.01 μg/gm with a mean quantity of 14.94 ±1.45 in khat Samples. Based on the common practice of drinking tea three times a day by most people which is usually prepared using six grams of tea leaves and 100 to 200 gm chewing of khat leaves for those habitual users, possible daily intake of fluoride is calculated to be 1972.62 μg and 224.1-448.2 μg from tea and khat respectively based on the average fluoride quantity data from all the samples investigated. These values alone are within acceptable range of RDA (recommended daily allowance) of 2-4 mg fluorine by World Health Organization (WHO) except in one Ethiopian brand of tea where in its possible consumption the RDA limit was surpassed. Although dental problems were commonly reported in habitual khat chewers, the fluoride content of this plant is insignificant thus the chemical principle associated with such problems might be due to other ingredient(s) than fluorine. However the contribution of these plants to the overall dietary fluoride exposure should not be undermined and attention should be given to that of high values reported in tea leaves. Therefore drinking tea in areas with high fluoride levels from water sources should be cautioned to avoid the potential acute and chronic effects of fluoride. Key Words: Fluoride, Tea, Khat, Ethiopia, Ion selective electrode
Association of Smoking and Khat (Catha edulis Forsk) Use With High Blood Pressure Among Adults in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2006  [cached]
Fikru Tesfaye, MD, MPH, PhD,Peter Byass, PhD,Yemane Berhane, MD, MPH, PhD,Ruth Bonita, PhD
Preventing Chronic Disease , 2008,
Abstract: IntroductionWe assessed the prevalence of substance use and its association with high blood pressure among adults in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.MethodsWe employed a cross-sectional descriptive study design. The World Health Organization instrument for stepwise surveillance of risk factors for chronic diseases was applied on a probabilistic sample of 4001 men and women aged 25 to 64 years in Addis Ababa. We determined the prevalence of cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, and khat (Catha edulis Forsk) chewing. We measured blood pressure by using a digital device and determined mean levels of systolic and diastolic blood pressure.ResultsSmoking cigarettes, drinking alcohol, and chewing khat were widely prevalent among men. Among men, the prevalence of current daily smoking was 11.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 9.5%–12.5%). Binge drinking of alcohol was reported by 10.4% (95% CI, 9.0%–11.9%) of men. Similarly, 15.9% (95% CI, 14.1%–17.6%) of men regularly chewed khat. Consequently, 26.6% of men and 2.4% of women reported practicing one or more of the behaviors. Current daily smoking and regular khat chewing were significantly associated with elevated mean diastolic blood pressure (β = 2.1, P = .03 and β = 1.9, P = .02, respectively).ConclusionCigarette smoking and khat chewing among men in Addis Ababa were associated with high blood pressure, an established risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Health promotion interventions should aim to prevent proliferation of such behaviors among young people and adoption by women. Surveillance for risk factors for cardiovascular disease should be implemented nationwide to provide information for policy decisions and to guide prevention and control programs.
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