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Prevention of Overweight and Obesity: How Effective is the Current Public Health Approach  [PDF]
Ruth S.M. Chan,Jean Woo
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph7030765
Abstract: Obesity is a public health problem that has become epidemic worldwide. Substantial literature has emerged to show that overweight and obesity are major causes of co-morbidities, including type II diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, various cancers and other health problems, which can lead to further morbidity and mortality. The related health care costs are also substantial. Therefore, a public health approach to develop population-based strategies for the prevention of excess weight gain is of great importance. However, public health intervention programs have had limited success in tackling the rising prevalence of obesity. This paper reviews the definition of overweight and obesity and the variations with age and ethnicity; health consequences and factors contributing to the development of obesity; and critically reviews the effectiveness of current public health strategies for risk factor reduction and obesity prevention.
Mental Health, Wellness, and Childhood Overweight/Obesity  [PDF]
Shelly Russell-Mayhew,Gail McVey,Angela Bardick,Alana Ireland
Journal of Obesity , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/281801
Abstract: Childhood obesity is a growing concern, and while progress has been made to understand the association between multiple biological factors (i.e., genetics, nutrition, exercise etc.), little is known about the relationship between mental health and childhood obesity. In this paper, we offer a review of current evidence about the association between mental health and childhood obesity. A systematic literature search of peer-reviewed, English-language studies published between January 2000 and January 2011 was undertaken and resulted in 759 unique records, of which 345 full-text articles were retrieved and 131 articles were included. A theoretical model is proposed to organize the paper and reflect the current state of the literature and includes psychological factors (i.e., depression and anxiety, self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, eating disordered symptoms, and emotional problems); psychosocial mediating variables (i.e., weight-based teasing and concern about weight and shape), and wellness factors (i.e., quality of life and resiliency/protective factors). We conclude with a number of recommendations to support the creation of solutions to the rise in childhood obesity rates that do not further marginalize overweight and obese children and youth and that can potentially improve the well-being of all children and youth regardless of their weight status. 1. Introduction Obesity, a state of excess body fat, is commonly assessed using the body mass index (BMI), a ratio of weight (kg) to height (m2), and a BMI of over 30?kg/m2 is considered obese [1]. In children, the BMI is plotted on growth charts for interpretation relative to a healthy reference population and percentiles are then used to define obese (>95th percentile) and overweight (>85 percentile) [2]. The prevalence of obesity and overweight among children has shown dramatic increases over the past 25 years [3]. While recent analyses suggest that rising childhood obesity rates may be leveling off [4], more than 1/3 of children under the age of 11 in Canada are either overweight or obese [5–7]. Most efforts to “reverse the epidemic of obesity” [8, page 717] have focused on nutrition or food intake and physical activity levels with the measure of success being decreased weight or BMI. To date, the rate of efficacy of this prevention approach is 21% [9] suggesting the need to search for additional ways to intervene. One area that has yet to receive meaningful examination is how mental health may influence or be influenced by efforts at preventing obesity. The purpose of the present paper is to provide
Mental Health, Wellness, and Childhood Overweight/Obesity  [PDF]
Shelly Russell-Mayhew,Gail McVey,Angela Bardick,Alana Ireland
Journal of Obesity , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/281801
Abstract: Childhood obesity is a growing concern, and while progress has been made to understand the association between multiple biological factors (i.e., genetics, nutrition, exercise etc.), little is known about the relationship between mental health and childhood obesity. In this paper, we offer a review of current evidence about the association between mental health and childhood obesity. A systematic literature search of peer-reviewed, English-language studies published between January 2000 and January 2011 was undertaken and resulted in 759 unique records, of which 345 full-text articles were retrieved and 131 articles were included. A theoretical model is proposed to organize the paper and reflect the current state of the literature and includes psychological factors (i.e., depression and anxiety, self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, eating disordered symptoms, and emotional problems); psychosocial mediating variables (i.e., weight-based teasing and concern about weight and shape), and wellness factors (i.e., quality of life and resiliency/protective factors). We conclude with a number of recommendations to support the creation of solutions to the rise in childhood obesity rates that do not further marginalize overweight and obese children and youth and that can potentially improve the well-being of all children and youth regardless of their weight status.
Application of the UK Foresight Obesity Model in Ireland: The Health and Economic Consequences of Projected Obesity Trends in Ireland  [PDF]
Laura Keaver, Laura Webber, Anne Dee, Frances Shiely, Tim Marsh, Kevin Balanda, Ivan Perry
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0079827
Abstract: Background Given the scale of the current obesity epidemic and associated health consequences there has been increasing concern about the economic burden placed on society in terms of direct healthcare costs and indirect societal costs. In the Republic of Ireland these costs were estimated at €1.13 billion for 2009. The total direct healthcare costs for six major obesity related conditions (coronary heart disease & stroke, cancer, hypertension, type 2 diabetes and knee osteoarthritis) in the same year were estimated at €2.55 billion. The aim of this research is to project disease burden and direct healthcare costs for these conditions in Ireland to 2030 using the established model developed by the Health Forum (UK) for the Foresight: Tackling Obesities project. Methodology Routine data sources were used to derive incidence, prevalence, mortality and survival for six conditions as inputs for the model. The model utilises a two stage modelling process to predict future BMI rates, disease prevalence and costs. Stage 1 employs a non-linear multivariate regression model to project BMI trends; stage 2 employs a microsimulation approach to produce longitudinal projections and test the impact of interventions upon future incidence of obesity-related disease. Results Overweight and obesity are projected to reach levels of 89% and 85% in males and females respectively by 2030. This will result in an increase in the obesity related prevalence of CHD & stroke by 97%, cancers by 61% and type 2 diabetes by 21%. The direct healthcare costs associated with these increases will amount to €5.4 billion by 2030. A 5% reduction in population BMI levels by 2030 is projected to result in €495 million less being spent in obesity-related direct healthcare costs over twenty years. Discussion These findings have significant implications for policy, highlighting the need for effective strategies to prevent this avoidable health and economic burden.
Health Care Charges Associated With Physical Inactivity, Overweight, and Obesity  [cached]
Louise H. Anderson, MS,Brian C. Martinson, PhD,A. Lauren Crain, PhD,Nicolaas P. Pronk, PhD
Preventing Chronic Disease , 2005,
Abstract: Introduction Physical inactivity, overweight, and obesity are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to estimate the proportion of total health care charges associated with physical inactivity, overweight, and obesity among U.S. populations aged 40 years and older. Methods A predictive model of health care charges was developed using data from a cohort of 8000 health plan members aged 40 and older. Model cells were defined by physical activity status, body mass index, age, sex, smoking status, and selected chronic diseases. Total health care charges were estimated by multiplying the percentage of the population in each cell by the predicted charges per cell. Counterfactual estimates were computed by reclassifying all individuals as physically active and of normal weight while leaving other characteristics unchanged. Charges associated with physical inactivity, overweight, and obesity were computed as the difference between current risk profile total charges and counterfactual total charges. National population percentage estimates were derived from the National Health Interview Survey; those estimates were multiplied by the predicted charges per cell from the health plan analysis. Results Physical inactivity, overweight, and obesity were associated with 23% (95% confidence interval [CI], 10%–34%) of health plan health care charges and 27% (95% CI, 10%–37%) of national health care charges. Although charges associated with these risk factors were highest for the oldest group (aged 65 years and older) and for individuals with chronic conditions, nearly half of aggregate charges were generated from the group aged 40 to 64 years without chronic disease. Conclusion Charges associated with physical inactivity, overweight, and obesity constitute a significant portion of total medical expenditures. The results underscore the importance of addressing these risk factors in all segments of the population.
Health Risks of Overweight and Obesity - An Over View  [PDF]
Aien khan Afridi,Mahpara Safdar,Muhammad Muzaffar Ali Khan Khattak,Alam Khan
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2003,
Abstract: Obesity is a risk factor for the development of various diseases like CHD, hypertension, stroke, NIDDM, osteoarthritis, sleep apnea and cancers of endometrium, breast, prostrate and colon. Psychological consequences of obesity range from lowered self-esteem to clinical depression. Many of these conditions are revisable through weight loss and maintenance. Weight reduction may be life saving so it is necessary to reduce weight.
Factors Associated With Overweight and Obesity Among Mexican Americans and Central Americans: Results From the 2001 California Health Interview Survey
Janice V. Bowie, PhD, MPH,Hee-Soon Juon, PhD,Juhee Cho, MA,Elisa M. Rodriguez, MS
Preventing Chronic Disease , 2007,
Abstract: IntroductionHispanics are the fastest growing demographic group in the United States; however, “Hispanic” is a broad term that describes people who are from or whose ancestors are from multiple countries of origin. This study examines, separately, the social, cultural, and behavioral factors associated with overweight and obesity among Mexican American adults and among Central American adults. MethodsTo estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Mexican and Central Americans living in California, we conducted a cross-sectional analysis of data from the 2001 California Health Interview Survey using SUDAAN software to account for the survey’s multistage sampling design.ResultsOf the 8304 Mexican Americans participating in the survey, 36.8% were overweight and 26.2% were obese. Of the 1019 Central Americans, 39.2% were overweight and 22.2% were obese. Among Mexican American men, age and marital status were associated with overweight and obesity; and education, acculturation, health insurance status, health status, and use of vitamins were associated with obesity only. Among Mexican American women, age, education, number of children, health status, and health behavior were associated with overweight and obesity. Among Central American men, age, education, and access to health care were associated with overweight, whereas marital status, acculturation, health care, and binge drinking were associated with obesity. Among Central American women, number of children was associated with overweight and obesity; and age and education were associated with obesity only. ConclusionsOur findings of high rates of overweight and obesity among Mexican and Central Americans in California indicate the need for a wide variety of effective weight-loss interventions targeting these populations, and the differences we found in the factors associated with overweight and obesity may suggest the need for unique intervention strategies for different Hispanic subgroups.
Physical activity and overweight/obesity in adult Mexican population: the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006
Gómez,Luz María; Hernández-Prado,Bernardo; Morales,Ma del Carmen; Shamah-Levy,Teresa;
Salud Pública de México , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36342009001000017
Abstract: objective: to determine the association between physical activity and overweight/obesity in mexican adults. material and methods: cross-sectional design. adults 20 to 69 years of age were included in the mexican national health and nutrition survey 2006 (ensanut 2006). the dependent variable was overweight/obesity and the independent variable was recalled physical activity. analysis was by logistic regression, adjusting for sex, age, residence area, region, socioeconomic status, indigenous ethnicity, smoking, schooling, work activity, alcohol consumption and sitting time. results: data from 15 901 adults were analyzed. the prevalence of overweight/obesity had an inverse association with physical activity among men but not among women. cconclusions: the practice of physical activity was negatively associated with the prevalence of overweight/obesity only in adult men. these results underscore the importance of promoting physical activity to prevent and control overweight/obesity.
Factors associated with overweight and obesity in Mexican school-age children: results from the National Nutrition Survey 1999
Hernández,Bernardo; Cuevas-Nasu,Lucía; Shamah-Levy,Teresa; Monterrubio,Eric A; Ramírez-Silva,Claudia Ivonne; García-Feregrino,Raquel; Rivera,Juan A; Sepúlveda-Amor,Jaime;
Salud Pública de México , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36342003001000011
Abstract: objective: the objective of the study was to measure the prevalence of overweight and obesity in mexican school-age children (5-11 years) in the national nutrition survey 1999 (nns-1999). material and methods: overweight and obesity (defined as an excess of adipose tissue in the body) were evaluated through the body mass index (bmi) in 10,901 children, using the standard proposed by the international obesity task force. sociodemographic variables were obtained using a questionnaire administered to the children's mothers. results: the national prevalence of overweight and obesity was reported to be 19.5%. the highest prevalence figures were found in mexico city (26.6%) and the north region (25.6%). when adjusting by region, rural or urban area, sex, maternal schooling, socioeconomic status, indigenous ethnicity and age, the highest prevalences of overweight and obesity were found among girls. the risks of overweight and obesity were positively associated with maternal schooling, children's age and socioeconomic status. conclusions: overweight and obesity are prevalent health problems in mexican school-age children, particularly among girls, and positively associated with socioeconomic status, age, and maternal schooling. this is a major public health problem requiring preventive interventions to avoid future health consequences.
Factors associated with overweight and obesity in Mexican school-age children: results from the National Nutrition Survey 1999  [cached]
Hernández Bernardo,Cuevas-Nasu Lucía,Shamah-Levy Teresa,Monterrubio Eric A
Salud Pública de México , 2003,
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to measure the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Mexican school-age children (5-11 years) in the National Nutrition Survey 1999 (NNS-1999). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Overweight and obesity (defined as an excess of adipose tissue in the body) were evaluated through the Body Mass Index (BMI) in 10,901 children, using the standard proposed by the International Obesity Task Force. Sociodemographic variables were obtained using a questionnaire administered to the children's mothers. RESULTS: The national prevalence of overweight and obesity was reported to be 19.5%. The highest prevalence figures were found in Mexico City (26.6%) and the North region (25.6%). When adjusting by region, rural or urban area, sex, maternal schooling, socioeconomic status, indigenous ethnicity and age, the highest prevalences of overweight and obesity were found among girls. The risks of overweight and obesity were positively associated with maternal schooling, children's age and socioeconomic status. CONCLUSIONS: Overweight and obesity are prevalent health problems in Mexican school-age children, particularly among girls, and positively associated with socioeconomic status, age, and maternal schooling. This is a major public health problem requiring preventive interventions to avoid future health consequences.
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