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Between Hype and Understatement: Reassessing Cyber Risks as a Security Strategy  [PDF]
Audrey Guinchard
Journal of Strategic Security , 2011,
Abstract: Most of the actions that fall under the trilogy of cyber crime, terrorism,and war exploit pre-existing weaknesses in the underlying technology.Because these vulnerabilities that exist in the network are not themselvesillegal, they tend to be overlooked in the debate on cyber security. A UKreport on the cost of cyber crime illustrates this approach. Its authors chose to exclude from their analysis the costs in anticipation of cyber crime, such as insurance costs and the costs of purchasing anti-virus software on the basis that "these are likely to be factored into normal day-to-day expenditures for the Government, businesses, and individuals. This article contends if these costs had been quantified and integrated into the cost of cyber crime, then the analysis would have revealed that what matters is not so much cyber crime, but the fertile terrain of vulnerabilities that unleash a range of possibilities to whomever wishes to exploit them. By downplaying the vulnerabilities, the threats represented by cyber war, cyber terrorism, and cyber crime are conversely inflated. Therefore, reassessing risk as a strategy for security in cyberspace must include acknowledgment of understated vulnerabilities, as well as a better distributed knowledge about the nature and character of the overhyped threats of cyber crime, cyber terrorism, and cyber war.
Cyber Attacks: Emerging Threats to the 21st Century Critical Information Infrastructures  [cached]
Cezar Vasilescu
Obrana a Strategie , 2012,
Abstract: The paper explores the notion of cyber attack as a concept for understanding modern conflicts. It starts by elaborating a conceptual theoretical framework, observing that when it comes to cyber attacks, cyber war and cyber defense there are no internationally accepted definitions on the subject, mostly because of the relative recency of the terms. The second part analyzes the cyber realities of recent years, emphasizing the most advertised cyber attacks in the international mass media: Estonia (2007) and Georgia (2008), with a focus on two main lessons learned: how complicated is to define a cyber war and how difficult to defend against it. Crucial implications for world’s countries and the role of NATO in assuring an effective collective cyber defense are analyzed in the third part. The need for the development of strategic cyber defense documents (e.g. NATO Cyber Defense Policy, NATO Strategic Concept) is further examined. It is suggested that particular attention should be paid to the development of a procedure for clearly discriminating between events (cyber attacks, cyber war, cyber crime, or cyber terrorism), and to a procedure for the conduct of nation’s legitimate military/civil cyber response operations.
From Classical Terrorism to ‘Global’ Terrorism  [cached]
Michel Wieviorka
International Journal of Conflict and Violence , 2007,
Abstract: This article examines the history and the development of terrorism as a research subject for social sciences. It gives an impression of how the subject’s theoretical remit has changed over the last decades — explicitly taking into account the characteristics of a modern and global world and their impact on current understandings of terrorism. Terrorism is a minor object for the social sciences; it was even long considered “illegitimate” and neglected by researchers. There are several explanations for this, which I think my long experience in research authorizes me to evoke here.
Metaphysics of Terrorism  [PDF]
Francis Etim
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2018.811041
Abstract: Terrorism as the calculated use of violence or the threat to violence through the employment of intimidation and violence in order to attain goals that are political, religious or ideological in nature has taken a global dimension and at alarming frequency such that any curious mind cannot afford to over look. Its persistence despite global condemnation and effort at curbing it naturally evokes curiosity regarding its root cause(s). Scholars have tried to dig out its root causes ranging from poverty, lack of education, religious fanaticism, psychological malady and political reasons and so on. Solutions however differ based on its perceived causes. The question is why terrorism has continued unabated. This paper believes that since human actions are elicited by the idea of the good then terrorism as a human act is based on a disoriented perception of the good. This disoriented perception is premised on a more primordial cause, an ontological lacuna that can be tagged a “search for meaning” which the terrorist tries to fill by his terroristic act. This gives the terrorist a sense of fulfilment and relevance. The panacea, the paper submits, is in a metaphysical deconstruction and construction of the terrorist mind-set based on an ontology called affective humanism.
Kinetic and Cyber  [PDF]
Alexander Kott,Norbou Buchler,Kristin E. Schaefer
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: We compare and contrast situation awareness in cyber warfare and in conventional, kinetic warfare. Situation awareness (SA) has a far longer history of study and applications in such areas as control of complex enterprises and in conventional warfare, than in cyber warfare. Far more is known about the SA in conventional military conflicts, or adversarial engagements, than in cyber ones. By exploring what is known about SA in conventional, also commonly referred to as kinetic, battles, we may gain insights and research directions relevant to cyber conflicts. We discuss the nature of SA in conventional (often called kinetic) conflict, review what is known about this kinetic SA (KSA), and then offer a comparison with what is currently understood regarding the cyber SA (CSA). We find that challenges and opportunities of KSA and CSA are similar or at least parallel in several important ways. With respect to similarities, in both kinetic and cyber worlds, SA strongly impacts the outcome of the mission. Also similarly, cognitive biases are found in both KSA and CSA. As an example of differences, KSA often relies on commonly accepted, widely used organizing representation - map of the physical terrain of the battlefield. No such common representation has emerged in CSA, yet.
prof. dr. Ioan Chis
Lex et Scientia , 2006,
Abstract: Terrorist Crimes and offences included in a special section of the new Criminal Code - Title IV-the special part, could not be commited but trough common crimes and offences. Why a distinct approach is necessary for tliem. that is a question that could be answered only be treating this type of crime in a different way.In the fower Criminal Code there was not possible to have a distinct approach because of the conceptual ideas on which the law had been materialized. Another reason was the fact that m 1969, when it was released, the old Criminal Code, terrorism appeared as a reaction of the extreme left militants, separated from the leninist left, which was considered to preserve the revolutionary spirit against capitalism. Nowadays terrorism is not a phenomenon of the most dangerous forms of crime, but also a means of asymmetrical fight (or fundamentalist), specific to entities which detain force, money, people, an organized and effective system, if reported to the disasters that is produced.Two aspects are essential in terrorism:a) the use on a dangerously large scale of common offences and of the organized crime in order todisseminate terror among public opinion, and by the use of the unconscious mass - media, which,by broadcasting the terrorist events all over theworld, do nothing but accomplish the terrorist goals that is: propaganda of terror. Without these two components terrorism could not exist, facts and criminal acts being included in the Criminal code in the chapter for common offences.
Contemporary/global terrorism: Sociological approach  [PDF]
Jankovi? Miodrag
Sociologija , 2004, DOI: 10.2298/soc0404313j
Abstract: Notion of terrorism and its contemporary/global form is analyzed in the paper. Special attention is given to emphasizing most important characteristics of separatist-secessionist terrorism today. Potentials and perspectives of Islam terrorism is analyzed at the and of the paper.
Plethora of Cyber Forensics  [PDF]
N.Sridhar,Dr.D.Lalitha Bhaskari,Dr.P.S.Avadhani
International Journal of Advanced Computer Sciences and Applications , 2011,
Abstract: As threats against digital assets have risen and there is necessitate exposing and eliminating hidden risks and threats. The ability of exposing is called “cyber forensics.” Cyber Penetrators have adopted more sophistical tools and tactics that endanger the operations of the global phenomena. These attackers are also using anti-forensic techniques to hide evidence of a cyber crime. Cyber forensics tools must increase its toughness and counteract these advanced persistent threats. This paper focuses on briefing of Cyber forensics, various phases of cyber forensics, handy tools and new research trends and issues in this fascinated area.
Revisiting the Estonian Cyber Attacks: Digital Threats and Multinational Responses  [PDF]
Stephen Herzog
Journal of Strategic Security , 2011,
Abstract: In April 2007, the Estonian Government moved a memorial commemorating the Soviet liberation of the country from the Nazis to a less prominent and visible location in Tallinn. This decision triggered rioting among Russian-speaking minorities and cyber terrorism targeting Estonia's critical economic and political infrastructure. Drawing upon the Estonian cyber attacks, this article argues that globalization and the Internet have enabled transnational groups—such as the Russian diaspora—to avenge their grievances by threatening the sovereignty of nation-states in cyberspace. Sophisticated and virtually untraceable political "hacktivists" may now possess the ability to disrupt or destroy government operations, banking transactions, city power grids, and even military weapon systems. Fortunately, western countries banded together to effectively combat the Estonian cyber attacks and minimize their effects. However, this article concludes that in the age of globalization, interdependence, and digital interconnectedness, nation-states must engage in increased cooperative cyber-defense activities to counter and prevent devastating Internet attacks and their implications.
On immorality of terrorism and war  [PDF]
?i?ova?ki Predrag
Filozofija i Dru?tvo , 2003, DOI: 10.2298/fid0323115c
Abstract: The author first analyzes differences and similarities between war and terrorism and then argues that both are deeply immoral. Their differences are far less significant that their similarities, the main one of which consists in the denial of the view that every human life is equally worthy. This denial opens a way for an inhuman and violent treatment of those (enemies, others) who are not as valuable as we are, which characterizes both terrorism and war. Besides having such unacceptable moral implications with regards to the treatment of other human beings, a further common and troubling implication of terrorism and war consists in the fact that dehumanization of others leads also to a dehumanization of ourselves. .
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