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Utilization of Paper Sludge Wastes for Treatment of Wastewater from Food Processing Industries  [PDF]
Ahmed H.A. Dabwan,Kiyoyuki Egusa,Daizo Imai,Hideyuki Katsumata
Pakistan Journal of Analytical and Environmental Chemistry , 2012,
Abstract: The food processing industries usually produced large amount of wastewater containing fine and small particles. It takes long time for complete settlement of the fine and small particles in the wastewater. The coagulation method appears to become one of the useful treatments. New inorganic coagulant named “Agoclean P” has been developed from paper sludge ash. The treatment by coagulation and flocculation were carried out for the wastewater from three different food processing industries namely soup, tofu, and natto. “Hi Biah System”, which is an in situ solidification system, was used for the continuous treatment of wastewater. The parameters for the water quality were pH, five day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP). These parameters after the treatment became much lower values relative to those obtained before the treatment.
Resource Potentials of Composting the Organic Wastes Stream from Municipal Solid Wastes Compositions Arising in Nigerian Cities  [PDF]
Adamu Isa Harir, Rozilah Kasim, Bala Ishiyaku
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection (GEP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/gep.2015.34002
Abstract: The paper presented an assessment of the resource potentials of composting organic waste materials arising from the municipal solid waste stream from cities in Nigeria. Through a review of quantitative data, the composition of municipal solid waste arising within cities in Nigeria was examined in order to identify the potentials for composting organic materials from the waste stream composition. The data showed that the average majority of the waste stream was organic materials which implied high potentials for composting organic waste materials from Nigerian cities. The review also identified further potentials for composting was associated with the large population and the majority of them engaged in agriculture, as a high potential market for compost manure in Nigeria. There were more potentials derivable from the current policies of importing and supplying chemical fertilizer with huge subsidies for domestic agriculture in the country. The need to substitute these policies of chemical fertilizer with the use of compost manure implied high potentials for composting in the country. The paper also identified numerous benefits of composting in general and with particular reference to the Nigerian situation which includes, among others a reduction of the vast quantity of solid waste for final disposal, reducing air pollution and ground water leachate and also employment generation and increased income. Therefore, the paper recommended a deliberate government policy to promote composting of organic solid wastes material and marketing of compost manure to substitute the current policies of importing chemical fertilizer with subsidy for domestic agriculture as a strategy to achieve sustainable waste management in Nigeria.
Rapid infiltration wastewater treatment for small communities in Beijing
Li Ruqi,Duan Zhenbo,Wang Sbaotang,Qin XiaoliBeijing Municipal Research Institute of Environmental Protection,Beijing,China,
Li Ruqi
,Duan Zhenbo,Wang Sbaotang,Qin Xiaoli

环境科学学报(英文版) , 1993,
Abstract: This rapid infiltration (RI) system is proposed as the first one in China. The RI system treated 500 m3/d of municipal and industrial wastewater. About 0.36 ha of field was used. It has been evaluated that the RI system has an excellent ability to treat the wastewater. The infiltration rate was 50.3 m/a.
Composting of Disposal Organic Wastes: Resource Recovery for Agricultural Sustainability
Mohammad H Golabi,Peggy Denney,Clancy Iyekar,
Mohammad H. Golabi
,Peggy Denney,Clancy Iyekar

过程工程学报 , 2006,
Abstract: One of the major problems of agricultural soils in the tropical regions of the Pacific is the low organic matter content. Because of the hot and humid environment, the soil organic matter (SOM) is minimal due to rapid decomposition.Composted organic material is being applied on agricultural fields as an amendment to provide nutrients and enhance the organic matter content for improving the physical and chemical properties of the cultivated soils. In addition land application of composted material as a fertilizer source effectively disposes of wastes that otherwise are buried in landfills. In our soil program at the University of Guam, we are evaluating the use of organic material as an alternative to synthetic fertilizers. Its goal is to develop management strategies and use available resources for improving crop production while conserving resources and preserving environmental quality. Our case study project is designed to improve soil fertility status by using composted organic wastes and assessing how the nitrogen and other essential nutrients contribute to long-term soil fertility and crop productivity without application of synthetic fertilizers. In our pilot project, compost is produced from wood chips,grinded typhoon debris mixed with animal manure, fish feed, shredded paper and other organic wastes. Mature compost is then applied on the field at the rates of 0, 5, 10 and 20 t/ha as a soil amendment on the eroded cobbly soils of southern Guam.Corn is planted and monitored for growth performance and yield. The effect of land application of composted material on the SOM content and overall soil quality indices are being evaluated in this pilot study.
Effects of water managements on soil nematode communities in a paddy field
稻田不同水分管理方式对土壤线虫群落的影响

OU Wei,LI Qi,LIANG Wenju,JIANG Yong,WEN Dazhong,
欧伟
,李琪,梁文举

应用生态学报 , 2004,
Abstract: This paper studied the effect of water managements on the abundance, trophic groups and community composition of soil nematodes in a paddy field in the Lower Reaches of Liaohe Plain at the depths of 0-10 cm, 10-20 cm and 20-30 cm during rice (Oryza sativa L.) growth season. The total number of nematodes at 0-10 cm soil depth was lower in percolation-controlling treatments than in control during pre-tillage and yellow ripeness stage. No significant difference was found in the total number of nematodes at 10-20 cm soil depth during the study period, but significant difference was observed in 20-30 cm soil depth during pre-tillage and yellow ripeness stage. Sixteen families and 22 genera were observed, and Plectus, Tylenchus and Monhystera were the dominant genera. Plectus and Tylenchus were sensitive to different water managements. Significant difference was found in the number of bacterivores at 0-10 cm soil depth during pre-tillage and yellow ripeness stage in percolation-controlling treatments, which exhibited a similar trend with the total number of nematodes. Bacterivores and plant-parasites were the most abundant trophic groups in all plots and at all soil depths during the study period, averaging 60.8% and 33.8% of the nematode communities, respectively, and omnivores-predators were the least abundant groups.
The effect of resource history on the functioning of soil microbial communities is maintained across time
A. D. Keiser, M. S. Strickland, N. Fierer,M. A. Bradford
Biogeosciences (BG) & Discussions (BGD) , 2011,
Abstract: Historical resource conditions appear to influence microbial community function. With time, historical influences might diminish as populations respond to the contemporary environment. Alternatively, they may persist given factors such as contrasting genetic potentials for adaptation to a new environment. Using experimental microcosms, we test competing hypotheses that function of distinct soil microbial communities in common environments (H1a) converge or (H1b) remain dissimilar over time. Using a 6 × 2 (soil community inoculum × litter environment) full-factorial design, we compare decomposition rates in experimental microcosms containing grass or hardwood litter environments. After 100 days, communities that develop are inoculated into fresh litters and decomposition followed for another 100 days. We repeat this for a third, 100-day period. In each successive, 100-day period, we find higher decomposition rates (i.e. functioning) suggesting communities function better when they have an experimental history of the contemporary environment. Despite these functional gains, differences in decomposition rates among initially distinct communities persist, supporting the hypothesis that dissimilarity is maintained across time. In contrast to function, community composition is more similar following a common, experimental history. We also find that "specialization" on one experimental environment incurs a cost, with loss of function in the alternate environment. For example, experimental history of a grass-litter environment reduced decomposition when communities were inoculated into a hardwood-litter environment. Our work demonstrates experimentally that despite expectations of fast growth rates, physiological flexibility and rapid evolution, initial functional differences between microbial communities are maintained across time. These findings question whether microbial dynamics can be omitted from models of ecosystem processes if we are to predict reliably global change effects on biogeochemical cycles.
The effect of resource history on the functioning of soil microbial communities is maintained across time
A. D. Keiser,M. S. Strickland,N. Fierer,M. A. Bradford
Biogeosciences Discussions , 2011, DOI: 10.5194/bgd-8-1643-2011
Abstract: Historical resource conditions appear to influence microbial community function. With time, historical influences might diminish as populations respond to the contemporary environment. Alternatively, they may persist given factors such as contrasting genetic potentials for adaptation to a new environment. Using experimental microcosms, we test competing hypotheses that function of distinct soil microbial communities in common environments (H1a) converge or (H1b) remain dissimilar over time. Using a 6 × 2 (soil community inoculum × litter environment) full-factorial design, we compare decomposition rates in experimental microcosms containing grass or hardwood litter environments. After 100 days, communities that develop are inoculated into fresh litters and decomposition followed for another 100 days. We repeat this for a third, 100-day period. In each successive, 100-day period, we find higher decomposition rates (i.e. functioning) suggesting communities function better when they have an experimental history of the contemporary environment. Despite these functional gains, differences in decomposition rates among initially distinct communities persist, supporting the hypothesis that dissimilarity is maintained across time. In contrast to function, community composition is more similar following a common, experimental history. We also find that "specialization" on one experimental environment incurs a cost, with loss of function in the alternate environment. For example, experimental history of a grass-litter environment reduced decomposition when communities were inoculated into a hardwood-litter environment. Our work demonstrates experimentally that despite expectations of fast growth rates, physiological flexibility and rapid evolution, initial functional differences between microbial communities are maintained across time. These findings question whether microbial dynamics can be omitted from models of ecosystem processes if we are to predict reliably global change effects on biogeochemical cycles.
废水资源化生态工程方法研究
Study of Wastewater Resource Ecological Engineering Methods
 [PDF]

崔俊安, 高杨
Advances in Environmental Protection (AEP) , 2015, DOI: 10.12677/AEP.2015.52002
Abstract:
以生物法为基础的废水资源化生态工程,对污染水体中的COD和氨氮等有明显的处理效果。使废水资源化发挥其最大化的经济效益、环境效益和社会效益,对缓解水资源短缺的危机和实现水资源的可持续利用有重大意义。本文就废水资源化生态工程处理方法、生态植物处理废水的机理、废水处理技术及资源化研究情况进行研究介绍,并着重介绍生态植物废水资源化的研究方法、进展及存在的问题;对未来废水资源化生态工程的发展和改进提供了重要的参考和依据。
The ecological engineering, which is based on the biological wastewater resource, has obvious treatment results for COD and NH3-N in polluted water. Maximizing the economic benefit, envi-ronmental benefit and social benefit of wastewater resource has great significance to alleviate the shortage of water resources crisis and to realize the sustainable utilization of water resource. This paper makes a brief introduction to the resources of eco-engineering wastewater treatment me-thods, eco-plant wastewater treatment mechanism and wastewater treatment technology, and fo-cuses on the progress of the research methods of ecological plant wastewater resource problems. The research provides reference and basis for the development and enhancement of wastewater resource ecological engineering in the future.
Impact of Floods on Livelihoods and Vulnerability of Natural Resource Dependent Communities in Northern Ghana  [PDF]
Frederick A. Armah,David O. Yawson,Genesis T. Yengoh,Justice O. Odoi,Ernest K. A. Afrifa
Water , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/w2020120
Abstract: Sub-Sahara Africa is considered to be most vulnerable to climate variability including flooding. The frequency and severity of floods in Northern Ghana over the last decade has increased considerably. Through qualitative modelling the paper explores the impact of floods on natural resource dependent communities in Northern Ghana. Simplified causal loop diagrams are used to conceptualise flood-induced coping strategies in the study area. The results indicate that some characteristics of the socio-cultural environment appear to mitigate risk and reduce vulnerability. In this context, the role of social networks in enhancing livelihood security is essential. The paper concludes that both in case of seasonal variations in agricultural output and floods, individuals that have effectively diversified their livelihoods, both occupationally and geographically, are less sensitive than individuals who mainly achieve entitlement to food via crop cultivation. However, diversification in this case, is effective only in the short term.
Profiling of microbial communities in a bioreactor for treating hydrocarbon-sulfide-containing wastewater

LIAO Bo,JI Guodong,CHENG Liqiu,

环境科学学报(英文版) , 2008,
Abstract: A technology of polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis(PCR-DGGE)was used to profile the structure and dynamic changes of microbial communities in a bioreactor for treating hydrocarbon-sulfide-containing(HSC)wastewater.The results showed that the heterotrophic genus of Acinetobacter and the autotrophic genera of Thiobacillus and Thiomonas could survive well in all of three operating conditions.Some special genera were also observed with changes of micro-ecoenvironment in the rea...
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