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 Research Journal of Medical Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/rjmsci.2010.88.93 Abstract: A study of the electrical equipment and electronics repaired shops, where in the areas of local government of Khamsakaesang, Nonthai, Nonsoong and Khong SubDistrict, Nakhonratchasima Province, which were in the total amount of 24 repairshops 39 repairmen. Data collection has been done by doing questionnaire and inspecting the levels of blood lead contamination and environmental lead contamination with Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (GFAAS) found that the average level of blood lead was at 8.58 μg dL-1, which the lowest blood lead level was at 1.26 μg dL-1 and the highest blood lead level was at 25.54 μg dL-1. The repairmen, who have different education and work experience levels were statistically having different blood lead level (p<0.05), apart from that there was a found of dust with lead contamination in working areas in the average level of 173.26 g kg-1, which the lowest level was at 49.6 g kg-1 and the highest level was at 354 g kg-1, which is much higher than the specified standard of US EPA. Apparently, repairmen are in risk of health threaten from their unsafe work condition, do not use personal protective equipments, while welding lead their working environment have highly dust lead contamination and terminating hazardous in incorrect way, which cause an effect for their family member, especially childhood and environment could be contaminated directly and indirectly. Then, the related government sectors should be actively operating, solving and managing occupational health and sanitation services for this career.
 Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/pjssci.2012.63.68 Abstract: Incidence of hypertension has remained relatively high in Nakhonratchasima province and still being top priority chronic disease of provincial health problems. The quasi-experimental research pre-test, post-test two groups design was conducted for this research. Tertiary prevention of hypertension through empowerment health behavior was objective for improve knowledge about and understand, health belief, practice of life-style modification and decrease blood pressure. The empowerment process intervention was applied in hypertensive patients of experimental group those were selected by purposive sampling and matching technique with the control group those were 40 subjects in each group. Data was collected from the experimental group at pre-test, post-test immediately after the end of the 4 days intervention program, after 6 months at follow up and in the control group at pre-test and post-test after 6 months later. The data were analyzed by using a statistical package, descriptive statistics, paired t-test and in dependent t-test. The results indicated that the mean scores of knowledge about and understand, health belief and practice of life-style modification at immediately the 4 days intervention and post-test 6 months were significantly higher than those at pre-test and control group (p<0.001). The mean scores of systolic and diastolic blood pressure in experimental group at immediately the 4 days intervention and post-test 6 months were significantly lower than those at pre-test and control group (p<0.001). For conclusion, the 4 days empowerment process intervention that improve health behavior for control blood pressure. Thus, the hypertensive patients should be followed up continuously and must receive proper health behavior program for sustainable.
 Journal of Injury and Violence Research , 2010, Abstract: BACKGROUND: This study aims to promote occupational health in the informal sector in Thailand by using a participatory approach. The success of the intervention is based on an evaluation of the informal sector workers' a) knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors in occupational health and safety, b) work practice improvement, and c) working condition improvement. METHODS: This study applies the Participatory Action Research (PAR) method. The participants of the study consisted of four local occupations in different regions of Thailand, including a ceramic making group in the North, a plastic weaving group in the Central region, a blanket making group in the Northeast, and a pandanus weaving group in the South. Data was collected using both qualitative and quantitative methods through questionnaires, industrial hygiene instruments, and group discussions. RESULTS: The results showed that the working conditions of the informal sector were improved to meet necessary standards after completing the participatory process. Also, the post-test average scores on 1) the occupational health and safety knowledge, attitudes and behaviors measures and 2) the work practice improvement measures were significantly higher than the pre-test average scores (p=sig). CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate that the participatory approach is an effective tool to use when promoting the health safety of the informal sector and when encouraging the workers to voluntarily improve the quality of their own lives.
 Tourismos : an International Multidisciplinary Journal of Tourism , 2012, Abstract: Community participation as a strategy for local tourism development has become an important mechanism to promote sustainable tourism. This paper explores community participatory planning process in local tourism development on Samui Island, Thailand. Factors associated with participation of local people were examined in decision-making, implementation, and monitoring and evaluation phases. Result showed social capital as a driver in various stages can be considered as crucial mechanism for the success of the planning for local tourism activities.
 Andreas Neef Water Alternatives , 2008, Abstract: Water management in Thailand and Germany has been marked by a command-and-control policy-style for decades, but has recently begun to move slowly towards more inclusive and participatory approaches. In Germany, the push for public participation stems from the recently promulgated European Union Water Framework Directive (EU WFD), while participatory and integrated river basin management in Thailand has been strongly promoted by major international donors. Drawing on case studies from two watersheds in North Thailand and Southwest Germany, this paper analyses how the participatory imperative in water governance is translated at the local level. Evidence suggests that in both countries public participation in water management is still in its infancy, with legislative and executive responsibilities being divided between a variety of state agencies and local authorities. Bureaucratic restructuring and technocratic attitudes, passive resistance on the part of administrative staff towards inclusive processes, and a trend towards the (re)centralization of responsibilities for water governance in both study regions undermines community-based and stakeholder-driven water governance institutions, thus calling into question the subsidiarity principle. State-driven participatory processes tend to remain episodic and ceremonial and have not (yet) gone beyond the informative and consultative stage. Meaningful public participation, promised on paper and in speeches, gets lost in translation too often.
 PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0100058 Abstract: Background This paper presents findings from a qualitative investigation of ethical and participatory issues related to the conduct of biomedical HIV prevention trials among marginalized populations in Thailand. This research was deemed important to conduct, as several large-scale biomedical HIV prevention trials among marginalized populations had closed prematurely in other countries, and a better understanding of how to prevent similar trial closures from occurring in the future was desired. Methods In-depth key informant interviews were held in Bangkok and Chiang Mai, Thailand. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed, translated and thematically analyzed. The Good Participatory Practice Guidelines for Biomedical HIV Prevention Trials (GPP) guided this work. Results Fourteen interviews were conducted: 10 with policymakers, academic and community-based researchers and trial staff and four with representatives of non-governmental organizations (NGOs). Suggested ways to improve ethical and participatory practice centered on standards of HIV prevention, informed consent, communication and human rights. In particular, the need to overcome language and literacy differences was identified. Key informants felt communication was the basis of ethical understanding and trust within biomedical HIV prevention trial contexts, and thus fundamental to trial participants' ability to exercise free will. Discussion Biomedical HIV prevention trials present opportunities for inclusive and productive ethical and participatory practice. Key informants suggested that efforts to improve practice could result in better relationships between research stakeholders and research investigative teams and by extension, better, more ethical participatory trials. This research took place in Thailand and its findings apply primarily to Thailand. However, given the universality of many ethical considerations, the results of this study can inform the improvement of ethical and participatory practice in other parts of the world where biomedical HIV prevention trials occur, and where clinical trials in marginalized populations continue.
 Computer Science , 2013, Abstract: In the {\em Movement Repairmen (MR)} problem we are given a metric space $(V, d)$ along with a set $R$ of $k$ repairmen $r_1, r_2, ..., r_k$ with their start depots $s_1, s_2, ..., s_k \in V$ and speeds $v_1, v_2, ..., v_k \geq 0$ respectively and a set $C$ of $m$ clients $c_1, c_2, ..., c_m$ having start locations $s'_1, s'_2, ..., s'_m \in V$ and speeds $v'_1, v'_2, ..., v'_m \geq 0$ respectively. If $t$ is the earliest time a client $c_j$ is collocated with any repairman (say, $r_i$) at a node $u$, we say that the client is served by $r_i$ at $u$ and that its latency is $t$. The objective in the (\smr{}) problem is to plan the movements for all repairmen and clients to minimize the sum (average) of the clients latencies. The motivation for this problem comes, for example, from Amazon Locker Delivery \cite{amazon} and USPS gopost \cite{gopost}. We give the first $O(\log n)$-approximation algorithm for the \smr{} problem.
 Phassakon Nuntapanich The Social Sciences , 2013, DOI: 10.3923/sscience.2012.61.64 Abstract: The purpose of this action research was to improve the knowledge on organic agricultural practices of 79 target farmers in the Sisaket province of the Northeast Thailand. The research developed a training curriculum on organic agriculture production using a participatory learning approach. The participatory activities include field trip, knowledge sharing forum between successful farmers and targeted farmers, knowledge management and peer assist. The research results reveal that the target farmers knowledge increased significantly (p<0.01) after the participation. In addition, about 98.70% of the farmers learned the knowledge and were able to improve their farm with 62% of them shared the knowledge to their neighbors.
 Health (Health) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/health.2015.710140 Abstract: Dengue disease had been the significant health problem of the primary school in southern Thailand. The objective was to develop the participatory program for dengue prevention and control in five primary schools. Participatory action research (PAR) was applied in five steps: 1) preparation, 2) assessment, 3) education program development, 4) implementation and 5) evaluation. Data collection used quantitative and qualitative methods in five primary schools in Southern, Thailand. Descriptive statistics and Chi-square (χ2) test were used to compare between pre- and post-intervention. Larval Indices were obtained from ratio analysis. The results showed the participatory program consisted of nine important activities for all stakeholders involving dengue problem. Health teacher’s activities and student’s activities were eight activities consisted of knowledge training, dengue manual, Computer Assisted Instructor (CAI), test, dengue data, larval indices survey, fish bank, and herbal garden. The seven activities of health provider were knowledge training, dengue manual, CAI, testing, dengue data, larval indices survey, and larval indices program. Three activities for students’ parents included dengue manual, dengue data, and larval indices survey. The 290 students were participating activities in education program and increasing basic knowledge of dengue prevention and control. Comparing the number of correct answers, >80% of students between pre- and post-intervention were found to increase basic knowledge from five correct answers to ten, and of these six items were significantly different (P < 0.001). The two primary schools were continuing non-positive containers (Container Index: CI = 0), but the total larval indices (Breteau Index: BI, House Index: HI, and Container Index: CI) of five primary schools showed high levels both pre- and post-intervention in primary schools; whereas, the students’ households showed high level of BI, HI and CI both pre- and post-intervention (754, 77, and 35 to 616, 81, and 32). Conclusion: The program was needed to continue in primary school and participate from health teacher, health provider, and students’ parents in order to be of great benefit for students.
 The Social Sciences , 2013, DOI: 10.3923/sscience.2012.303.307 Abstract: This study was a research and development study, aimed to develop the learning process and improve the participation in community waste management in Khongchai Pattana municipality, Kalasin province. The samples comprised 92 households selected through a simple random-sampling method. This study trailed participatory action research as a method for community participation in waste management, conducted under four participatory frameworks including decision making, practice, benefit gaining and evaluation. The research instruments included questionnaires, group discussions organization and community meetings and observation. The data was analyzed by mean , Standard Deviation (SD) and t-test. The results showed that the learning process and the participation in community waste management of the participants before and after training, each was different after training the participation significantly increased (p<0.05) and the learning process in terms of knowledge, attitude and practice in solid waste management also showed a significant increase (p<0.05). After the training program, the quantity of solid waste which significantly less than before training (p<0.05). Factors that contributed to the improvement of participatory action and the learning process were having a strong community leading team, access to information, social interaction morale of a group as well as social networking. Other factors that interfered with the development of the participation and the learning process were such as personnel limits and budget.
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