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Defining self-discipline as constituting the competitiveness of teacher
Natalia Bekuzarova
Perspectives of Innovations, Economics and Business , 2010,
Abstract: The article reviews different definitions of self-discipline in relation to issue of teacher competitiveness in changing environment. The author discusses the complex role of self-discipline in sustaining competiveness of teacher.
Discipline methods  [PDF]
Maria Kikila,Ioannis Koutelekos
To Vima tou Asklipiou , 2012,
Abstract: Child discipline is one of the most important elements of successful parenting. As discipline is defined the process that help children to learn appropriate behaviors and make good choices. Aim: The aim of the present study was to review the literature about the discipline methods. The method οf this study included bibliography research from both the review and the research literature, mainly in the pubmed data base which referred to the discipline methods. Results: In the literature it is cited that discipline is not the same as punishment because is more related to teaching. The ultimate goal of effective punishment is to help the child in exercising self-control, accountability and respect. Children raised without proper discipline, are at risk for a variety of behavioral and emotional problems. Over the last decades, many child discipline techniques have been suggested that vary according to the age of the child, the parenting style and the severity of the behavior. The most effective methods are giving rewards and guidance to make good choices, explaining negative consequences for disobedience without issuing threats, teaching of moral behaviors by displaying parents' good and moral behaviors. Another commonly accepted discipline method is "the consequences' which permits children to have the dignity of dealing with results of their behavior. Conclusions: Discipline consists a tool for parents for the reason that it trains children to think their improper behavior and the following consequences as well as the possible solutions to each problem.
Unsteady turbulent buoyant plumes  [PDF]
Mark J. Woodhouse,Jeremy C. Phillips,Andrew J. Hogg
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: We model the unsteady evolution of turbulent buoyant plumes following temporal changes to the source conditions. The integral model is derived from radial integration of the governing equations expressing the conservation of mass, axial momentum and buoyancy. The non-uniform radial profiles of the axial velocity and density deficit in the plume are explicitly described by shape factors in the integral equations; the commonly-assumed top-hat profiles lead to shape factors equal to unity. The resultant model is hyperbolic when the momentum shape factor, determined from the radial profile of the mean axial velocity, differs from unity. The solutions of the model when source conditions are maintained at constant values retain the form of the well-established steady plume solutions. We demonstrate that the inclusion of a momentum shape factor that differs from unity leads to a well-posed integral model. Therefore, our model does not exhibit the mathematical pathologies that appear in previously proposed unsteady integral models of turbulent plumes. A stability threshold for the value of the shape factor is identified, resulting in a range of its values where the amplitude of small perturbations to the steady solutions decay with distance from the source. The hyperbolic character of the system allows the formation of discontinuities in the fields describing the plume properties during the unsteady evolution. We compute numerical solutions to illustrate the transient development following an abrupt change in the source conditions. The adjustment to the new source conditions occurs through the propagation of a pulse of fluid through the plume. The dynamics of this pulse are described by a similarity solution and, by constructing this new similarity solution, we identify three regimes in which the evolution of the transient pulse following adjustment of the source qualitatively differ.
Fiscal Discipline in India
Sanhita SUCHARITA,Narayan SETHI
Romanian Journal of Fiscal Policy , 2011,
Abstract: The present study broadly attempts to analyze the role of Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act in restoring fiscal balance in India. It analyses the need for fiscal rules and constraints in India. The study aims at finding out the major factor behind rising fiscal imbalance in India and to examine whether there is an electoral motive towards high fiscal deficit to GDP ratio or not. It also analyzes the effectiveness of various measures undertaken at the central and state level to inculcate fiscal discipline in the fiscal management. The study also makes an attempt to do a critical in depth reviews of the Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act and make an attempt at examining effectiveness and suitability of FRBM Act through a quantitative analysis. It also makes an attempt to suggest improvements in the fiscal monitoring mechanism in India. We employ Ordinary Least Square (OLS) method to examine the impact of Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act on fiscal deficit in India using the data for the period 1980-81 to 2008-09. The regression results indicates that FRBM Act does not have a significant effect on the Gross Fiscal Deficit (GFD) to GDP ratio where as GDP (at factor cost) growth rate has a significant negative effect on the GFD to GDP ratio.
Simulations of Buoyant Bubbles in Galaxy Clusters  [PDF]
M. Bruggen
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1086/375731
Abstract: It is generally argued that most clusters of galaxies host cooling flows in which radiative cooling in the centre causes a slow inflow. However, recent observations by Chandra and XMM conflict with the predicted cooling flow rates. Here we report highly resolved hydrodynamic simulations which show that buoyant bubbles can offset the cooling in the inner regions of clusters and can significantly delay the deposition of cold gas. The subsonic rise of bubbles uplifts colder material from the central regions of the cluster. This colder material appears as bright rims around the bubbles. The bubbles themselves appear as depressions in the X-ray surface brightness as observed in a growing number of clusters.
Comparison of Performance Budget and Traditional Budget
Cong-qin ZENG
Canadian Social Science , 2007,
Abstract: With the development of marketing economy and legal system construction, people are paying more and more attention to the transparency, structure and the effectiveness of government finance. Information supplied by Government Budget Accounting provides the best way according to which people supervise and judge the government’s performance. But current Government Budget Accounting has shortcomings in theory foundation. So it’s very urgent to promote reforms on it. This article mainly introduces the difference between the new performance budget and the traditional budget. Key words: Performance budget, Traditional budget, Comparison Résumé: Avec le développement de l’économie de marché et la construction du système légal, on prête plus d’attention à la transparence, la structure et l’efficacité des finances gouvernementales. Et les informations fournies par la Comptabilité de Budget du Gouvernement sont importantes, car on peut superviser et juger, d’après ces informations, la performance du gouvernement. Mais la Comptabilité de Budget du Gouvernement en cours manifeste des défauts dans la fondation théorique. Donc il est urgent d’effectuer la réforme en ce domaine. L’article présent introduit principalement les différences entre le nouveau budget de performance et le budget traditionnel. Mots-Clés: budget de performance, budget traditionnel, comparaison
Forest reserves on the Italian Alps
Gottardo E,Motta R,Stroppa M
Forest@ , 2006,
Abstract: The conference “The Forest Reserves in the Alps”, organized by the Friuli Venezia Giulia Autonomous Region with the collaboration of SISEF and Pro Silva Italy, has been held in Pordenone last 19th -20th October. A short description of the conference is provided with a wider perspective of the role of the Forest Reserves at regional and national scale.
Optimal Foreign Reserves: The Case of Croatia  [PDF]
Ana Maria ?eh,Ivo Krznar
Financial Theory and Practice , 2008,
Abstract: This paper develops a simple model of precautionary foreign reserves in a dollarized economy subject to a sudden stop shock that occurs concurrently with a bank run. By including specific features of the Croatian economy in our model we extend the framework of Goncalves (2007). An analytical expression of optimal reserves is derived and calibrated for Croatia in order to evaluate the adequacy of the Croatian National Bank foreign reserves. We show that the precautionary demand for reserves is consistent with the trend of the strong accumulation of foreign reserves over the last ten years. Whether this trend has been too strong or whether the actual reserves are lower than the optimal reserves depends on the possible reaction of the parent banks during a crisis. We show that for plausible values of parameters, the Croatian National Bank has enough reserves to fight a possible crisis of the magnitude of the 1998/1999 sudden stop with a banking crisis episode. This result holds regardless of the parent banks’ reaction. We also show how use of the two standard indicators of “optimal” reserves, the Greenspan-Guidotti and the 3-months-of-imports rules, might lead to an unrealistic assessment of foreign reserves optimality in the case of Croatia.
Legal accountability for public school discipline — fact or fiction?
E de Waal
South African Journal of Education , 2011,
Abstract: Educators, learners and parents/caregivers should be held accountable for instilling learner discipline through clear guidelines and limitations to achieve security at public schools. Two previously identified education challenges are sustaining welldisciplined education systems and ensuring that educators are attentive to legal parameters in making decisions and dealing with discipline. This article adds a third challenge: convincing educators, learners and parents/caregivers of their accountability concerning creating/maintaining safe learning environments. Five subordinate legislation documents relevant to legal accountability are scrutinized, as well as relevant case law. The article follows a documentary comparative perspective using a secondary analysis method: appraising legal guidelines and asking questions to draw conclusions and make pragmatic action-oriented suggestions.
Legal accountability for public school discipline: fact or fiction?  [cached]
Elda de Waal
South African Journal of Education , 2011,
Abstract: Educators, learners and parents/caregivers should be held accountable for instilling learner discipline through clear guidelines and limitations to achieve security at public schools. Two previously identified education challenges are sustaining well-disciplined education systems and ensuring that educators are attentive to legal parameters in making decisions and dealing with discipline. This article adds a third challenge: convincing educators, learners and parents/caregivers of their accountability concerning creating/maintaining safe learning environments. Five subordinate legislation documents relevant to legal accountability are scrutinized, as well as relevant case law. The article follows a documentary comparative perspective using a secondary analysis method: appraising legal guidelines and asking questions to draw conclusions and make pragmatic action-oriented suggestions.
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