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Powdery leaf extracts for control of root knot nematode in African yam bean
KI Ugwuoke, BO Ukwueze, SI Ogwulumba
African Crop Science Journal , 2011,
Abstract: Synthetic chemicals have been used to control plant pathogenic nematodes in the farmers fields. These chemicals, though valued for their effectiveness, are costly and may constitute health hazards to farm households and the environment. Reducing these situations in the farms through use of natural plant extracts is one of the challenges in Nigeria. Powdery extracts of Jatropha curcas, Parkia biglobosas, Newbouldia laevis, Ficus exasperata and Cassia alata were evaluated for the control of M. incognita in yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa Hochst ex A. Rich) at the University of Nigeria, Nsukka in Nigeria. Newbouldia laevis extract significantly (P<0.05) controlled the galling of Meloidogyne incognita, while the efficacy of other extracts were insignificant (P >0.05). Newbouldia laevis extract had significant effects on the height of the plant. Significant difference was observed on the plants height. Newbouldia laevis extract reduced the number of galls from 1.89 to 1.18 and increased the height from 106.1 to 213.3 cm and the number of leaves from 59.2 to 69.2 compared with control (water treatment). Cassia alata extract had a significant effect on both leaf numbers and stem height of the plant. It increased the number of the leaves from 59.2 to 81.3 and the height from 196.1 to 201.3 cm, and the number of root gall from 1.89 to 2.49. Key Words: Jatropha curcas, Newbouldia laevis, Meloidogyne incognita
Incorporation of Green Manure Plants into Bean Cropping Systems Contribute to Root-Knot Nematode Suppression  [PDF]
J.W. Kimenju,A.M. Kagundu,J.H. Nderitu,F. Mambala
Asian Journal of Plant Sciences , 2008,
Abstract: Green manure plants were evaluated to determine their suitability as rotation crops with common bean to suppress root-knot (Meloidogyne spp.) nematodes. They were also evaluated as soil amendments in nematode control. The plants were Calliandra calothyrsus, Canavalia ensiformis, Chenopodium quinoa, Crotalaria juncea, Desmodium uncinatum, Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala, Mucuna pruriens, Tephrosia purpurea, Tithonia diversifolia, Vicia villosa, Sesbania sesban and Tagetes minuta. In the glasshouse, pots were filled with steam-sterilized soil and sown with green manure plants. The rotation experiment entailed growing green manure plants for three months before uprooting them and planting beans in the same pots. The potting medium was infested with 6000 eggs/juveniles of Meloidogyne javanica. The field experiments were carried out in microplots infested with a mixture of M. javanica and M. incognita. Damage to bean roots due to root-knot nematodes was based on galling indices while nematode reproductive potential was based on egg mass index. Tithonia diversifolia, D. uncinatum, T. minuta, L. leucocephala and C. juncea were among the most effective in root-knot nematode suppression when used in rotation with beans. Their galling indices ranged between 1.0 and 1.5 under field conditions and were thus considered resistant. Vicia vilosa, T. purpurea and S. sesban were susceptible with galling indices ranging between 6.2 and 7.7. The resistant plants reduced the reproductive potential of Meloidogyne spp. by up to 80% while the susceptible plants caused an increase of up to 600%. Therefore, T. diversifolia, D. uncinartum, T. minuta, L. leucocephala and C. juncea can be recommended for use in fields infested with root-knot nematodes.
Root-Gall Nematode Disease of Pineapple as Affected by Seed Material, Amount and Type of Organic Soil Amendment
C.M. Agu
Plant Sciences Research , 2013,
Abstract: Effects of seed material, amount and type of organic soil amendment on root-gall nematode disease of pineapple were assessed. The study was conducted in a 3 3 3 factorial experiment in randomized complete block design replicated 4 times. Planted pineapple crowns, slips and suckers were treated with 0.00, 1.50 and 3.00 tons ha 1 of poultry manure, sawdust and pigdung. Results showed that plants propagated from pineapple crowns were most susceptible to the disease at 0.00 tons ha 1 of organic soil amendment. The disease however decreased in all the seed materials as rates of the organic soil amendments increased. At 3.00 tons ha 1 of poultry manure application, no root-gall damage occurred in any of the pineapple plants. Highest fresh fruit weight obtained on crown propagated plants occurred at this 3.00 tons ha 1 of poultry manure application.
Yam-based farm practices and nematode problems in stored yams (Dioscorea spp.) in Ghana
CK Kwoseh, RA Plowright, J Bridge, R Asiedu
Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana) , 2005,
Abstract: A survey was made to provide fundamental information on yam-based farm practices, nematode problems and to establish farmers' perceptions of nematode diseases in stored yam tubers in Ghana. Most farmers intercropped yam with a mixture of three to five component crops and milking was practised to provide seed yams. Results showed that farmers could readily identify symptoms of nematode disease and estimated losses from dry rot disease to be about 21% in the forest zone and, 30% in the Guinea- Savannah zone. Even though farmers reported tuber galling in the forest transition, they estimated losses from root knot nematodes to be zero in the Guinea-Savannah. Most farmers had local names for nematode disease and this tends to suggest that farmers perceive nematode disease problem. They used cultural control methods such as selection of clean yam tubers, fallow and use of land not previously cropped to yam to reduce nematode disease spread. Scutellonema bradys was found to be associated with dry rot whilst Meloidogyne incognita was found to cause galling of yam tubers. Pratylenchus coffeae is known to be widespread in Ghana on Musa spp. but it was not encountered in our study. Different yam storage structures were used by farmers and tubers were apparently exposed to conditions that promoted damage by nematodes. Journal of Science and Technology Vol. 25(2) 2005: 35-43
Nematode distribution and damage to yam in central and eastern Uganda
J Mudiope, PR Speder, D Coyne, RN Maslen, E Adipala
African Crop Science Journal , 2007,
Abstract: Yams (Dioscorea spp.) are food crops of growing significance in sub Saharan Africa. Unfortunately, nematodes are major pests to their production. A study was undertaken in major yam growing areas of Uganda to investigate the association of plant parasitic nematodes with damage symptoms. Nematodes were assessed from tubers, roots and surrounding soil for seven cultivars belonging to Dioscorea alata, D. bulbisiana, D. burkilliana and D. cayenensis at harvest. Pratylenchus sudanensis was found in the greatest density and was followed by Meloidogyne spp. Higher densities of both nematodes were observed in the tubers rather than roots. Although symptoms of cracking and galling were relatively low, P. sudanensis incidence was strongly associated with cracking and Meloidogyne spp. with galling. Pratylenchus sudanensis and Meloidogyne spp. incidence their associated damage were, however, negatively correlated, suggesting inter-species competition. Principal components analysis of data suggested that differences in susceptibility to P. sudanensis occur between yam cultivars and species.
Management of crotalaria and pigeon pea for control of yam nematode diseases
Garrido, Marlon da Silva;Soares, Ana Cristina Fechino;Coimbra, Jo?o Luiz;Sousa, Carla da Silva;
Summa Phytopathologica , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-54052008000300003
Abstract: management of plant-parasitic nematodes with the use of nematicides has not been recommended for small farmers that grow yam in the northeastern region of brazil, due to its high cost and residue toxicity. the use of plants with antagonistic effect to nematodes and green manure which improves soil chemical, physical and biological characteristics can be a viable and low cost alternative to control parasitic nematodes. this work aimed to evaluate the effect of crotalaria (crotalaria juncea) and pigeon pea (cajanus cajan) plants on the control of yam nematodes. three experiments were carried out. the first was conducted under in vitro conditions to evaluate the nematostatic and nematicide effect of extracts from fresh and dry matter of the above ground parts of crotalaria, pigeon pea, and the combination of both. the second experiment was carried out under greenhouse conditions to evaluate the effect of soil amendment with crotalaria, pigeon pea, and the combination of both in the infectivity of scutellonema bradys, using tomato plants as the host plant. the third experiment was conducted under field conditions to evaluate the effect of crotalaria, pigeon pea, and the combination of both, cultivated between yam planting rows and incorporated to soil surface, on yam nematodes. the aqueous extract obtained form fresh matter of crotalaria had a nematicide effect of 100% for s. bradys. extracts from dry matter of both crotalaria and pigeon pea did not have any nematicide effect, but had a nematostatic effect. incorporation of crotalaria to soil inhibited infectivity of s. bradys in tomato seedlings. these results showed that planting crotalaria alone or in combination with pigeon pea, between the yam planting rows, is an efficient method for controlling s. bradys and rotylenchulus reniformis associated with yams. crotalaria can be used for controlling these plant-parasitic nematodes in soil.
The Use of Organic Manure in the Management of Plant-Parasitic Nematode in Nigeria  [PDF]
Maina, Y. T.,Mohammed, F. K.,Galadima, I. B.
Journal of Environmental Issues and Agriculture in Developing Countries , 2012,
Abstract: This review focused on the sophisticated methods of controlling nematodes that are out of reach of most farmers. The study which made use of secondary data, primarily evaluated the use of organic manure in the management of plant-parasite nematode in nigeria. The effects of synthetic pesticides misuse around the world include costly environmental pollution and disruption of balance of nature in addition to their high cost and non availability. There is therefore the need to investigate methods which will maximize crops production under the prevailing farming systems suitable to local farmers. Several organic products have been shown to possess nematicidal properties and are available, inexpensive and economical methods of nematode management. As an alternative to chemical control, it has been shown that organic manure can release ammonia, phenols, azadirachtin, selannin, meliantriol and many other substances, which show nematicidal properties. The use of organic manure was found to be easy and economical in controlling plant-parasitic nematodes.
Effects of Bacterial Strains and Chicken Manure on Orobanche crenata Infesting Faba Bean
Mohammed Mahgoub Hassan,Awad Galal Osman,Samia Osman Yagoub,Ashraf Mohamed Sherif,Ahmed ME Rugheim,Ibrarhim Saeed Mohamed,Migdam El Sheik Abdel Gani,Abdel Gabar El Tayeb Babiker
Agricultural Journal , 2013, DOI: 10.3923/aj.2012.122.127
Abstract: A pot experiment was conducted to assess the effect of bacterial strains and chicken manure on broomrape in faba bean. Results displayed that all treatments reduced Orobanche emergence except the combinations of Rhizobial bacterial strain TAL 1399 and composted chicken manure at 35 g pot-1. Among all treatments faba bean inoculated with TAL 1399 alone or in combinations with Bacillus megatherium var Phosphaticum (BMP) or Azospirillum braziliense (Ab) plus chicken manure at 35 g pot-1 displayed no Orobanche emergence (above the ground) until the end of the experiment. However, Orobanche attachment was observed only when faba bean was inoculated with TAL 1399 plus BMP. Moreover, all treatments increased faba bean plant height and dry matter as compared to the control. Faba bean inoculated with bacterial strain TAL 1399 alone or in combination with chicken manure at 30 g pot-1 sustained the highest plant height as compared to infested or non-infested control. They increased faba bean height by 17-19%. Furthermore, crop treated with TAL 1399 plus chicken manure at 30 g pot-1 was significantly higher in root, shoot and total dry weight as compared to the control and other treatments.
Effects of Intercropping on Root-Gall Nematode Disease on Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merril)
C.M. Agu
Plant Sciences Research , 2013,
Abstract: Six intercrops (maize, melon, okra, Telfairia, Amaranthus and pepper) were tested for control of root-gall nematode disease on soybean in a loamy sand soil naturally infested with Meloidogyne javanica. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design replicated four times. Results based on root-gall indices and number of Juveniles (J2) recovered from roots and rhizospheric soil showed that intercropping soybean with Telfairia, pepper and Amaranthus effectively suppressed infection on soybean roots. Okra, maize and melon intercropped with the soybean aggravated root-gall damage and caused yield reductions.
Studies on effects of mineral fertilizer, organic manure and cultivar on the yield and storability of yam (Dioscorea rotundata Poir)
S.C Eze, G.C Orkwo
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development , 2010,
Abstract: Yam is an important staple food crop in the humid and sub-humid tropics. Despite inadequacies in supply and availability of fertilizer to boost yam production in Nigeria, there have been reports and arguments that yams grown with chemical fertilizer are susceptible to pathological deterioration in storage while those grown with organic manure store better and have longer shelf life. Therefore, two experiments were conducted to investigate this controversy. The first field experiments tested the responses of five yam cultivars; Amula, Nwaopoko, Ezakwukpolo Danacha and Pepa to fertilizer and organic manure treatments. Statistical differences were not detected in all cases of manuring treatment although tuber yield appeared less where no fertilizer or organic manure was applied. While organic manure appeared to have a better effect on tuber yield with Danacha, NPK fertilizer had better yield effect with Ezakwukpolo, Amula and Pepa. The second experiment tested the effect of manuring treatments on the storage life of the five yam cultivars. Dormancy period was extended in Nwaopoko cultivar when organic manure was used than when no manuring or NPK fertilizer was applied. Tuber weight loss varied significantly among cultivars with different treatments. Rotting was significantly higher in Amula with the application of NPK fertilizer compared with Danacha, Nwaopoko, Ezakwukpolo and Pepa. The combined effects of cultivar and manuring treatments on rotting incidence varied with cultivar type. For example, Amula cultivar had the highest rotting incidence with or without manuring treatments, whereas Danacha and Ezakwukpolo had statistically similar rotting incidence with any of the manuring treatments. In conclusion, evidences in this study show that post harvest losses of yam are, in part due to field management but mostly dependent on species and cultivars. Nwaopoko and Danacha cultivars had better keeping qualities than all other cultivars tested with or without manuring treatment. It is recommended that plant breeders should use the traits in these two cultivars to improve others.
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