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MONITORING OFF-SHORE OUTSOURCING PROJECTS FOR DISTANCE LEARNING MATERIAL DEVELOPMENT  [PDF]
Bong Chin WEI
The Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education , 2009,
Abstract: In the world of “borderless education”, off-shore outsourcing of learning resources becomes the norm practised by universities worldwide, especially for a newly start-up institution such as the Wawasan Open University (WOU). For the past 3 years of experience in learning resources development, the WOU has encountered various issues such as managing of writers in distant locations, meeting deadlines, training of writers in distant locations, keeping the cost down, copyright issues, quality control, and cultural differences/localisation of context. In overcoming some of these issues, the WOU has adopted an effective monitoring mechanism to enable the success of this key activity in the university. Since its inception in year 2006 until early 2008, the institution has successfully outsourced about fifty course materials off-shore and locally. This paper first introduces the outsourcing process in WOU followed by some of the issues faced by the university while working with the offshore writers and the adaptation of course materials. Subsequently, details of the monitoring mechanism used in the outsourcing process will be explained. Lastly, this paper also presents WOU’s future direction in this perspective.
Temporal variations in community structure in and around intertidal barnacle (Chthamalus challengeri Hoek) patches on a plebby shore in Japan
APOLINáRIO, M.;
Revista Brasileira de Biologia , 1999, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-71081999000100006
Abstract: the community structure in and around two barnacle (chthamalus challengeri hoek) patches (sites a and b) which extended from the middle to the upper intertidal zone on a pebbly shore in magarisaki (amakusa, kyushu, japan), was studied during summer and winter of 1995 and 1996. the results show a significant decrease in the proportion of substrate covered by barnacles from january 1995 to july 1996. the number of species, number of individuals, and biomass also decreased in the patch areas through time. there were significant differences between inside and outside the patches for percentage of substrate covered by barnacles, number of individuals, number of species, and biomass during the first year. numbers of some gastropods were significantly higher in the barnacle patches, suggesting that the presence of barnacles create favorable microhabitat for the other taxa.
Temporal variations in community structure in and around intertidal barnacle (Chthamalus challengeri Hoek) patches on a plebby shore in Japan
APOLINáRIO M.
Revista Brasileira de Biologia , 1999,
Abstract: The community structure in and around two barnacle (Chthamalus challengeri Hoek) patches (sites A and B) which extended from the middle to the upper intertidal zone on a pebbly shore in Magarisaki (Amakusa, Kyushu, Japan), was studied during summer and winter of 1995 and 1996. The results show a significant decrease in the proportion of substrate covered by barnacles from January 1995 to July 1996. The number of species, number of individuals, and biomass also decreased in the patch areas through time. There were significant differences between inside and outside the patches for percentage of substrate covered by barnacles, number of individuals, number of species, and biomass during the first year. Numbers of some gastropods were significantly higher in the barnacle patches, suggesting that the presence of barnacles create favorable microhabitat for the other taxa.
Geographical structures and the cholera epidemic in modern Japan: Fukushima prefecture in 1882 and 1895
Chun-Lin Kuo, Hiromichi Fukui
International Journal of Health Geographics , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1476-072x-6-25
Abstract: Changes in diffusion patterns between 1882 and 1895 reflect improvements in the Fukushima transportation system and growth in social-economic networks. The data reveal different diffusion systems in separate regions in which residents of Fukushima and neighboring prefectures interacted. Our model also shows that an area in the prefecture's northern interior was dominated by a mix of diffusion processes (contagious and hierarchical), that the southern coastal region was affected by a contagious process, and that other infected areas experienced relocation diffusion.In addition to enhancing our understanding of epidemics, the spatial-temporal patterns of cholera diffusion offer opportunities for studying regional change in modern Japan. By highlighting the dynamics of regional reorganization, our findings can be used to better understand the formation of an urban hierarchy in late nineteenth century Japan.Researchers from different disciplines are showing a growing interest in disease and its geographical effects, with studies focusing on the value of detecting spatial concentrations of disease, isolating processes that result in disease hot-spots, and analyzing the space-time dynamics of disease diffusion. A strong example of recent advancements in this area is [2] work on the geographical structures of international epidemics, resulting in models of how epidemic diffusions move through communities, regions and countries. The term geographical structures refers to the patterns and features of human-environment interactions in specific locations. In medical geography, studies of the geographical structures of disease emphasize diffusion and analyses of individual disease factors [8].Regarding cholera, the most serious global epidemic in the nineteenth century, several research teams have gathered evidence showing that its diffusion was dominated by geographic factors (see, for example, [3-6]). Since diffusion primarily occurs via survivors who transport a disease from
Geographical Assessment of Factors for Sasa Expansion in the Sarobetsu Mire, Japan
Masayuki Takada, Takashi Inoue, Yoshio Mishima, Hiroko Fujita, Takashi Hirano, Yoshiyasu Fujimura
Journal of Landscape Ecology , 2012, DOI: 10.2478/v10285-012-0049-5
Abstract: To determine the factors that promote the expansion of dwarf bamboo (Sasa palmate), an indicator of mesic vegetation, into bogs, a landscape-based approach was used to assess the geographical factors that are associated with, and contribute to, the propagation of Sasa in the Sarobetsu Mire, northern Japan. Using the "Sasa frontline" data obtained from aerial photographs taken during 2 different periods, the area expanded by Sasa in the past 23 years was determined. Next, distribution maps associated with geographical parameters, such as topography, hydrology, vegetation and soil, were created using remote sensing data (airborne LiDAR, ALOS/AVNIR-2, and ALOS/PALSAR). Using these geographical parameters as explanatory variables, the causes for Sasa expansion were analyzed by multiple linear regression analysis. It was shown that distance to natural ditches, gradient of ground surface, elevation, and carbon content are the largest contributors and that the hydrological factor is the one most associated with Sasa expansion. By using the landscape approach, 60% of the Sasa expansion factors could be explained. The analysis of the vegetation near the Sasa frontlines showed that the dynamics of sedge vegetation may serve as an indicator of potential Sasa expansion.
The role of pre-recruitment processes in the maintenance of a barnacle (Chthamalus challengeri Hoek) patch on an intertidal pebble shore in Japan
APOLINáRIO, M.;
Revista Brasileira de Biologia , 1999, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-71081999000200007
Abstract: to understand the role of pre-recruitment processes (supply of larvae and recruitment) in the maintenance of an intertidal barnacle (chthamalus challengeri hoek) patch, the availability of cyprid larvae and the recruitment on natural pebble substrata was monitored on the magarisaki pebble shore (amakusa, kyushu, japan) during 1995 and 1996. also, a hypothesis that predation and/or bulldozing by mobile intertidal mollusks during the post-recruitment period could be an important factor in mortality of these barnacles was tested. the collapse of the adult population and the consequent disappearance of the patch were observed by the middle of 1995. the larval availability was low (@ 6 cyprid larvae/100 l), as was the recruitment (@ 30 recruits/25 cm2). the recruits experienced high mortality, preventing them becoming adults able to maintain the patch. in 1996, a similar pattern of availability of the cyprid larvae, and even lower recruitment occurring only at the upper intertidal level was observed. a mobile mollusks exclusion experiment failed to detect any significant differences among the treatments, supporting the null hypothesis that the observed pattern of distribution was not caused by predation by mobile mollusks. there is my suggestion that the low availability of larvae and the low level of recruitment caused the non-maintenance of the patch.
The role of pre-recruitment processes in the maintenance of a barnacle (Chthamalus challengeri Hoek) patch on an intertidal pebble shore in Japan
APOLINáRIO M.
Revista Brasileira de Biologia , 1999,
Abstract: To understand the role of pre-recruitment processes (supply of larvae and recruitment) in the maintenance of an intertidal barnacle (Chthamalus challengeri Hoek) patch, the availability of cyprid larvae and the recruitment on natural pebble substrata was monitored on the Magarisaki pebble shore (Amakusa, Kyushu, Japan) during 1995 and 1996. Also, a hypothesis that predation and/or bulldozing by mobile intertidal mollusks during the post-recruitment period could be an important factor in mortality of these barnacles was tested. The collapse of the adult population and the consequent disappearance of the patch were observed by the middle of 1995. The larval availability was low (@ 6 cyprid larvae/100 l), as was the recruitment (@ 30 recruits/25 cm2). The recruits experienced high mortality, preventing them becoming adults able to maintain the patch. In 1996, a similar pattern of availability of the cyprid larvae, and even lower recruitment occurring only at the upper intertidal level was observed. A mobile mollusks exclusion experiment failed to detect any significant differences among the treatments, supporting the null hypothesis that the observed pattern of distribution was not caused by predation by mobile mollusks. There is my suggestion that the low availability of larvae and the low level of recruitment caused the non-maintenance of the patch.
Geographical distribution for malignant neoplasm of the pancreas in relation to selected climatic factors in Japan
Setsuko Kinoshita, Yukiko Wagatsuma, Masafumi Okada
International Journal of Health Geographics , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1476-072x-6-34
Abstract: The study used multiple linear regression models. Number of deaths and demographic data from 1998 to 2002 were used for the calculation of SMR. We employed mesh climatic data for Japan published in 2006 by the Japan Meteorological Agency. Regression coefficients for the amount of global solar radiation and the daily maximum temperature in males were -4.35 (p = 0.00034) and -2.81 (p < 0.0001) respectively, and those in females were -5.02 (p < 0.0001) and -1.87 (p < 0.0001) respectively. Increased amount of global solar radiation or daily maximum temperature was significantly related to the decreased SMRs for malignant neoplasm of the pancreas in both males and females.This study suggested that low solar radiation and low temperature might relate to the increasing risk of malignant neoplasm of the pancreas. Use of group data has a limitation in the case of evaluating environmental factors affecting health, since the impact of climatic factors on the human body varies according to individual lifestyles and occupations. Use of geographical mesh climatic data, however, proved useful as an index of risk or beneficial factors in a small study area. Further research using individual data is necessary to elucidate the relationship between climatic factors and the development of malignant neoplasm of the pancreas.Malignant neoplasm of the pancreas is associated with a high fatality rate and has become one of the leading causes of death from malignant neoplasm in Japan [1]. Elderly persons who were born during the period 1890–1930 (birth cohort for the beginning of the 20th century) have a higher risk than younger generations. Although the age effect increases similarly for both sexes, the cohort effect is higher in males than in females [2]. The incidence of malignant neoplasm of the pancreas and associated mortality are almost equal due to poor prognosis [3]. Although certain dietary factors such as cholesterol, fat, alcohol and coffee were suspected risk factors [4], recent
Mathematical modelling of gidrolitodinamic mode of off-shore area for reconstruction of seashore embankment in Sochi  [PDF]
Konstantin N. Makarov,Irina L. Makarova
European Researcher , 2011,
Abstract: The mathematical design of gidrolitodinamic processes is examined in an off-shore area exterminating for a project of the reconstructions of the Seashore embankment in town of Sochi.
Qualifying the Boom-Bust Paradigm: An Examination of the Off-Shore Oil and Gas Industry  [PDF]
Timothy C. Brown, William B. Bankston, Craig J. Forsyth, Emily R. Berthelot
Sociology Mind (SM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/sm.2011.13012
Abstract: The oil industry is seen as being similar to other mining activities in having a cycle of expansion and subsequent contraction. Previous literature suggests this cycle leads to boomtown communities. Furthermore, the oil and gas industry is often seen as a having primarily negative social effects on the communities it invades. The present research takes an in-depth look at the small South Louisiana community of St. Mary Parish; an area with eco-nomic roots in such extraction enterprises as lumber, fishing and later, oil. Positive attributes of the presence of the oil and gas industry are identified, namely-sustainability and increased life chances of local residents. Due to methodological limitations previous research might have been unable to holistically view the off-shore oil in-dustries impacts on communities. This paper concludes that the paradigmatic usage of the NEPA boomtown model is inapt for the study of the Gulf off-shore oil industry.
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