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Eimeriosis in bactrian and dromedary camels in the Miandoab region, Iran
Yakhchalim M.,Cheraghi E.
Acta Veterinaria , 2007, DOI: 10.2298/avb0706545y
Abstract: An investigatin into eimeriosis of camels was carried out in two camel-raising areas of Miandoab region, Iran, to determine the frequency and diversity of Eimeria species. Bactrian camels (n=85) and dromedary camels (n=40) which were from one to four years old were subjected to examination. Fecal samples were collected and the flotation technique was carried out to demonstrate the presence of oocysts and sporulation of oocysts. The overall prevalence was 12.8%. Five Eimeria species were identified in both camels: the highest rate belonged to the E. bactriani (42.2%), followed by E. rajasthani (only in dromedary camels, 26.7%), E. pellerdyi (only in bactrian camels, 15.6%), E. cameli (11.1%) and E. dromedarii (4.4.%). All 12.8% of infected camels had mixed infections with at least three species. Feces consistency and infection intensity had a significant correlation with age (P<0.01). The sex and age of the camels had a significant effect on prevalence (P<0.01). These findings may be useful to evaluate the infection potential when considering control programs, specially for young camels.
Haematological and biochemical alterations caused by epidural and intramuscular administration of xylazine hydrochloride in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius)
Omid Azari,Mohammad Mahdi Molaei,Ladan Emadi,Ehsanollah Sakhaee
Veterinaria Italiana , 2012,
Abstract: This study was conducted in 16 healthy immature dromedary camels weighing 120-150 kg to evaluate and compare the effects of epidural and intramuscular injections of xylazine administered at 0.1 mg/kg and 0.2 mg/kg. Haematological parameters included haemoglobin, packed cell volume, total erythrocyte count and total leukocyte count. Biochemical parameters included alkaline phosphates, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine and glucose. Parameters were measured at different intervals before (baseline) and after the administration of drugs. Our study showed that the effect of xylazine on haematological and biochemical parameters is dose-dependant and is also related to the route of administration. The low dose of xylazine administered using both intramuscular and epidural methods showed minimal effects, whereas high doses of the drug, especially when injected intramuscularly, caused greater changes in haematological and biochemical parameters.
Studies on Serum Haemolytic Complement and Haematological Parameters in Apparently Healthy Dromedary Camels (Camelus Dromedarius) in Northern Nigeria
HA Kumshe, AW Mbaya, YA Geidam, YM Bukar-Kolo, YA Adamu, UA Turaki
Nigerian Veterinary Journal , 2010,
Abstract: Studies on serum haemolytic compliment and haematological parameters in 330 apparently healthy dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) were conducted in northern, Nigeria. The survey was conducted in the abattoirs of three major northern cities of Maiduguri, Kano and Sokoto. The parameters measured using standard procedures were complement level via the classical pathway (CH ), packed cell volume (PCV), red blood cell 50 (RBC) and white blood cell counts (WBC). Mean CH units in 50 the camels investigated was 360 ± 15.8. In addition, PCV 12 (32.9 ± 1.5), total RBC (10.2 x 10 /L ± 1.2) and WBC (7.2 x 109 ± 1.3) values were obtained. There was no significant (p>0.05) differences between sexes and ages in all the parameters studied. The result obtained can be used as preliminary data in the investigation of the role of complement and blood cells in some immune mediated parasitic, bacterial and viral diseases of the dromedary camel in the study area.
Could Dromedary Camels Develop Stereotypy? The First Description of Stereotypical Behaviour in Housed Male Dromedary Camels and How It Is Affected by Different Management Systems  [PDF]
Barbara Padalino, Lydiane Aubé, Meriem Fatnassi, Davide Monaco, Touhami Khorchani, Mohamed Hammadi, Giovanni Michele Lacalandra
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0089093
Abstract: Dromedary camel husbandry has recently been evolving towards a semi-intensive system, due to the changes in use of the animal and the settlement of nomadic populations. Captivity could restrict its social activities, limiting the expression of various behavioural needs and causing the manifestation of stereotypy. The aims of this trial were, firstly, to identify and describe some stereotypical behaviours in captive male dromedary camels used for artificial insemination and, secondly, to study the effects on them of the following husbandry management systems: i) housing in single boxes for 24 hours (H24), ii) housing in single boxes for 23 hours with one hour free in the paddock (H23), and iii) housing in single boxes for 22 hours 30 min with 1 h of paddock time and 30 min exposure to a female camel herd (ExF). Every day, the camels were filmed in their single box in the morning for 30 minutes to record their behavioural activities and a focal animal sampling ethogram was filled in. In this study, male camels showed both oral and locomotor stereotypy most frequently when the bulls were reared in H24. Overall, this preliminary study is a starting point in the identification of stereotypies in male camels, reporting the positive effects of spending one hour outdoor and of social interaction with females.
Serobiochemical Alterations in Subclinically Affected Dromedary Camels with Trypanosoma Evansi in Iran  [PDF]
Ali Reza Sazmand, Aria Rasooli?1, Mohammad Nouri1, Hosein Hamidinejat2 and Seyyed Hosein Moghaddam Hekmati3
Pakistan Veterinary Journal , 2011,
Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of subclinical Trypanosoma evansi infection on serum biochemical parameters of dromedary camels. Jugular vein blood samples were taken weekly for three successive weeks from 110 apparently healthy male camels and examined for the presence of trypomastigote form of T. evansi in blood smears. The parasite was seen in 17 (15.45%) blood smears. Various serum biochemical parameters i.e., glucose, urea, cholesterol, triglyceride, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, phosphorus, total protein, albumin, triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), cortisol, and activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK) were determined. Infected camels had significantly lower serum glucose, T3 and T4 concentrations (P<0.05), and significantly higher triglycerides concentration and ALT activity (P<0.05). It was concluded that subclinical infection of camels with T. evansi can also affect some biochemical parameters.
Metabolite Composition Variations of Follicular Fluid and Blood Serum in Iranian Dromedary Camels During the Peak Breeding Season
H. Albomohsen,M. Mamouei,S. Tabatabaei,J. Fayazi
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/javaa.2011.327.331
Abstract: Metabolic changes in blood serum may be reflected in the biochemical composition of follicular fluid and can be indirectly influenced oocyte quality. The purpose of this study was to investigation metabolite composition variations of follicular fluid and blood serum in Iranian dromedary camels during the peak breeding season (October-march). Following slaughter, blood samples were collected from 50 female camels and follicular fluid aspirated from small (5-9 mm) and large (10-20 mm) follicles were analyzed for various metabolite concentrations, using the commercial kits.
Milk Composition of Dromedary Camels (Camelus dromedarius): Nutritional Effects and Correlation to Corresponding Blood Parameters  [PDF]
Khalid A. Abdoun,Alia S.A. Amin,Abdalla M. Abdelatif
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: This study has been conducted in order to study the possible correlations between the nutritional value of plants selected by camels during the dry and green season and the corresponding blood and milk composition of the dromedary camels. The study has been conducted on 50 indigenous Arabian camels of different age and kept under natural range in Southern Darfur. The dromedary camels selected plants with significantly (p<0.05) higher crude protein content during the dry season and kept the serum albumin concentration and milk protein content at the same levels as those observed during the green season. However, the significantly (p<0.05) higher lipogenic content (ether extract + crude fiber) of the plant selected during the dry season resulted in significantly (p<0.05) higher serum triacylglycerides concentration and significantly (p<0.05) higher milk fat content compared to that of the green season. Although, the camels selected plants with significantly (p<0.05) higher nitrogen free extract content during the dry season, the plasma glucose level and the milk lactose content were significantly (p<0.05) reduced compared to that of the green season. The significantly (p<0.05) lower ach content of the plants selected during the dry season resulted in significantly lower serum calcium + phosphorus concentration, but did not reflect on the ash content of the milk. The results indicate that despite camels selectivity and unique adaptation to arid conditions, the milk lactose-and fat content were affected by the nutritional scarcity during the dry season. Therefore, it could be beneficial to provide energy-rich feed supplemented with calcium and phosphorus to camels kept under dry tropical conditions.
Effect of Palm Oil Supplementation on the Milk Yield and Composition of Dromedary She Camels
Soliman N. Al-Dobaib
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2009,
Abstract: Three diets were formulated according to percentage of palm oil added (C, control 0%; D1, 1.5%; D2, 3%) and offered to nine adult milking she camels. Camels were randomly allotted into three diets (3 animals each) and each diet shifted in three periods. Each period was splitted into 2 weeks for acclimatization and 2 weeks for data collection. Camels were machine milked twice a day (morning and afternoon). Animals were individually fed since feed and water were offered as free choice. Daily feed intake, milk yield and milk chemical composition were recorded. Obtained results showed significant effect of diets on daily feed consumption and daily milk yield. Adding palm oil in the diet resulted in a significant decrease in feed consumption (8.79, 7.94 and 7.05 kg/day for C, D1 and D2, respectively). Likewise, daily milk yield decreased significantly in treated females (2.89, 2.79, 2.46 kg/day for C, D1 and D2, respectively). Supplementing diets with palm oil at 1.5 and 3% didn't affect milk composition (total solids, moisture, solid not fat, ash, fat, protein and lactose). Although, slight, but not significant increases in percent of milk fat (2.82, 3.02 and 3.01% for C, D1 and D2 respectively) were obtained, animals exhibited significant individual variations in milk composition. Addition of palm oil didn't significantly influence milk calcium, sodium, potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, ferrous, manganese, zinc and sulphur. However, copper increased at D2 diet (4.76 ppm) than at control and D1 (3.04 and 3.31 ppm, respectively). It can be concluded that supplementing diets of milking she-camels with palm oil at the tested levels in this study caused a reduction in feed intake and milk yield but did not affect their milk composition except for a significant increase in the concentration of copper in camels that received 3% palm oil.
Serum testosterone and progesterone levels and ovarian activity as indicators for seasonal breeding in dromedary camels in Sudan  [PDF]
Babiker, E. A,,Ahmed, A. I,,Husna M. E,Abdel-Aziz B. E
Research Opinions in Animal & Veterinary Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: The present work was done to investigate the effect of season on level of testosterone, progesterone hormone and ovarian activity in Arabian dromedary camels. Over a period of one year (July 2009–June 2010), jugular blood samples were collected monthly from 7 mature male camels and 12 females at late pregnancy to detect the levels of testosterone and progesterone hormones. A total of 900 ovarian follicles were measured in the slaughterhouses of Tamboul and Um-Elgura to define the effect of season on ovarian activity. The obtained results showed that plasma testosterone levels greatly varied among months of the year. It increased during July and August and decreased during the period from September to February. The level started to increase again during March and remained high until the end of the study in June. Plasma progesterone level was high during July, while it dropped at parturition during August. The level of progesterone remained low during the period from September to February, before it started to rise again in March and remained high until the end of the study in June. The rise of progesterone level in females coincided with the rise of testosterone in males. Ovarian activity was observed throughout the different seasons with a maximum activity during autumn. According to the hormonal findings and ovarian activity, there is a clear breeding season in Arabian dromedary camel in the Butana area, northeast of Sudan extending throughout summer (March – June) and autumn (July–October).
Effects of Production System, Breed, Parity and Stage of Lactation on Milk Composition of Dromedary Camels in Saudi Arabia
Riyadh S. Aljumaah,Faris F. Almutairi,Elsayed Ismail,Mohammad A. Alshaikh,Ahmad Sami,Moez Ayadi
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/javaa.2012.141.147
Abstract: The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of production system, breed, parity and stage of lactation on milk composition of dromedary camel. Samples of camel milk were collected from 191 healthy she-camels from four different indigenous breeds (Majahiem, Maghatier, Shoal and Soffer). Milk samples from each quarter were collected during the afternoon milking and California Mastitis Test (CMT) was used as an indirect measure of the health status of the udder quarter. The highest significant concentrations of protein, lactose and Solid None Fat (SNF) were recorded for the seminomadic system and Soffer breed. Moreover, the mean fat, protein, lactose and SNF values were significantly the highest during the first stage of lactation. Protein, lactose and SNF values were gradually decreased by the subsequent parity. Settled system and Shoal breed had the significant high content of fat compared to their counterparts. However, insignificant differences in fat percentage during parity were observed. Fat content was significantly high at the first stage of lactation in comparison with the second and third ones. Seminomadic system and in Maghatier breed significantly increased the Ca++ and K+ values compared to their counterparts. The Na:K ratio was also affected by production system. The results indicated that variations in camel milk composition were mainly attributed to factors such as production system, breed, parity and stage of lactation. Therefore, those factors should be taken into account when nutritional and technological aspects of camel milk need to be evaluated.
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