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Energy Efficient Hybrid Dual Axis Solar Tracking System  [PDF]
Rashid Ahammed Ferdaus,Mahir Asif Mohammed,Sanzidur Rahman,Sayedus Salehin,Mohammad Abdul Mannan
Journal of Renewable Energy , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/629717
Abstract: This paper describes the design and implementation of an energy efficient solar tracking system from a normal mechanical single axis to a hybrid dual axis. For optimizing the solar tracking mechanism electromechanical systems were evolved through implementation of different evolutional algorithms and methodologies. To present the tracker, a hybrid dual-axis solar tracking system is designed, built, and tested based on both the solar map and light sensor based continuous tracking mechanism. These light sensors also compare the darkness and cloudy and sunny conditions assisting daily tracking. The designed tracker can track sun’s apparent position at different months and seasons; thereby the electrical controlling device requires a real time clock device for guiding the tracking system in seeking solar position for the seasonal motion. So the combination of both of these tracking mechanisms made the designed tracker a hybrid one. The power gain and system power consumption are compared with a static and continuous dual axis solar tracking system. It is found that power gain of hybrid dual axis solar tracking system is almost equal to continuous dual axis solar tracking system, whereas the power saved in system operation by the hybrid tracker is 44.44% compared to the continuous tracking system. 1. Introduction During the last few years the renewable energy sources like solar energy have gained much importance in all over the world. Different types of renewable or green energy resources like hydropower, wind power, and biomass energy are currently being utilized for the supply of energy demand. Among the conventional renewable energy sources, solar energy is the most essential and prerequisite resource of sustainable energy [1, 2]. Solar energy refers to the conversion of the sun’s rays into useful forms of energy, such as electricity or heat. A photovoltaic cell, commonly called a solar cell or PV, is the technology used to convert solar energy directly into electrical power. The physics of the PV cell (solar cell) is very similar to the classical p-n junction diode. Sunlight is composed of photons or particles of solar energy. Semiconductor materials within the PV cell absorb sunlight which knocks electrons from their atoms, allowing electrons to flow through the material to produce electricity [3, 4]. Because of its cleanliness, ubiquity, abundance, and sustainability, solar energy has become well recognized and widely utilized [5]. Different researches estimate that covering 0.16% of the land on earth with 10% efficient solar conversion systems would
Hybrid Solar and Wind Off-Grid System - Design and Control
Prasad GVT,,Srinivasan S,Sriram V
International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology , 2010,
Abstract: This paper is aimed to improve the efficiency of a hybrid solar and windmill system by altering the design parameters. A complete prototype model has been designed and tested based on the altered features. In the designed model, solar PV module along with a wind turbine, the small prototype created powers a load of capacity 120 Watts. The design implementation consists of adding reflectors to the photovoltaic panel along with a dedicated sun tracking system. Further, a wind sensor detects the maximum wind flow direction to guide the windmill with plastic finished edges to improve the overall efficiency. The hybrid setup could be operated in manual and automatic modes. The former mode consists of a RF transmitter and receiver setup and the latter is effectively controlled by means of a microcontroller-AT Mega 162V. The entire setup can be extended forlarger loads in order to electrify remote and inaccessible areas. Further, the project can be implemented in industrial and domestic sectors on a larger scale.
Automatic detection and tracking of filaments for a solar feature database
J. Aboudarham, I. Scholl, N. Fuller, M. Fouesneau, M. Galametz, F. Gonon, A. Maire,Y. Leroy
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO) , 2008,
Abstract: A new method for the automatic detection and tracking of solar filaments is presented. The method addresses the problems facing existing catalogs, such as the one developed recently in the frame of the European Grid of Solar Observations (EGSO) project. In particular, it takes into account the structural and temporal evolution of filaments, differences in intensity as seen from one observation to the next, and the possibility of sudden disappearance followed by reappearance. In this study, the problem of tracking is solved by plotting all detected filaments during each solar rotation on a Carrington map and then by applying region growing techniques on those plots. Using this approach, the "fixed" positions of the envelopes in the Carrington system can be deduced. This is followed by a backward tracking of each filament by considering one full solar rotation. The resulting shifted Carrington map then enables one to follow any filament from one rotation to the next. Such maps should prove valuable for studies of the role of filaments in solar activity, notably coronal mass ejections (CMEs).
Sustainable Solar-wind Hybrid Power Plant for Implementation in Malaysia  [PDF]
Yiew De An,Balbir Singh Mahinder Singh
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: , such as solar positioning, PV operating temperatures, PV efficiency, solar irradiance and operating locations that affect solar power output of PV arrays and comprehensive sizing data for local implementation, while at the same time, addressing issues pertaining to reliability and sustainability of existing standalone solar power plants.
International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology , 2010,
Abstract: This paper demonstrates the implementation of a prototype of IPS (instant power supply) system to ensure continuous output current to load in residential application utilizing both Photovoltaic (PV) energy and AC Grid. Utility interfacing PWM inverter designed here to operate by both solar energy and storage batteries that highly satisfies the necessity in rural areas where National Grids are hardly available and power cut problem reduces the effectiveness of IPS. Solar energy gets priority here to charge storage battery rather than AC source that may save hundreds of mega watts power every day. To extend the battery lifetime and keep system components hazard-free, it includes exact battery-level sensing, charging- urrent controlling by microcontroller unit (MCU) and a cumulative DC/AC MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracking) charging to congregatemaximum PV energy from AC Solar Modules. Investigation on improvement of power-interfacing control and optimization of overall system operation assent to intend usage recommendation in this exposition. Computer simulations and experiment results show the validity of this proposed system to have high power conversion efficiency and low harmonic distortions.
Simple DSP Implementation of Maximum Power Pointer Tracking and Inverter Control for Solar Energy Applications  [PDF]
Woonki Na, Thomas Carley, Luke Ketcham, Brendan Zimmer, Pengyuan Chen
Journal of Power and Energy Engineering (JPEE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jpee.2016.49006
Abstract: In this paper, a simple Digital Signal Processor (DSP) based Maximum Power Pointer Tracking (MPPT) control and Inverter Control is presented for solar energy applications, especially photovoltaic and wind energy systems. The proposed MPPT controlled boost converter is able to reduce the inrush current and the overshoot of the output voltage of the system. Details of the proposed Maltab-Simulink based MPPT and Inverter Control are shown and implemented using a DSP. The proposed system is analyzed and simulated for verification. To validate the system, a 100 W prototype test-bed is built and tested. The results show that the proposed system can be applicable for solar energy applications.
Automatic tracking of protein vesicles  [PDF]
Min Xu
Quantitative Biology , 2015,
Abstract: With the advance of fluorescence imaging technologies, recently cell biologists are able to record the movement of protein vesicles within a living cell. Automatic tracking of the movements of these vesicles become key for qualitative analysis of dynamics of theses vesicles. In this thesis, we formulate such tracking problem as video object tracking problem, and design a dynamic programming method for tracking single object. Our experiments on simulation data show that the method can identify a track with high accuracy which is robust to the choose of tracking parameters and presence of high level noise. We then extend this method to the tracking multiple objects using the track elimination strategy. In multiple object tracking, the above approach often fails to correctly identify a track when two tracks cross. We solve this problem by incorporating the Kalman filter into the dynamic programming framework. Our experiments on simulated data show that the tracking accuracy is significantly improved.
Speed Control of Induction Motor Drives Using a New Robust Hybrid Model Reference Adaptive Controller  [PDF]
K. Halbaoui,D. Boukhetala,F. Boudjema
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2009,
Abstract: This study presents a new robust structure for a Model Reference Adaptive Control (MRAC) using a hybrid approach to control the speed of an Induction Motor (IM). The main concept of the proposed philosophy is to ensure automatic change of the controller by means of logic-based switching so that they correspond to the current plant environment and provide an appropriate control action to improve the overall control system performance. This structure simplifies the design and implementation of the adaptive controller requiring less effort to synthesis than a standard MRAC system. The importance of the hybrid controller is demonstrated through computer simulation and by intensive experimental results. It is shown that the presented Hybrid Mode Reference Adaptive Control (HMRAC) for IM drive has fast tracking capability, less steady state error and is robust to load disturbance.
The Research and Implementation of Semantic Video Objects by User Interaction and Automatic Objects Tracking

HAN Jun,XIONG Zhang,HOU Ya rong,PU Ju hua,

中国图象图形学报 , 2003,
Abstract: In order to support content based functions in the visual standard of MPEG 4, each frame of video sequences should be represented in terms of video object planes(VOP's).Segmentation and tracking of video moving objects are used for guiding the extraction of video object plane from video sequences. Interactive video objects segmentation is a good trade off between efficiency and robustness. The proposed method comprises user interaction and automatic objects tracking of semantic video objects. First, the semantic video objects boundary can be found by using a combination of human assistance and a morphological segmentation tool, Accurate of video object boundary is effectively increased by updating contour tracking method . Second, the semantic video objects in the remaining frames are obtained using affine motion estimation and compensation of the previous semantic video objects.six parameter motion vector is estimated on the basis of estimation of two parameter translational motion vector. Experimental results demonstrate that this method is effective to segment and track video semantic objects.
International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology , 2012,
Abstract: The depleting fossil fuel reserves and increasing concern towards global warming have created the need to surge for the alternative power generation options. Renewable energy sources like Wind, Solar-PV, Biomass and fuel cells are gaining prominence nowadays, as they are more energy efficient, reduce pollution and also they serveas a promising solution to the toughest energy crisis faced during the recent years. This paper focuses on the modeling and simulation of solar – photovoltaic, wind and fuel cell hybrid energy systems using MATLAB/Simulink software. The intermittent nature of solar and wind energy sources make them unreliable. Hence Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) is used to extract maximum power from the wind and sunwhen it is available. The standard perturb and observe method of MPPT is used for the PV system and for the wind generation system. The simulation results of the PV/Wind /Fuel cell hybrid system are presented in graph showing the effectiveness of the proposed system model. Also, hardware implementation of microcontroller based MPPT for solar-PV alone and unit sizing of the hybrid system for the PG simulation lab in EEE Dept. of Thiagarajar College of Engineering is depicted in the paper.
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