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A Control Strategy for Smoothing Active Power Fluctuation of Wind Farm with Flywheel Energy Storage System Based on Improved Wind Power Prediction Algorithm  [PDF]
J. C. Wang, X. R. Wang
Energy and Power Engineering (EPE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/epe.2013.54B075
Abstract: The fluctuation of active power output of wind farm has many negative impacts on large-scale wind power integration into power grid. In this paper, flywheel energy storage system (FESS) was connected to AC side of the doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) wind farm to realize smooth control of wind power output. Based on improved wind power prediction algorithm and wind speed-power curve modeling, a new smooth control strategy with the FESS was proposed. The requirement of power system dispatch for wind power prediction and flywheel rotor speed limit were taken into consideration during the process. While smoothing the wind power fluctuation, FESS can track short-term planned output of wind farm. It was demonstrated by quantitative analysis of simulation results that the proposed control strategy can smooth the active power fluctuation of wind farm effectively and thereby improve power quality of the power grid.
A New Method for Balancing the Fluctuation of Wind Power by a Hybrid Energy Storage System  [PDF]
Peng Yu,Wei Zhou,Yu Zhao,Hui Sun
Information Technology Journal , 2012,
Abstract: Keeping the wind power constant is essential for the large-scale integration of wind power into electric power system. In this study, we classify the wind power fluctuation and propose a method of suppressing the fluctuant wind power by an Active-Parallel Hybrid Energy Storage System (APHESS). The APHESS consists of a battery, a supercapacitor and two charge-discharge controllers. By designing the configuration logically, the APHESS obtains the enhanced energy storage performance and the low investment cost. In order to realize the wind power suppression, the method of controlling the APHESS to exchange power precisely with the wind power system is developed in this study. For the purpose of making the battery and supercapacitor balance, respectively different kinds of fluctuation classified in this study, the power within APHESS is allocated reasonably between the battery and the supercapacitor. By the method proposed in this study, the fluctuant wind power can be balanced effectively and the service life of energy storage system can be prolonged.
Power limitation control of wind turbine system based on differential geometry theory

CHEN Si-zhe,WU Jie,YAO Guo-xing,YANG Jin-ming,

控制理论与应用 , 2008,
Abstract: When wind speed exceeds the rated level, power limitation control can be realized through decreasing the rotational speed of the wind turbine to eliminate complex pitch control devices, and a nonlinear controller based on differential geometry theory is designed to achieve the power limitation control for a variable speed wind turbine. First, the wind turbine aerodynamics characteristic is analyzed, which is the theoretical foundation of the power limitation control method proposed. Then, the nonlinear model of wind turbine is globally linearized by differential geometry transformation. Finally, a nonlinear controller is designed based upon the new linearized model, and the globally precise linearized control method of the variable speed wind turbine system is achieved. Simulation results indicate that the control method proposed can effectively implement the power limitation control of variable speed wind turbine system at above rated wind speed, even if the wind speed changes in a large range.
Providing Frequency Support of Hydro-Pumped Storage to Taiwan Power System with Wind Power Integration  [PDF]
Yuan-Kang Wu, G. W. Chang, Bo-Yu Hsiao, Li-Tso Chang
Smart Grid and Renewable Energy (SGRE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/sgre.2016.74009
Abstract: The combination of wind and pumped storage is a useful method to compensate the fluctuation of wind power generation, which would exploit the abundant wind potential and increase wind power penetration. Taiwan Power Company (TPC) develops renewable energy actively in recent years. Moreover, TPC has started planning a high penetration wind power system and building offshore wind farms around the coast of Zhangbin, Yunlin and Penghu. The target of the offshore wind power installed capacity is up to 3 GW by 2025. However, the integration of the large scale of wind power would give huge challenges to the system operator because wind is randomly characterized. In this study, after high penetration wind power is integrated, the impacts of system frequency and the dispatch of conventional units will be discussed. Additionally, the hybrid system combing wind power with pumped-storage will be planning to reduce the effect of system frequency.
Power Quality Improvement Strategy for Wind Energy Conversion System  [PDF]
W. Z. Gandhare, S. C. Hete
Journal of Power and Energy Engineering (JPEE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jpee.2014.24026
Abstract: Wind energy is one of the world's fastest growing energy technologies, as wind is an intermittent renewable source, the wind source extracted by a wind turbine is therefore not constant. For this reason, the fluctuation of wind power results in fluctuated power output from wind turbine generator. From the point of view of utilities, due to the fluctuation of generator output, it’s not appropriate for the generator to be directly connected to the power grid. In order to achieve the condition that the generator output power is suitable for grid-connection, it is necessary to use a controller to manage the output produced by the wind turbine generator. This paper proposes a novel control scheme of a three-phase grid-connected wind energy conversion system to improve the power quality of WECS. The WECS model consists of a permanent magnet generator and the electronic power conditioning system is composed of full bridge rectifier, close loop boost converter, three phase inverter. Wind generation is being increasingly connected at distribution level due to increasing load demand. The inverter is controlled to perform following function 1) power converter to inject power generated from WECS to the grid, and 2) shunt APF to compensate current unbalance, load current harmonics, load reactive power demand Validation of the proposed system is verified through MATLAB/Simulink simulation.
Optimal Spinning Reserve for Power System with Wind Integrated  [PDF]
Longlong Li, Dongmei Zhao
Energy and Power Engineering (EPE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/epe.2013.54B193

This paper presents an evolutionary stochastic production simulation to solve the optimal spinning reserve configuration problem in power system with wind integrated. Equivalent load curve is generated with considering the wind power forecasting deviation and generation scheduling of hydropower plant in different water periods. The equivalent load duration curve (ELDC), redrawn from equivalent load curve is the core of stochastic production simulation which focuses on random outage of generator and load fluctuation. The optimal spinning reserve model is established around the reliability index Expected Energy Not Served (ENNS). The optimal scheduling of spinning reserve is reached while the cost of purchasing spinning reserve is equal to the outage loss. At last, results of the optimal spinning reserve model tested in Hainan power grid help reduce the costs of spinning reserve configuration.

Power Management System for Load Banks Supplied by Pitch Controlled Wind Turbine System  [PDF]
Adel Merabet,Raquel Keeble,Vigneshwaran Rajasekaran,Rachid Beguenane,Hussein Ibrahim,Jogendra S. Thongam
Applied Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/app2040801
Abstract: An automatic power management system, to monitor the distribution of power to a set of load banks, is presented in this paper. The required power is generated from a laboratory-size pitch-controlled wind turbine experimental workstation. The management system is a sequence of logic expressions, based on the generated power, a profile of the banks’ states provided by the supervisor and the banks’ priorities, to obtain an optimal behavior of the system and to ensure the load requirement. A modified PI pitch angle control is proposed to regulate the generated power for tracking the power reference in order to maintain a consistent brilliance of the load’s LEDs, to reduce the activity of the pitch actuator and to deal with fluctuation problems. Experimental results are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed automatic power management system for load banks supplied by a pitch controlled wind turbine.
Wind Power Uncertainty and Power System Performance  [PDF]
C. Lindsay Anderson, Judith B. Cardell
Engineering (ENG) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2013.510A007

The penetration of wind power into global electric power systems is steadily increasing, with the possibility of 30% to 80% of electrical energy coming from wind within the coming decades. At penetrations below 10% of electricity from wind, the impact of this variable resource on power system operations is manageable with historical operating strategies. As this penetration increases, new methods for operating the power system and electricity markets need to be developed. As part of this process, the expected impact of increased wind penetration needs to be better understood and quantified. This paper presents a comprehensive modeling framework, combining optimal power flow with Monte Carlo simulations used to quantify the impact of high levels of wind power generation in the power system. The impact on power system performance is analyzed in terms of generator dispatch patterns, electricity price and its standard deviation, CO2 emissions and amount of wind power spilled. Simulations with 10%, 20% and 30% wind penetration are analyzed for the IEEE 39 bus test system, with input data representing the New England region. Results show that wind power predominantly displaces natural gas fired generation across all scenarios. The inclusion of increasing amounts of wind can result in price spike events, as the system is required to dispatch down expensive demand in order to maintain the energy balance. These events are shown to be mitigated by the inclusion of demand response resources. Benefits include significant reductions in CO2 emissions, up to 75% reductions at 30% wind penetration, as compared to emissions with no wind integration.

Review on Power System Frequency Regulation with High Wind Power Permeability  [PDF]
Zijian Ye, Yuyan Xie, Haochuan Zhu
Energy and Power Engineering (EPE) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/epe.2018.108023
Abstract: In recent years, global wind power has developed rapidly to alleviate environmental pollution and energy crisis. Due to the potential of enhancing the stability of power system through the application of wind power participating in power grid frequency regulation, the large-scale integration of wind power has become a hot issue for academic research in recent years. This paper classifies the frequency control problems of wind power integration and summarizes the research of power system frequency regulation strategy with high wind power permeability. Energy storage system participating in frequency regulation of the power system with high wind permeability is reviewed and analyzed.
Wind Electric Power System in Edo State (Ekpoma)
A.O. Osahenvemwen,O. Omorogiuwa
International Journal of Electrical and Power Engineering , 2012,
Abstract: The issue of electric power supply in the country has been a great concern because of incessant Electric power in the country. This study shows how wind electric power system can be achieved in Ekpoma. Wind electric turbine was designed to capture the kinetic energy in wind. The average wind speed in each day was recorded. The highest wind speed recorded was 120 mph and the lowest wind speed recorded was 90 mph. The gross total for each month was also recorded. The highest total wind speed was 3,262 mph and it was recorded for the month of January. The output of the generator, voltage = 220 V, current = 13.9 A, frequency = 50 Hz, power 8 kW. This research will be of benefit to independent electric power producers and investors who would want to invest in wind electric power generation (wind farm).
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