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The Role of Input Enhancement in Teaching Compliments
Hossein Vahid Dastjerdi,Majid Farshid
Journal of Language Teaching and Research , 2011, DOI: 10.4304/jltr.2.2.460-466
Abstract: To date, research regarding the effectiveness of instruction on the development of interlanguage pragmatics has favored an explicit instruction of the speech acts. A question which has received scant attention is what kind of explicit instruction is more beneficial in a foreign language setting. The fact that speech acts reflect, for the most part, routinized language behavior helps learners because much of what is used in performing speech acts could be learned as prefabricated units. This study is an attempt to practically test this routinized nature of speech acts focusing on compliment giving. To this purpose, two groups were chosen as control and experimental groups and both were instructed by different procedures of input enhancement; the former was taught through Form Comparison procedure and the latter through explicit instruction using Wolfson and Manes (1980) formula of compliment giving. The result clearly indicated that the experimental group outperformed the control group in giving compliments, indicating once again that the routinized nature of speech acts could be utilized in helping learners develop their interlanguage pragmatics.
How sensitive are estimates of carbon fixation in agricultural models to input data?
Markus Tum, Franziska Strauss, Ian McCallum, Kurt Günther, Erwin Schmid
Carbon Balance and Management , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1750-0680-7-3
Abstract: For our case study analysis we selected two different process based models: the Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) and the Biosphere Energy Transfer Hydrology (BETHY/DLR) model. Both process models show a congruent pattern to changes in input data. The annual variability of NPP reaches 36% for BETHY/DLR and 39% for EPIC when changing major input datasets. However, EPIC is less sensitive to meteorological input data than BETHY/DLR. The ECMWF maximum temperatures show a systematic pattern. Temperatures above 20°C are overestimated, whereas temperatures below 20°C are underestimated, resulting in an overall underestimation of NPP in both models. Besides, BETHY/DLR is sensitive to the choice and accuracy of the land cover product.This study shows that the impact of input data uncertainty on modelling results need to be assessed: whenever the models are applied under new conditions, local data should be used for both input and result comparison.Modelling the net carbon uptake by vegetation (Net Primary Productivity, NPP) and estimating the yields of agricultural plants have become important tools to study the mechanisms of carbon exchange between the atmosphere and vegetation, as well as issues of food security. Different approaches are currently tracked which can be grouped to their approaches how photosynthesis is modelled.Models describing the chemical, physical and plant physiological processes of plant development and the interaction of plants with the atmosphere can be applied to simulate the rate of carbon dioxide uptake of the plant through photosynthesis (called Gross Primary Productivity, GPP). These models follow the concept of [1] and [2] to simulate the process of photosynthesis. Moreover, carbon uptake of well-watered and fertilized annual plants is linearly related to the amount of absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR), which can be derived from satellite data (i.e. the fraction of PAR which is absorbed by the canopy; cp. [3] or ca
An Input-Output Analysis with an Environmentally Adjusted Agricultural and Forestry Sector in Bangladesh  [cached]
Shamim Shakur,A. K. Enamul Haque
Journal of Sustainable Development , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/jsd.v5n3p84
Abstract: Traditional national income accounting methods does not make an allowance for the environmental damages incurred while producing the current output. Agriculture is no longer considered to be an environmentally friendly activity. In Bangladesh, efforts to feed an ever-increasing population have meant unsustainable farming practices and a steady depletion of the resource base. The quality of the environment has been degraded and ability of the future generations compromised. This calls for “greening” of GDP by deducting negative changes in environmental quality in national income calculation. This paper begins by developing an environmental account for Bangladesh's agricultural sector. This is done by collecting physical data on depletion and degradation of environmental resources and then estimating their costs by appropriate valuation techniques. The environmentally adjusted agricultural sector is then integrated with a Social Accounting Matrix. Finally, sectoral products for agriculture and forestry are estimated net of environmental cost.
Enhancement of insulating properties of brick clay by renewable agricultural wastes  [PDF]
Viktor Bánhidi
Processing and Application of Ceramics , 2008,
Abstract: The use of agricultural wastes (byproducts) in various segments of brick and tile industry is increasing continuously. These additives, which are previously mixed into the raw or compound clay, start to ignite during the firing process, providing extra thermal energy inside the product and decreasing the required external energy need. Besides this effect, the combustion of additives increases the porosity of the final product resulting in enhanced thermal insulation properties. In this paper the effect of some common agricultural wastes (sawdust, rice-peel and seed-shell) on the thermal properties of brick clay products was investigated. The brick samples were prepared from the mixture of the yellow and gray clay in the ratio of 4:1, water content was between 15.57-16.67 wt.% and the pore-forming additives in concentrations 0, 4 and 7 wt.%. To measure the steady state thermal conductivity of the clay mixtures, samples with dimensions of 300×300×50 mm were prepared. Drying and firing were performed using the industrial partner’s standard procedures. Precise thermal conductivity data was measured, using a RAPID K type static thermal conductivity instrument. The results showed that increasing the quantity of agricultural byproducts in the clay mixture significantly decreases the thermal conductivity of the final products, while only a minor reduction in the mechanical strength was observed. It was found that the most efficient byproduct additive was the sunflower seed shell. With the addition of only 7 wt.% seed shell to the basic clay the thermal conductivity decreased from 0,27 W/m·K to 0,17 W/m·K (i.e. ~36%).
The Impact of Textual Input Enhancement and Explicit Rule Presentation on Iranian Elementary EFL Learners’ Intake of Simple Past Tense  [cached]
Naemeh Nahavandi,Jayakaran Mukundan
English Language Teaching , 2013, DOI: 10.5539/elt.v6n1p92
Abstract: The present study investigated the impact of textual input enhancement and explicit rule presentation on 93 Iranian EFL learners’ intake of simple past tense. Three intact general English classes in Tabriz Azad University were randomly assigned to: 1) a control group; 2) a TIE group; and 3) a TIE plus explicit rule presentation group. All participants were given 3 reading texts and comprehension questions to complete. For participants in groups 2 and 3 the input was textually enhanced through bolding. Participants in group 3 in addition had explicit rule presentation of simple past tense. Intake of simple past tense was measured through performance on a Multiple-Choice Recognition Tests. The results showed that there was a significant difference among pretest, first posttest and delayed posttest. Posttest 1 was significantly higher than posttest 2. Furthermore, TE+ rule presentation group significantly outperformed the control group in both posttest1 and posttest 2. The study concluded with some pedagogical implications.
Using Tomato Analyzer software to determine embryo size in x-rayed seeds
Marcos Filho, Julio;Gomes Junior, Francisco Guilhien;Bennett, Mark A;Wells, Arthur A;Stieve, Susan;
Revista Brasileira de Sementes , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0101-31222010000200018
Abstract: a primary interest of image analysis of x-rayed seeds is to identify whether the extent of fill in the embryo cavity is associated with to seed physiological quality. the objective of this research was to verify the accuracy of the freely available tomato analyzer (ta) software developed at the ohio state university to determine the ratio of embryo size over total seed area. seeds of pumpkin, watermelon, cucumber and cotton were x-rayed and analyzed by the software which defines seed and embryo boundaries and automatically generates numerical values to quantify that ratio. results showed that the ta has the sensitivity to evaluate the extent of embryo growth within the cucurbits and cotton seeds and is a promising alternative for this assessment in other seed species.
财政投入和金融支持对农民农业增收贡献的比较
Comparison of Contribution of Fiscal Input and Financial Support to Increasing Farmers' Agricultural Income
 [PDF]

茹玉,林万龙
- , 2016,
Abstract: 基于2000~2013年省级面板数据,运用固定效应模型和分位数回归模型考察了财政投入和金融支持对提升农民农业收入的影响,并采用因素分解法比较两者对农民农业增收的贡献大小,继而通过两步固定效应回归、分组回归和替换变量回归三种方式检验结果的稳健性,均得出一致结果,即财政投入和金融支持均促进农业增收,其中财政投入贡献更大,此外大规模的土地投入和完善的基础设施建设也有利于农业收入提高。
Through the fixed effect model and quantile regression, this paper uses the provincial panel data from 2000 to 2013 to study the effect of fiscal input and financial support on increasing farmers' agricultural income, and then compare their respective contributions to agricultural income growth using factor decomposition method. In addition, the paper tests the robustness through two-step fixed effect regression, grouped regression and alternative variable regression. Based on all models, we find that fiscal input and financial support both promote enhancing farmers' agricultural income, of which fiscal input contributes more. Besides, large-scale farmland and excellent infrastructure construction also help to increase agricultural income.
农林高等职业院校教育投入产出经济效益分析
Empirical Research on Input-output Benefit of Agricultural Vocational Colleges
 [PDF]

赵小峰,陈宗兴,霍学喜
- , 2017,
Abstract: 由于长期计划经济的影响和近些年来的大幅扩招,使农林高职院校投入产出矛盾进一步凸显。对这类院校发展现状和存在问题进行了分析,借助数据包络分析法(DEA),对农林高职院校的投入产出效益进行评价,同时以陕西农林高职院校为例,从综合效率、技术效率和规模效率等方面进行了实证性验证。结果表明,陕西农林高职院校投入产出效益之间是一种协同关系,唯有处理好学校、学科、教师三个层面的协作关系,方可有效地修正投入产出组合效率值所出现的变异。
To explore the coordination relationship between input and output benefit of agricultural vocational colleges, first of all, the development status of agricultural vocational colleges and the existing problems were analyzed, and then, through using the system theory, with vocational colleges of agriculture and forestry in Shaanxi as examples, the efficiency of cost model and that of variable model were explored and studied. Furthermore, using data envelopment analysis (DEA), the input-output benefit of vocational colleges of agriculture and forestry was evaluated, and then the overall technical and scale efficiency of vocational colleges of agriculture and forestry in Shaanxi was empirically verified. The results show that, in agricultural vocational colleges, the input and output present a collaborative relationship, only the cooperative relationship among three aspects of school, subject and teachers is well handled, the input-output combination efficiency value would be effectively corrected.
Enhancement of Agricultural Production Through Sustainable Agriculture and Poverty Allevition in Kot, Manazary Baba (Malakand Agency) Pakistan
Sardar Khan,M.Nafees
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2002,
Abstract: The sustainable agriculture can bring both environmental and economic benefits for farmers, communities and nations. Sustainable agriculture plays a vital role for poverty alleviation through enhancement of crops and vegetable production. The present study was conducted to compare the production of traditional agriculture (existent) with sustainable agriculture and to demonstrate its economic role. The project are (12500 acres) consists on both irrigated and non-irrigated land. Keeping in mind the climatic condition, the wheat, maize and different vegetable was cultivated in ways of sustainable agriculture. The wheat production increased from 40-50% on irrigated land but 20-30% on rain-fed land, the maize production enhanced from 20-25% on irrigated land and 10-15% on rain-fed land. Similarly, the vegetable like okra, onion, garlic and tomato production were increased from 30-32% on irrigated land while 28-30% on rain-fed land. If the sustainable agriculture practices are carried out on the whole agriculture land of the project area properly then it is possible that the inhabitants will not only meet the food requirements from their local fields but they will also be able to export to the market of other areas. From experimental result, it is concluded that this practice will reduce the consumption of food requirements and can be used for poverty alleviation.
Vulnerability assessment of agricultural flood and mitigation countermeasures in Fujian Province
福建省农业水灾脆弱性评价及减灾对策

CHEN Xiang,
陈香

中国生态农业学报 , 2008,
Abstract: Based on natural disaster system theory ,the paper established an index system and modeled flood system vulnerability assessment, including agricultural flood hazard, disaster formative environment, hazard-affecting body and disaster mitigation level. With the aid of digital map technology,the paper used data from the hazard and soeio-eeonomie databases of Fujian Province,compiled vulnerability distribution and average frequency of agriculture flood in the province. Results show that, flood vulnerability obviously differs from east to west in Fujian. Regions with maximum value are concentrated in the eastern coastal area, with the exception of Fuzhou, Xiamen and Quanzhou ;consistent with the eastward sloping topography, agricultural hazard-affecting body distribution, and distribution of average flood frequency in the past 35 years. Based on the established formative mechanism of agricultural flood and accompanying sustainable development patterns, the paper suggests enhancement in regional flood risk research, adjustment in land-use and farming structures under ecological security, increases in input in flood prevention projects in coastal regions, clearing of river-ways at fixed intervals, to reduce agricultural flood vulnerability. This can benefit agricultural flood prevention and disaster reduction.
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