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‘From shack to the Constitutional Court’ The litigious disruption of governing global cities  [cached]
Anna Selmeczi
Utrecht Law Review , 2011,
Abstract: Taking its cue from the worldwide proliferation of struggles for access to the city, this paper aims to assess the impact of globalized neoliberalism on the juridico-legal techniques of contemporary urban governmentalities and to inquire into the ways in which such techniques can be resisted. It suggests that at least in urban contexts, the police order that, according to Foucault, was largely superseded by the modern liberal technologies of governing through freedom, today seems to be rather active. Arguably, global cities' competition for capital promoted by the globalized neoliberal economic order and its imperative to actively intervene in producing the market, pairs up conveniently with the detailed methods of regulating the early modern West. On the other hand, the self-limitation of governmental reason originating in the political economic criticism of the police state equips governance with the means of voluntary impotence and, placing the management of the economy at the centre of governmental activity, it increasingly adapts law to social and economic processes. While, according to Rancière, these tendencies lead to the effacement of the gaps between legal inscriptions and social realities, and thus tend to impede the occurrence of the political, in interpreting the struggles of South African shack dwellers, the paper aims to illustrate how inscriptions of equality may nevertheless trigger the political disruption of urban biopolitics.
Growth patterns and scaling laws governing AIDS epidemic in Brazilian cities  [PDF]
F. J. Antonio,S. Picoli Jr,J. J. V. Teixeira,R. S. Mendes
Quantitative Biology , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0111015
Abstract: Brazil holds approximately 1/3 of population living infected with AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) in Central and South Americas, and it was also the first developing country to implement a large-scale control and intervention program against AIDS epidemic. In this scenario, we investigate the temporal evolution and current status of the AIDS epidemic in Brazil. Specifically, we analyze records of annual absolute frequency of cases for more than 5000 cities for the first 33 years of the infection in Brazil. We found that (i) the annual absolute frequencies exhibit a logistic-type growth with an exponential regime in the first few years of the AIDS spreading; (ii) the actual reproduction number decaying as a power law; (iii) the distribution of the annual absolute frequencies among cities decays with a power law behavior; (iv) the annual absolute frequencies and the number of inhabitants have an allometric relationship; (v) the temporal evolution of the annual absolute frequencies have different profile depending on the average annual absolute frequencies in the cities. These findings yield a general quantitative description of the AIDS infection dynamics in Brazil since the beginning. They also provide clues about the effectiveness of treatment and control programs against the infection, that has had a different impact depending on the number of inhabitants of cities. In this framework, our results give insights into the overall dynamics of AIDS epidemic, which may contribute to select empirically accurate models.
Villes et infrastructures de transport du Rhin supérieur : des grands équipements structurants ? Cities and transport infrastructures in the Upper Rhine area: major structuring facilities?
Jo?l Forthoffer
Belgeo : Revue Belge de Géographie , 2012,
Abstract: L’espace franco-germano-suisse du Rhin supérieur dispose d’un maillage de villes performantes : métropole de Mannheim, Eurodistrict de Strasbourg, agglomération trinationale de Bale... De par sa situation géographique, le sillon rhénan est aussi un couloir de transit d’importance européenne. Une coopération fonctionnelle dans différents domaines du transport comme les aéroports, les gares ou les ports, peut hisser cette région au plan européen et mondial.Cette étude analyse les interactions entre les projets d’équipements transport et les villes et s’articule autour des points suivants : les métropoles en tant que plates-formes intermodales, les corridors : réalités, projets, enjeux ; les agglomérations et les jeux transfrontaliers. Elle s’efforce de présenter les évolutions d’infrastructures des différents modes de transport en corrélation avec les projets de villes. The French-German-Swiss area of the upper Rhine offers a meshing of successful cities: metropolis of Mannheim, Eurodistrict of Strasbourg, Basel trinational agglomeration... Because of its geographical situation, the Rhine valley is also a transit corridor of European importance. A functional cooperation in various transport fields such as airports, railway stations or ports, may advance this area to European and worldwide level.This study analyzes the interactions between cities and transport facilities projects. It is based on the following points: metropolises as intermodal platforms; corridors: realities, projects, stakes; towns and cross-border games, and it tries to present the infrastructure developments of various modes in conjunction with the towns’ projects.
Chain reconfiguration in active noise  [PDF]
Nairhita Samanta,Rajarshi Chakrabarti
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: In a typical single molecule experiment, dynamics of an unfolded proteins is studied by determining the reconfiguration time using long-range Forster resonance energy transfer where the reconfiguration time is the characteristic decay time of the position correlation between two residues of the protein. In this paper we theoretically calculate the reconfiguration time for a single flexible polymer in presence of active noise. The study suggests that though the MSD grows faster, the chain reconfiguration is always slower in presence of long-lived active noise with exponential temporal correlation. Similar behavior is observed for a worm like semi-flexible chain and a Zimm chain. However it is primarily the characteristic correlation time of the active noise and not the strength that controls the increase in the reconfiguration time. In a nutshell, such active noise makes the polymer to move faster but the correlation loss between the monomers becomes slower.
On the Parameterized Complexity of Reconfiguration Problems  [PDF]
Amer E. Mouawad,Naomi Nishimura,Venkatesh Raman,Narges Simjour,Akira Suzuki
Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: We present the first results on the parameterized complexity of reconfiguration problems, where a reconfiguration version of an optimization problem $Q$ takes as input two feasible solutions $S$ and $T$ and determines if there is a sequence of {\em reconfiguration steps} that can be applied to transform $S$ into $T$ such that each step results in a feasible solution to $Q$. For most of the results in this paper, $S$ and $T$ are subsets of vertices of a given graph and a reconfiguration step adds or deletes a vertex. Our study is motivated by recent results establishing that for most NP-hard problems, the classical complexity of reconfiguration is PSPACE-complete. We address the question for several important graph properties under two natural parameterizations: $k$, the size of the solutions, and $\ell$, the length of the sequence of steps. Our first general result is an algorithmic paradigm, the {\em reconfiguration kernel}, used to obtain fixed-parameter algorithms for the reconfiguration versions of {\sc Vertex Cover} and, more generally, {\sc Bounded Hitting Set} and {\sc Feedback Vertex Set}, all parameterized by $k$. In contrast, we show that reconfiguring {\sc Unbounded Hitting Set} is $W[2]$-hard when parameterized by $k+\ell$. We also demonstrate the $W[1]$-hardness of the reconfiguration versions of a large class of maximization problems parameterized by $k+\ell$, and of their corresponding deletion problems parameterized by $\ell$; in doing so, we show that there exist problems in FPT when parameterized by $k$, but whose reconfiguration versions are $W[1]$-hard when parameterized by $k+\ell$.
Groups from Cyclic Infrastructures and Pohlig-Hellman in Certain Infrastructures  [PDF]
Felix Fontein
Computer Science , 2008, DOI: 10.3934/amc.2008.2.293
Abstract: In discrete logarithm based cryptography, a method by Pohlig and Hellman allows solving the discrete logarithm problem efficiently if the group order is known and has no large prime factors. The consequence is that such groups are avoided. In the past, there have been proposals for cryptography based on cyclic infrastructures. We will show that the Pohlig-Hellman method can be adapted to certain cyclic infrastructures, which similarly implies that certain infrastructures should not be used for cryptography. This generalizes a result by M\"uller, Vanstone and Zuccherato for infrastructures obtained from hyperelliptic function fields. We recall the Pohlig-Hellman method, define the concept of a cyclic infrastructure and briefly describe how to obtain such infrastructures from certain function fields of unit rank one. Then, we describe how to obtain cyclic groups from discrete cyclic infrastructures and how to apply the Pohlig-Hellman method to compute absolute distances, which is in general a computationally hard problem for cyclic infrastructures. Moreover, we give an algorithm which allows to test whether an infrastructure satisfies certain requirements needed for applying the Pohlig-Hellman method, and discuss whether the Pohlig-Hellman method is applicable in infrastructures obtained from number fields. Finally, we discuss how this influences cryptography based on cyclic infrastructures.
An Overview on Software Reconfiguration  [cached]
Szepesi Robert,Ciocarlie Horia
Theory and Applications of Mathematics & Computer Science , 2011,
Abstract: Dynamical software reconfiguration represents a major direction in nowadays research due to its promise of providing faster solutions to ever changing problems by adding more flexibility to any given software solution at the cost of processing power, cost which given the relentless progress made by hardware manufacturers is becoming insignificant. This paper was designed as a complete overview of the software reconfiguration paradigm, looking at it from all the relevant angles - pros and cons, where to use and where not to use, challenges and solutions in implementation.
Diagnostics and Reconfiguration of Control Systems  [cached]
Dusan Krokavec,Anna Filasova
Advances in Electrical and Electronic Engineering , 2008,
Abstract: This contribution summarizes some of the major trends, as well as real opportunities for the application of system fault diagnosis and reconfiguration control structures in automatic control systems. There are referenced ongoing concepts for residual generation, described design approaches in virtual reconfiguration and, in more details, is presented a new method for robust structured residual design and one another for reconfigurable output control structure.
Reconfiguration in bounded bandwidth and treedepth  [PDF]
Marcin Wrochna
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: We show that several reconfiguration problems known to be PSPACE-complete remain so even when limited to graphs of bounded bandwidth. The essential step is noticing the similarity to very limited string rewriting systems, whose ability to directly simulate Turing Machines is classically known. This resolves a question posed open in [Bonsma P., 2012]. On the other hand, we show that a large class of reconfiguration problems becomes tractable on graphs of bounded treedepth, and that this result is in some sense tight.
Durability of critical infrastructures
Raluca Pascu,Ramiro Sofronie
Advances in Environmental Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: The paper deals with those infrastructures by which world society, under the pressure ofdemographic explosion, self-survives. The main threatening comes not from terrorist attacks, but fromthe great natural catastrophes and global climate change. It’s not for the first time in history when suchmeasures of self-protection are built up. First objective of this paper is to present the background fordurability analysis. Then, with the aid of these mathematical tools the absolute durability of three linearmodels, typical for critical infrastructures, are successively calculated. In order to enhance the durabilityof critical infrastructures the solution based on redundancies is chosen. Five types of connection theredundancies for each of the three models are considered. Three topological schemes for connecting theredundancies are adopted: locally, by twining and globally. Absolute values of durability in all fifteenmodels with redundancies are further calculated. Then, the relative performances of enhanced durabilityin the same fifteen models, compared with the three original models, considered as references, areanalysed. The relative costs of the same fifteen models and in similar topologic conditions are furtheranalysed. By dividing the performance with cost the relative profitableness of each model is obtained.Finally, the three initial models, each reshaped with redundancies in three selective modes, arecompared from the perspective of their relative profitableness. The outcomes of this paper are original.They are of practical interests in planning the maintenance programs and checking the plausibility ofproposed interventions according to the clause 7.4 of ISO 13822:2001
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