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Upper altitude limit for Rayleigh lidar
P. S. Argall
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO) , 2007,
Abstract: It has long been assumed that Rayleigh lidar can be used to measure atmospheric temperature profiles up to about 90 or 100 km and that above this region the technique becomes invalid due to changes in atmospheric composition which affect basic assumptions on which Rayleigh lidar is based. Modern powerful Rayleigh lidars are able to measure backscatter from well above 100 km requiring a closer examination of the effects of the changing atmospheric composition on derived Rayleigh lidar temperature profiles. The NRLMSISE-00 model has been used to simulate lidar signal (photon-count) profiles, taking into account the effects of changing atmospheric composition, enabling a quantitative analysis of the biases and errors associated with extending Rayleigh lidar temperature measurements above 100 km. The biases associated with applying a nominal correction for the change in atmospheric composition with altitude has also been investigated. The simulations reported here show that in practice the upper altitude limit for Rayleigh lidar is imposed more by the accuracy of the temperature or pressure used to seed the temperature retrieval algorithm than by accurate knowledge of the atmospheric composition as has long been assumed.
A systematic study of Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering in air, N2 and O2 gases  [PDF]
Ziyu Gu,Wim Ubachs
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1063/1.4895130
Abstract: Spontaneous Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering experiments in air, N2 and O2 have been performed for a wide range of temperatures and pressures at a wavelength of 403 nm and at a 90 degrees scattering angle. Measurements of the Rayleigh-Brillouin spectral scattering profile were conducted at high signal-to-noise ratio for all three species, yielding high-quality spectra unambiguously showing the small differences between scattering in air, and its constituents N2 and O2. Comparison of the experimental spectra with calculations using the Tenti S6 model, developed in 1970s based on linearized kinetic equations for molecular gases, demonstrates that this model is valid to high accuracy. After previous measurements performed at 366 nm, the Tenti S6 model is here verified for a second wavelength of 403 nm. Values for the bulk viscosity for the gases are derived by optimizing the model to the measurements. It is verified that the bulk viscosity parameters obtained from previous experiments at 366 nm, are valid for wavelengths of 403 nm. Also for air, which is treated as a single-component gas with effective gas transport coefficients, the Tenti S6 treatment is validated for 403 nm as for the previously used wavelength of 366 nm, yielding an accurate model description of the scattering profiles for a range of temperatures and pressures, including those of relevance for atmospheric studies. It is concluded that the Tenti S6 model, further verified in the present study, is applicable to LIDAR applications for exploring the wind velocity and the temperature profile distributions of the Earth's atmosphere. Based on the present findings, predictions can be made on the spectral profiles for a typical LIDAR backscatter geometry, which deviate by some 7 percent from purely Gaussian profiles at realistic sub-atmospheric pressures occurring at 3-5 km altitude in the Earth's atmosphere.
Use of O2 airglow for calibrating direct atomic oxygen measurements from sounding rockets
J. Hedin, J. Gumbel, J. Stegman,G. Witt
Atmospheric Measurement Techniques (AMT) & Discussions (AMTD) , 2009,
Abstract: Accurate knowledge about the distribution of atomic oxygen is crucial for many studies of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere. Direct measurements of atomic oxygen by the resonance fluorescence technique at 130 nm have been made from many sounding rocket payloads in the past. This measurement technique yields atomic oxygen profiles with good sensitivity and altitude resolution. However, accuracy is a problem as calibration and aerodynamics make the quantitative analysis challenging. Most often, accuracies better than a factor 2 are not to be expected from direct atomic oxygen measurements. As an example, we present results from the NLTE (Non Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium) sounding rocket campaign at Esrange, Sweden, in 1998, with simultaneous O2 airglow and O resonance fluorescence measurements. O number densities are found to be consistent with the nightglow analysis, but only within the uncertainty limits of the resonance fluorescence technique. Based on these results, we here describe how better atomic oxygen number densities can be obtained by calibrating direct techniques with complementary airglow photometer measurements and detailed aerodynamic analysis. Night-time direct O measurements can be complemented by photometric detection of the O2 (b1∑g+ X3∑g-) Atmospheric Band at 762 nm, while during daytime the O2 (a1Δg X3∑g-) Infrared Atmospheric Band at 1.27 μm can be used. The combination of a photometer and a rather simple resonance fluorescence probe can provide atomic oxygen profiles with both good accuracy and good height resolution.
Use of O2 airglow for calibrating direct atomic oxygen measurements from sounding rockets  [PDF]
J. Hedin,J. Gumbel,J. Stegman,G. Witt
Atmospheric Measurement Techniques Discussions , 2009,
Abstract: Accurate knowledge about the distribution of atomic oxygen is crucial for many studies of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere. Direct measurements of atomic oxygen by the resonance fluorescence technique at 130 nm have been made from many sounding rocket payloads in the past. This measurement technique yields atomic oxygen profiles with good sensitivity and altitude resolution. However, accuracy is a problem as calibration and aerodynamics make the quantitative analysis challenging. In general, accuracies better than a factor 2 are not to be expected from direct atomic oxygen measurements. As an example, we present results from the NLTE (non local thermodynamic equilibrium) sounding rocket campaign at Esrange, Sweden, in 1998, with simultaneous O2 airglow and O resonance fluorescence measurements. O number densities are found to be consistent with the nightglow analysis, but only within the uncertainty limits of the resonance fluorescence technique. Based on these results, we here describe how better atomic oxygen number densities can be obtained by calibrating direct techniques with complementary airglow photometer measurements and detailed aerodynamic analysis. Night-time direct O measurements can be complemented by photometric detection of the O2 (b1Σg+ X3Σg ) atmospheric band at 762 nm, while during daytime the O2 (a1Δg X3Σg ) infrared atmospheric band at 1.27 μm can be used. The combination of a photometer and a rather simple resonance fluorescence probe can provide atomic oxygen profiles with both good accuracy and good height resolution.
Tidal variations of O2 Atmospheric and OH(6-2) airglow and temperature at mid-latitudes from SATI observations
M. J. López-González, E. Rodríguez, G. G. Shepherd, S. Sargoytchev, M. G. Shepherd, V. M. Aushev, S. Brown, M. García-Comas,R. H. Wiens
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO) , 2005,
Abstract: Airglow observations with a Spectral Airglow Temperature Imager (SATI), installed at the Sierra Nevada Observatory (37.06° N, 3.38° W) at 2900-m height, have been used to investigate the presence of tidal variations at mid-latitudes in the mesosphere/lower thermosphere region. Diurnal variations of the column emission rate and vertically averaged temperature of the O2 Atmospheric (0-1) band and of the OH Meinel (6-2) band from 5 years (1998-2003) of observations have been analysed. From these observations a clear tidal variation of both emission rates and rotational temperatures is inferred. It is found that the amplitude of the daily variation for both emission rates and temperatures is greater from late autumn to spring than during summer. The amplitude decreases by more than a factor of two during summer and early autumn with respect to the amplitude in the winter-spring months. Although the tidal modulations are preferentially semidiurnal in both rotational temperatures and emission rates during the whole year, during early spring the tidal modulations seem to be more consistent with a diurnal modulation in both rotational temperatures and emission rates. Moreover, the OH emission rate from late autumn to early winter has a pattern suggesting both diurnal and semidiurnal tidal modulations.
Climatology of planetary wave type oscillations with periods of 2–20 days derived from O2 atmospheric and OH(6-2) airglow observations at mid-latitude with SATI
M. J. López-González, E. Rodríguez, M. García-Comas, V. Costa, M. G. Shepherd, G. G. Shepherd, V. M. Aushev,S. Sargoytchev
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO) , 2009,
Abstract: The presence of planetary wave type oscillations at mid-latitudes in the mesosphere/lower thermosphere region has been investigated using airglow observations. The observations were taken with a Spectral Airglow Temperature Imager (SATI) installed at Sierra Nevada Observatory (37.06° N, 3.38° W) at 2900 m height. Airglow data of the column emission rate of the O2 Atmospheric (0-1) band and of the OH Meinel (6-2) band and deduced rotational temperatures from 1998 to 2007 have been used in this study. From these observations a climatology of planetary wave type oscillations at this location is inferred. It has been found that the planetary wave type oscillations of 5-day period is predominant in our data throughout the year, with activity greater than 50% during March/April and October/November months. The planetary wave type oscillations of 2-day period is predominant during both solstices, being predominant during winter solstice in O2 while a 10-day oscillation appears throughout the year with activity around 20% and with maximum activity during spring and autumn equinoxes. The 16-day oscillation has maximum occurrence during autumn-winter while its activity is almost disappeared during spring-summer. No clear seasonal dependence of the amplitude of the planetary wave type oscillations was observed in the cases considered in this study. The waves simultaneously detected in the rotational temperatures deduced from both OH and O2 emissions usually show an upward energy propagation and are affected by dissipation processes.
A comparison of Rayleigh and sodium lidar temperature climatologies
P. S. Argall ,R. J. Sica
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO) , 2007,
Abstract: Temperature measurements from the PCL Rayleigh lidar located near London, Canada, taken during the 11 year period from 1994 to 2004 are used to form a temperature climatology of the middle atmosphere. A unique feature of the PCL temperature climatology is that it extends from 35 to 95 km allowing comparison with other Rayleigh lidar climatologies (which typically extend up to about 85 km), as well as with climatologies derived from sodium lidar measurements which extend from 83 to 108 km. The derived temperature climatology is compared to the CIRA-86 climatological model and to other lidar climatologies, both Rayleigh and sodium. The PCL climatology agrees well with the climatologies of other Rayleigh lidars from similar latitudes, and like these other climatologies shows significant differences from the CIRA-86 temperatures in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere. Significant disagreement is also found between the PCL climatology and sodium lidar climatologies measured in the central and western United States at similar latitudes, with the PCL climatology consistently 10 to 15 K cooler in the 85 to 90 km region.
The ALOMAR Rayleigh/Mie/Raman lidar: objectives, configuration, and performance  [PDF]
U. von Zahn,G. von Cossart,J. Fiedler,K. H. Fricke
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO) , 2003,
Abstract: We report on the development and current capabilities of the ALOMAR Rayleigh/Mie/Raman lidar. This instrument is one of the core instruments of the international ALOMAR facility, located near Andenes in Norway at 69°N and 16°E. The major task of the instrument is to perform advanced studies of the Arctic middle atmosphere over altitudes between about 15 to 90 km on a climatological basis. These studies address questions about the thermal structure of the Arctic middle atmosphere, the dynamical processes acting therein, and of aerosols in the form of stratospheric background aerosol, polar stratospheric clouds, noctilucent clouds, and injected aerosols of volcanic or anthropogenic origin. Furthermore, the lidar is meant to work together with other remote sensing instruments, both ground- and satellite-based, and with balloon- and rocket-borne instruments performing in situ observations. The instrument is basically a twin lidar, using two independent power lasers and two tiltable receiving telescopes. The power lasers are Nd:YAG lasers emitting at wavelengths 1064, 532, and 355 nm and producing 30 pulses per second each. The power lasers are highly stabilized in both their wavelengths and the directions of their laser beams. The laser beams are emitted into the atmosphere fully coaxial with the line-of-sight of the receiving telescopes. The latter use primary mirrors of 1.8 m diameter and are tiltable within 30° off zenith. Their fields-of-view have 180 μrad angular diameter. Spectral separation, filtering, and detection of the received photons are made on an optical bench which carries, among a multitude of other optical components, three double Fabry-Perot interferometers (two for 532 and one for 355 nm) and one single Fabry-Perot interferometer (for 1064 nm). A number of separate detector channels also allow registration of photons which are produced by rotational-vibrational and rotational Raman scatter on N2 and N2+O2 molecules, respectively. Currently, up to 36 detector channels simultaneously record the photons collected by the telescopes. The internal and external instrument operations are automated so that this very complex instrument can be operated by a single engineer. Currently the lidar is heavily used for measurements of temperature profiles, of cloud particle properties such as their altitude, particle densities and size distributions, and of stratospheric winds. Due to its very effective spectral and spatial filtering, the lidar has unique capabilities to work in full sunlight. Under these conditions it can measure temperatures up to 65 k
Observations of a middle atmosphere thermal structure over Durban using a ground-based Rayleigh LIDAR and satellite data
Nkanyiso Mbatha,Venkataraman Sivakumar,Hassan Bencherif,Sandile B. Malinga
South African Journal of Science , 2012, DOI: 10.4102/sajs.v108i1/2.612
Abstract: Studying the middle atmospheric thermal structure over southern Africa is an important activity to improve the understanding of atmospheric dynamics of this region. Observations of a middle atmosphere thermal structure over Durban, South Africa (29.9°S, 31.0°E) using the Durban Rayleigh Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) data collected over 277 nights from April 1999 to July 2004, including closest overpasses of the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) and Halogen Occultation Experiments (HALOE) satellites, are presented in this paper. There seems to be good agreement between the LIDAR and satellite observations. During autumn and winter, the temperatures measured by the LIDAR in the height region between 40 km and 55 km were 5 K to 12 K higher than those measured by the satellites. The data from the LIDAR instrument and the SABER and HALOE satellites exhibited the presence of an annual oscillation in the stratosphere, whereas in the mesosphere, semi-annual oscillations dominated the annual oscillation at some levels. The stratopause was observed in the height range of ~40 km – 55 km by all the instruments, with the stratopause temperatures measured as 260 K – 270 K by the LIDAR, 250 K – 260 K by the SABER and 250 K – 270 K by the HALOE. Data from the SABER and HALOE satellites indicated almost the same thermal structure for the middle atmosphere over Durban.
Improvement of wind retrieval algorithm for Rayleigh Doppler lidar
Rayleigh散射Doppler激光雷达风场反演方法改进

Shen Fa-Hu,Shu Zhi-Feng,Sun Dong-Song,Wang Zhong-Chun,Xue Xiang-Hui,Chen Ting-Di,Dou Xian-Kang,
沈法华
,舒志峰,孙东松,王忠纯,薛向辉,陈廷娣,窦贤康

物理学报 , 2012,
Abstract: In the process of wind retrieval for Rayleigh Doppler lidar, besides atmospheric temperature and pressure, the accuracy of the wind retrieval result is also affected by Mie signal. When the Mie scattering sigal is large, especially in the cases such as high altitude clouds or volcanic ash and so on, the wind retrieval result will largely deviate from the ture value if the aerosol signal is ignored due to temperature uncertainty and Mie signal contamination. A nonlinear iterative algorithm is proposed, which can retrieve both wind and atmospheric temperature by using the mesured signal with outgoing laser pointing to the zenith. The initial operating point of laser is optimized. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can retrieve scattering ratio effectively, and by combination with the nonlinear iterative algorithm of wind retrieval, this algorithm can eliminate the effect of aerosol backscattering signal and then improve the atmopheric wind speed and the temperature retrieval accuracy effectively.
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