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An assessment of CALIOP polar stratospheric cloud composition classification
M. C. Pitts, L. R. Poole, A. Lambert,L. W. Thomason
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2013,
Abstract: This study assesses the robustness of the CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization) polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) composition classification algorithm – which is based solely on the spaceborne lidar data – through the use of nearly coincident gas-phase HNO3 and H2O data from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on Aura and Goddard Earth Observing System Model, Version 5 (GEOS-5) temperature analyses. Following the approach of Lambert et al. (2012), we compared the observed temperature-dependent HNO3 uptake by PSCs in the various CALIOP composition classes with modeled uptake for supercooled ternary solutions (STS) and equilibrium nitric acid trihydrate (NAT). We examined the CALIOP PSC data record from both polar regions over the period from 2006 through 2011 and over a range of potential temperature levels spanning the 15–30 km altitude range. We found that most PSCs identified as STS exhibit gas phase uptake of HNO3 consistent with theory, but with a small temperature bias, similar to Lambert et al. (2012). Ice PSC classification is also robust in the CALIOP optical data, with the mode in the ice observations occurring about 0.5 K below the frost point. We found that CALIOP PSCs identified as NAT mixtures exhibit two distinct preferred modes which reflect the fact that the growth of NAT particles is kinetically limited. One mode is significantly out of thermodynamic equilibrium with respect to NAT due to short exposure times to temperatures below the NAT existence temperature, TNAT, with HNO3 uptake dominated by the more numerous liquid droplets. The other NAT mixture mode is much closer to NAT thermodynamic equilibrium, indicating that the particles have been exposed to temperatures below TNAT for extended periods of time. With a few notable exceptions, PSCs in the various composition classes conform well to their expected temperature existence regimes. We have a good understanding of the cause of the minor misclassifications that do occur and will investigate means to correct these deficiencies in our next generation algorithm.
Antarctic stratospheric warming since 1979  [PDF]
Y. Hu,Q. Fu
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2009,
Abstract: In the present study, we show evidence of significant stratospheric warming over large portions of the Antarctic polar region in winter and spring seasons, with a maximum warming of 7–8°C in September and October, using satellite Microwave Sounding Unit observations for 1979–2006. It is found that this warming is associated with increasing wave activity from the troposphere into the stratosphere, suggesting that the warming is caused by enhanced wave-driven dynamical heating. We show that the Antarctic stratospheric warming has close correlations with sea surface temperature (SST) increases, and that general circulation model simulations forced with observed time-varying SSTs reproduce similar warming trend patterns in the Antarctic stratosphere. These findings suggest that the Antarctic stratospheric warming is likely induced by SST warming. As SST warming continues as a consequence of greenhouse gas increases due to anthropogenic activity, Antarctic stratospheric warming would also continue, which has important implications to the recovery of the Antarctic ozone hole.
Characterization of Polar Stratospheric Clouds with spaceborne lidar: CALIPSO and the 2006 Antarctic season  [PDF]
M. C. Pitts,L. W. Thomason,L. R. Poole,D. M. Winker
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2007,
Abstract: The role of polar stratospheric clouds in polar ozone loss has been well documented. The CALIPSO satellite mission offers a new opportunity to characterize PSCs on spatial and temporal scales previously impossible. A PSC detection algorithm based on a single wavelength threshold approach has been developed for CALIPSO. The method appears to accurately detect PSCs of all opacities, including tenuous clouds, with a very low rate of false positives and few missed clouds. We applied the algorithm to CALIOP data acquired during the 2006 Antarctic winter season from 13 June through 31 October. The spatial and temporal distribution of CALIPSO PSC observations is illustrated with weekly maps of PSC occurrence. The evolution of the 2006 PSC season is depicted by time series of daily PSC frequency as a function of altitude. Comparisons with "virtual" solar occultation data indicate that CALIPSO provides a different view of the PSC season than attained with previous solar occultation satellites. Measurement-based time series of PSC areal coverage and vertically-integrated PSC volume are computed from the CALIOP data. The observed area covered with PSCs is significantly smaller than would be inferred from the commonly used temperature-based proxy TNAT but is similar in magnitude to that inferred from TSTS. The potential of CALIOP measurements for investigating PSC composition is illustrated using combinations of lidar backscatter and volume depolarization for two CALIPSO PSC scenes.
Characterization of Polar Stratospheric Clouds with Space-Borne Lidar: CALIPSO and the 2006 Antarctic Season  [PDF]
M. C. Pitts,L. W. Thomason,L. R. Poole,D. M. Winker
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2007,
Abstract: The role of polar stratospheric clouds in polar ozone loss has been well documented. The CALIPSO satellite mission offers a new opportunity to characterize PSCs on spatial and temporal scales previously impossible. A PSC detection algorithm based on a single wavelength threshold approach has been developed for CALIPSO. The method appears to accurately detect PSCs of all opacities, including tenuous clouds, with a very low rate of false positives and few missed clouds. We applied the algorithm to CALIOP data acquired during the 2006 Antarctic winter season from 13 June through 31 October. The spatial and temporal distribution of CALIPSO PSC observations is illustrated with weekly maps of PSC occurrence. The evolution of the 2006 PSC season is depicted by time series of daily PSC frequency as a function of altitude. Comparisons with "virtual" solar occultation data indicate that CALIPSO provides a different view of the PSC season than attained with previous solar occultation satellites. Measurement-based time series of PSC areal coverage and vertically-integrated PSC volume are computed from the CALIOP data. The observed area covered with PSCs is significantly smaller than would be inferred from the commonly used temperature-based proxy TNAT but is similar in magnitude to that inferred from TSTS . The potential of CALIOP measurements for investigating PSC composition is illustrated using combinations of lidar backscatter and volume depolarization for two CALIPSO PSC scenes.
Depolarization ratio of polar stratospheric clouds in coastal Antarctica: comparison analysis between ground-based Micro Pulse Lidar and space-borne CALIOP observations
C. Córdoba-Jabonero, J. L. Guerrero-Rascado, D. Toledo, M. Parrondo, M. Yela, M. Gil,H. A. Ochoa
Atmospheric Measurement Techniques (AMT) & Discussions (AMTD) , 2013,
Abstract: Polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) play an important role in polar ozone depletion, since they are involved in diverse ozone destruction processes (chlorine activation, denitrification). The degree of that ozone reduction is depending on the type of PSCs, and hence on their occurrence. Therefore PSC characterization, mainly focused on PSC-type discrimination, is widely demanded. The backscattering (R) and volume linear depolarization (δV) ratios are the parameters usually used in lidar measurements for PSC detection and identification. In this work, an improved version of the standard NASA/Micro Pulse Lidar (MPL-4), which includes a built-in depolarization detection module, has been used for PSC observations above the coastal Antarctic Belgrano II station (Argentina, 77.9° S 34.6° W, 256 m a.s.l.) since 2009. Examination of the MPL-4 δV feature as a suitable index for PSC-type discrimination is based on the analysis of the two-channel data, i.e., the parallel (p-) and perpendicular (s-) polarized MPL signals. This study focuses on the comparison of coincident δV-profiles as obtained from ground-based MPL-4 measurements during three Antarctic winters with those reported from the space-borne lidar CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization) aboard the CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation) satellite in the same period (83 simultaneous cases are analysed for 2009–2011 austral winter times). Three different approaches are considered for the comparison analysis between both lidar profile data sets in order to test the degree of agreement: the correlation coefficient (CC), as a measure of the relationship between both PSC vertical structures; the mean differences together with their root mean square (RMS) values found between data sets; and the percentage differences (BIAS), parameter also used in profiling comparisons between CALIOP and other ground-based lidar systems. All of them are examined as a function of the CALIPSO ground-track distance from the Belgrano II station. Results represent a relatively good agreement between both ground-based MPL-4 and space-borne CALIOP profiles of the volume linear depolarization ratio δV for PSC events, once the MPL-4 depolarization calibration parameters are applied. Discrepancies between CALIOP and MPL-4 profiles in vertical layering structure are enhanced from 20 km up, likely due to a decrease of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for both lidar systems at those altitudes. Regarding the results obtained from the mean and the percentage differences found between MPL-4 and CALIOP δV profiles, a predominance of negative values is also observed, indicating a generalized underestimation of the MPL-4 depolarization as compared to that reported by CALIOP. However, absolute differences between those δV-profile data sets are no higher than a 10 ± 11% in average. Moreover, the degree of agreement between both lidar δV data sets is slightly dependent on the CALIPSO ground-t
Depolarization ratio of Polar Stratospheric Clouds in coastal Antarctica: profiling comparison analysis between a ground-based Micro Pulse Lidar and the space-borne CALIOP  [PDF]
C. Córdoba-Jabonero,J. L. Guerrero-Rascado,D. Toledo,M. Parrondo
Atmospheric Measurement Techniques Discussions , 2012, DOI: 10.5194/amtd-5-8051-2012
Abstract: Polar Stratospheric Clouds (PSCs) play an important role in polar ozone depletion. In particular ice clouds, type PSC-II, with respect to the type PSC-I (nitric acid clouds) produce the most significant effects. Therefore PSC characterization, mainly focused on PSC-II discrimination is needed. The backscattering (R) and volume linear depolarization (δV) ratios are the parameters usually used in lidar measurements for PSC detection and identification. In this work, an improved version of the standard NASA/Micro Pulse Lidar (MPL-4), which includes a built-in depolarization detection module, has been used for PSC observations above the coastal Antarctic Belgrano II station (Argentina, 77.9° S 34.6° W, 256 m a.s.l.) since 2009. Examination of the MPL-4 δV feature as a suitable index for PSC-type discrimination is based on the analysis of the two-channel data, i.e. the parallel (p-) and perpendicular (s-) polarized MPL signals. This study focuses on the comparison of simultaneous δV-profiles as obtained from ground-based MPL-4 measurements during three Antarctic winters with those reported from the space-borne lidar CALIOP aboard the CALIPSO satellite in the same period (48 simultaneous cases are analysed for 2009–2011 austral winter times). Two different variables are considered for the comparison analysis between both lidar datasets in order to test the degree of agreement: the correlation coefficient (CC) and the percentage difference (BIAS). Results indicate a relatively good correlation between the δV-profiles once MPL-4 depolarization calibration parameters are applied. This correlation is based on the linear fitted height-range of the layered structure, obtaining CC values higher than 0.5 for 54% (26 cases) out of all the analysed cases (48 in total). However, less satisfactory results are found when the BIAS test is used in the comparison procedure to test the degree of agreement between the lidar datasets. A predominance of negative BIAS values are observed showing that the MPL-4 δV values are underestimated with respect to CALIOP data; however, differences between the MPL-4 datasets are no greater than an 11% (absolute value) with respect to CALIOP values. Moreover, the agreement appears to be unexpectedly independent of the CALIPSO ground-track overpass distance from the Belgrano II station. Consequently, differences between the δV datasets are not dominated by spatial inhomogeneity of the PSC field.
The 2009 stratospheric major warming described from synergistic use of BASCOE water vapour analyses and MLS observations
W. A. Lahoz, Q. Errera, S. Viscardy,G. L. Manney
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2011,
Abstract: The record-breaking major stratospheric warming of northern winter 2009 (January–February) is studied using BASCOE (Belgian Assimilation System for Chemical ObsErvation) stratospheric water vapour analyses and MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder) water vapour observations, together with meteorological data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) and potential vorticity (PV) derived from ECMWF meteorological data. We focus on the interaction between the cyclonic wintertime stratospheric polar vortex and subsidiary anticyclonic stratospheric circulations during the build-up, peak and aftermath of the major warming. We show dynamical consistency between the water vapour analysed fields and the meteorological and PV fields. Using various approaches, we use the analysed water vapour fields to estimate descent in the polar vortex during this period of between ~0.5 km day 1 and ~0.7 km day 1. New results include the analysis of water vapour during the major warming and demonstration of the benefit of assimilating MLS satellite data into the BASCOE model.
A global climatology of tropospheric and stratospheric ozone derived from Aura OMI and MLS measurements
J. R. Ziemke, S. Chandra, G. J. Labow, P. K. Bhartia, L. Froidevaux,J. C. Witte
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2011,
Abstract: A global climatology of tropospheric and stratospheric column ozone is derived by combining six years of Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) ozone measurements for the period October 2004 through December 2010. The OMI/MLS tropospheric ozone climatology exhibits large temporal and spatial variability which includes ozone accumulation zones in the tropical south Atlantic year-round and in the subtropical Mediterranean/Asia region in summer months. High levels of tropospheric ozone in the Northern Hemisphere also persist in mid-latitudes over the eastern part of the North American continent extending across the Atlantic Ocean and the eastern part of the Asian continent extending across the Pacific Ocean. For stratospheric ozone climatology from MLS, largest column abundance is in the Northern Hemisphere in the latitude range 70° N–80° N in February–April and in the Southern Hemisphere around 40° S–50° S during August–October. Largest stratospheric ozone lies in the Northern Hemisphere and extends from the eastern Asian continent eastward across the Pacific Ocean and North America. With the advent of many newly developing 3-D chemistry and transport models it is advantageous to have such a dataset for evaluating the performance of the models in relation to dynamical and photochemical processes controlling the ozone distributions in the troposphere and stratosphere. The OMI/MLS gridded ozone climatology data are made available to the science community via the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center ozone and air quality website http://ozoneaq.gsfc.nasa.gov/.
Assimilation of stratospheric and mesospheric temperatures from MLS and SABER into a global NWP model
K. W. Hoppel, N. L. Baker, L. Coy, S. D. Eckermann, J. P. McCormack, G. E. Nedoluha,D. E. Siskind
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2008,
Abstract: The forecast model and three-dimensional variational data assimilation components of the Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System (NOGAPS) have each been extended into the upper stratosphere and mesosphere to form an Advanced Level Physics High Altitude (ALPHA) version of NOGAPS extending to ~100 km. This NOGAPS-ALPHA NWP prototype is used to assimilate stratospheric and mesospheric temperature data from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) and the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) instruments. A 60-day analysis period in January and February 2006, was chosen that includes a well documented stratospheric sudden warming. SABER and MLS temperatures indicate that the SSW caused the polar winter stratopause at ~40 km to disappear, then reform at ~80 km altitude and slowly descend during February. The NOGAPS-ALPHA analysis reproduces this observed stratospheric and mesospheric temperature structure, as well as realistic evolution of zonal winds, residual velocities, and Eliassen-Palm fluxes that aid interpretation of the vertically deep circulation and eddy flux anomalies that developed in response to this wave-breaking event. The observation minus forecast (O-F) standard deviations for MLS and SABER are ~2 K in the mid-stratosphere and increase monotonically to about 6 K in the upper mesosphere. Increasing O-F standard deviations in the mesosphere are expected due to increasing instrument error and increasing geophysical variance at small spatial scales in the forecast model. In the mid/high latitude winter regions, 10-day forecast skill is improved throughout the upper stratosphere and mesosphere when the model is initialized using the high-altitude analysis based on assimilation of both SABER and MLS data.
Validation of Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) ozone profiles and stratospheric ozone columns with Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) measurements
X. Liu, P. K. Bhartia, K. Chance, L. Froidevaux, R. J. D. Spurr,T. P. Kurosu
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2010,
Abstract: We validate OMI ozone profiles between 0.22–215 hPa and stratospheric ozone columns down to 215 hPa (SOC215) against v2.2 MLS data from 2006. The validation demonstrates convincingly that SOC can be derived accurately from OMI data alone, with errors comparable to or smaller than those from current MLS retrievals, and it demonstrates implicitly that tropospheric ozone column can be retrieved accurately from OMI or similar nadir-viewing ultraviolet measurements alone. The global mean biases are within 2.5% above 100 hPa and 5–10% below 100 hPa; the standard deviations of the differences (1σ) are 3.5–5% between 1–50 hPa, 6–9% above 1 hPa and 8–15% below 50 hPa. OMI shows some latitude and solar zenith angle dependent biases, but the mean biases are mostly within 5% and the standard deviations are mostly within 2–5% except for low altitudes and high latitudes. The excellent agreement with MLS data shows that OMI retrievals can be used to augment the validation of MLS and other stratospheric ozone measurements made with even higher vertical resolution than that for OMI. OMI SOC215 shows a small bias of 0.6% with a standard deviation of 2.8%. When compared as a function of latitude and solar zenith angle, the mean biases are within 2% and the standard deviations range from 2.1 to 3.4%. Assuming 2% precision for MLS SOC215, we deduce that the upper limits of random-noise and smoothing errors for OMI SOC215 range from 0.6% in the southern tropics to 2.8% at northern middle latitudes.
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