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An overview of global solar radiation measurements in Ghardaia area, south Algeria
Kacem Gairaa, Yahia Bakelli
International Journal of Energy and Environment , 2011,
Abstract: This paper presents an overview of actual solar radiation data measurements in Ghardaia site (32.360 N, 3.810 W, 450 m above MSL). Global solar radiation and surface temperatures were measured and analyzed for one complete year from 1 January-31December 2005. The data thus recorded are compared with corresponding data of the 22-year average of NASA's surface meteorology and solar energy-model. Hourly, daily and monthly solar radiation was made from five-minute recorded by EKO Pyranometer. The highest measured daily and monthly mean solar radiation was found to be 369 and 326 (W/m2), and the highest five minute averaged solar radiation values up to 1268 (W/m2) were observed in the summer season from May to September, and the yearly average daily energy input was 21.83 (MJ/m2/day). Besides the global solar radiation, the daily and monthly average temperature variations are discussed. The collected data indicate that Ghardaia has a strong potential for solar energy applications.
Olof Palme: One Life, Many Readings  [cached]
Monica Quirico
Nordicum-Mediterraneum , 2011,
Abstract: he aim of this article is not only to review the latest three biographies of Olof Palme, - written respectively by Kjell stberg (2007-9), Klas Eklund (2010) and Henrik Berggren (2010) - but also and above all to identify their methodology, so as to single out some of the controversial points in Palme’s political career, yet leaving out both scandals and vulgar attacks.
Microclimate depending on solar radiation
Ji?í Labudek,Lenka Michnová,Lubomír Martiník,Marcela ?erníková
GRANT journal , 2012,
Abstract: In the project “SP2011/182-Gradient temperature and airflow changes in the transparent shell caused by solar radiation” a long-time measurements in space of emergency staircase near transparent facade shell were taken. The effect of global solar radiation on the microclimate and the thermal stability of the internal environment were monitored. The paper is based on the values obtained from the current measurements in the period May - August 2011.
Tra utopia e realtà: Olof Palme e il socialismo democratico. Antologia di scritti e discorsi, (ed. and trans.) Monica Quirico (Rome: Editori Riuniti university press, 2009)  [cached]
Antonio Calcagno
Nordicum-Mediterraneum , 2012,
Abstract: Swedish statesman and political thinker, Olof Palme (1927–1986), was a remarkable individual. Known for his intellectual capacities and culture as well as his passion and commitment, this visionary left behind a rich political legacy.
G ran Greider, Ingen kommer undan Olof Palme (Stockholm: Ordfront, 2011)
Monica Quirico
Nordicum-Mediterraneum , 2012,
Abstract: In 2011 within the Swedish labour movement many activists dissatisfied with the Social Democratic Party (SAP) – who in 2010 suffered from the second electoral defeat in succession and fell into a never-ending crisis – turned to the legacy of Olof Palme (whose XXV death anniversary was celebrated on February, 28) as a flag of the true Social Democratic tradition, to which it is urgent to come back before the centre-right government achieves a full “paradigm shift”, deregulating further the labour market and privatizing the Welfare State.
Physiological Reaction to Work in Cold Microclimate
Alicja Bortkiewicz, El bieta Gadzicka, Wies aw Szymczak, Agata Szyjkowska, Wies awa Koszada-W odarczyk, Teresa Makowiec-D browska
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health , 2006, DOI: 10.2478/v10001-006-0020-y
Abstract: Objectives: In Poland, occupational exposure to cold microclimate is quite common (5.1 workers/1000 occupationally active people). Reports on health effects of this exposure are rather scarce. The aim of the study was to evaluate the physiological reaction in workers occupationally exposed to cold microclimate. Materials and Methods: Examinations were performed in a group of 102 workers (41 women and 61 men) employed at cold storage units. The mean age in the group was 39.1 ± 9.9 years and the duration of employment under conditions of cold environment was over 12 years. The study population was divided into four groups, according to microclimate conditions (group I, ambient temperature 26°C; group II, 10-14°C; group III, 18-20°C, control group; and group IV, 0-10°C). The workers underwent the following procedures: general medical examinations, cold pressor test, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, and heart rate variability (HRV) analysis (time- and frequency-domain parameters). Results: The results were adjusted for confounding factors (age, smoking and drinking habits). The analysis of HRV parameters did not reveal any significant differences between the study groups. However, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) in the daytime and at night was significantly higher in group IV compared to group II. Mean heart rate (HR) in the daytime and at night and the BP and HR day/night ratio did not differ between the groups. The analysis of BP by gender revealed that in women, systolic BP during the day and at night was significantly higher in group IV than in group II. In the group of workers with hypertension (18 men and 5 women), men reacted to the cold pressor test either by increased or decreased BP while all the women reacted by the increased BP. Conclusions: Our findings indicated that in workers exposed to cold microclimate, the physiological reaction was dependent on gender and ambient temperature. Women seemed to be more sensitive to cold stress than men. However, this finding must be further investigated.
Phytoecological and phytoedaphological characterization of steppe plant communities in the south of Tlemcen (western Algeria)  [PDF]
Bahae-Ddine Ghezlaoui, Noury Benabadji, Nedjwa Benabadji
Open Journal of Ecology (OJE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/oje.2013.38058

In Algeria, the steppe areas of southern Sebdou between Tlemcen, El-Aricha and Mecheria are the scene of an adverse and continuous ecological imbalance often caused by the strong support of human pressure in these ecosystems. In arid and semi-arid regions, salinity remains a constraint for the development of plants. This study focuses on the realization of floristic surveys, where attention was paid to areas occupied by the dominant perennial species (Tamarix gallicaL.). A correspondence analysis by Minitab 15 software has allowed us to individualize the groups of species attracted by some parameters (edaphic, nitrates, humidity), and ecological gradients appear to affect the distribution of these taxa. The study of plant diversity shows the dominance of biological type of therophytes (41%) and morphological type of the Chenopodiaceaes with (25%). For geographical types, the strict Mediterranean and circum-Mediterranean element predominates.


Study of the Temperature Distribution in the Bituminous Concrete Facing Used in Fill Dams in the Semi Arid Region of West Algeria
Lakhdar Djemili,Mohamed Mansour Chiblak
Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: The main objective of this research was first of all to establish a mathematical relationship for the maximum temperature on the surface of the bituminous concrete facing used in existing and future earth dam`s construction in the semi arid region of west Algeria without taking any in-situ experimental measurements. Secondly it was to study the influence of some factors on this temperature. The results which have been obtained showed that the maximum temperature on the surface of the bituminous concrete facing was proportional to the air temperature of the site and also depend on the climatic, geographical and geometric factors.
Spain and the Promotion of Governance in Algeria
Rafael Bustos García de Castro
Revista CIDOB d'Afers Internacionals , 2007,
Abstract: This article examines the reasons why Spain which possesses a consolidated democratic regime continues to promote democracy and even good governance in certain countries in such an uncertain, ambiguous manner. Recent events, such as the impact of international terrorism, have meant that there is an even more urgent need for providing democratic assistance to the neighbouring countries of the Maghreb region. In spite of its initial limitations and slants,the very concept of governance would represent a non-intrusive promotion of democracy. Nevertheless, Spain’s actors in the field of foreign policy and cooperation with development (as the case of Algeria illustrates perfectly) have been clearly reluctant to commit themselves to this course of action. Spain’s patent energy dependence on Algeria (a fact that is often put forward as the main explanatory reason) is called into question, with an argument based not only on the evidence of Spanish action in other countries in regions (such as Tunisia and Latin America), but also in an analysis of the discourses and instruments of Spanish foreign policy. As an alternative explanation, it is suggested that practices that have long been used in Spain’s “Arab” foreign policy, the pending reform of the external service, the Europeisation of external action and the “second-player syndrome” (i.e. second to France), provide a better explanation ofSpain’s ambiguousness and of its slow abandonment of policies that favour the status quo.
The Role of Islamic Fundamentalism in Algeria  [cached]
Zola Sonkosi
Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies , 2012, DOI: 10.5787/28-2-211
Abstract: Algeria and the Islamist challenge For six years, Algeria has been experiencing a true nightmare of terror. Human rights organisations estimate that since 1992, 120 000 people were killed) by armed Islamic groups or state security, among them many civilians. During Ramadan 1998, there were shocking news of cruelly executed and mutilated women, men and children in Koraa, 80 kilometres south-west of the capital Algiers. The alleged culprits were assumed to belong to the Groupe lslamique Armée (GIA). The critical Algerian press increasingly becomes a victim of fanaticism and state censorship4. In order to understand these events better, it is necessary to take a look at the history of this country. In 1962, Algeria celebrated its independence from 132 years of colonial occupation by France. This great event was preceded by a long and bitter war, which was led by the Front De Libération Nationale (FLN), and its ally, the Armée de Libération Nationale (ALN). In 1954, Algerians began to fight the French army that was considered unbeatable. Its defeat was achieved in 1962, but the country was never exposed to democracy and pluralism because the FLN-leadership preferred to practice one-party-rule after the Soviet model. Critics, especially from the ranks of former freedom fighters, among them Mohamed Boudiaf and Hocine Ait Ahmeds, were arrested or forced to go into exile.

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