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Individual Counseling To Private Physicians Concerning Their Prescription Habits. A German Experience  [PDF]
Seidel J
Revue Médicale de l'Assurance Maladie , 2002,
Abstract: In order counteract ever-increasing prescription costs over the last few years combined with the precarious financial state of the health insurance fund of the German Land , Mecklembourg-Pomerany, the minister of social affairs, the health insurance fund and the Union of physicians contracting with the Land came to an agreement. The aim was to contain costs while guaranteeing that prescriptions remained of the highest quality. In order to accomplish this goal, the concerned players developed a common program of counseling and information directed at improving the prescription habits of private physicians. Beforehand, a pharmacy data bank (PLATO) had to be developed, permitting an analysis of the many aspects of the pharmacy prescriptions reimbursed by the health insurance fund. The article presents the preliminary results of this counseling and information-sharing initiative.
Personal Health Practices and Patient Counseling of German Physicians in Private Practice  [PDF]
Edgar Voltmer,Erica Frank,Claudia Spahn
ISRN Epidemiology , 2013, DOI: 10.5402/2013/176020
Abstract: We examined physicians' personal health behaviors and the influence on their patient counseling practices in a representative sample ( ) of physicians in private practice in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. Physicians reported significantly better physical but poorer mental health compared to the general population (GP; ). The majority presented with normal weight (47.9% male, 73.1% female physicians versus 24.5/41.0% GP) or overweight (47.5% male, 20.0% female versus 52.9/35.6% GP). Frequency of exercise and fruit and vegetable consumption was higher than in the GP. About 70% drank coffee or tea more than once a day, but only 13.2% of female and 21.8% of male physicians were current smokers (GP 20.1/30.5%). More than half (56.1%) usually or always counseled a typical patient on exercise versus nutrition (47.0%), weight (45.8%), smoking (39.9%), and alcohol (30.0%). Doctors with better personal exercise, nutrition, smoking, and alcohol behaviors counseled their patients significantly more often on related topics. Despite better physical health and health behaviors in these German doctors compared to the GP, there is room for improvement (smoking, overweight), which could be expected to positively influence the counseling practice and impact of doctors' role modeling on patients. 1. Introduction Chronic, lifestyle-related diseases challenge health care systems worldwide with cardiovascular disease, chronic pulmonary disease, diabetes, and cancer accounting for about two-thirds of global mortality [1]. Lifestyle choices are critical for the prevention of these diseases [2]: WHO reports that the four leading risk factors for noncommunicable diseases are tobacco use, unhealthy diet, insufficient physical activity, and the harmful use of alcohol. Globally, tobacco causes almost six million deaths annually and alcohol 2.3 million. Insufficient exercise increases all-cause mortality 20 to 30%, and fruit and vegetable consumption is important to prevent obesity, cardiovascular disease, and gastrointestinal cancers [1]. For most patients in western societies, physicians in private practice are their first contact regarding their personal health practices. Studies have shown the importance of doctors’ recommendations for their patients’ practices [3]. It has also been shown in North American studies that physicians have healthier habits than the general population and that doctors with the healthiest habits are more likely to counsel their patients about healthy lifestyle practices [4, 5]. In addition, physicians with healthier behaviors, who discuss it with their
Preparation of the primary health care physicians for the management of the private health care offices in Croatia  [PDF]
Rudika Gmajni?,Sanda Pribi?,Ines Drenjan?evi?-Peric,Vesna Ilakovac
Medicinski Glasnik , 2008,
Abstract: Aim Health care system in the Croatia is undergoing major reforms,including re-organization of primary healthcare officesfrom being a part of state-governed primary healthcare units intoprivate practices. To be successful, private practitioner’s teamshave to acquire new skills and knowledge from the fields of legalprovisions, financial management, and capital management of humanresources.Methods 48 teams underwent education in management conductedby a licensed health care manager and a lawyer and an economistspecialist for health care systems, while 54 teams did not undergoany kind of education to prepare them for the market.Results The results of sanitary, financial, tax, health insurance inspectionand audition were satisfactory after three years of followup. Proportion of positive inspection results was stable during thefollow-up period in both groups, but was significantly higher in thegroup with training comparing to the group without training foreach year. Participants in the group with training paid less incometaxes in each year and on average during the 3-year follow-up period,amounts of income tax paid in the second and third year did notdiffer, but were significantly less than in the first year. Amounts ofincome tax significantly changed during the follow-up period inboth groups. There is no significant difference in the number ofwork disputes between the groups.Conclusion Good preparation of future private entrepreneurshipdoctors gave positive long-term results in functioning of privatemedical offices, and should be recommended as a standard.
Research of private label development in Croatia
Sandra Horvat
Tr?i?te/Market , 2009,
Abstract: Private labels have been present on the market since 19th century but their intensive market growth began in the last thirty years after retailers realized what their potential could be in the fight against ever-growing competition. Their market growth has not been distributed equally thought the world so Europe became the region with the highest private label market share, which exceeds 40% on some markets. Although the private label market share in Croatia is considerably smaller, it has also increased steadily over the last decade since private labels were introduced on the market. This paper presents the findings of a research conducted for the purpose of identifying trends in private label development on the Croatian market. The research was conducted through in-depth interviews with private label managers in retail companies in Croatia, and with the managers responsible for private label production in manufacturing companies. The research identified three expected trends of private label development in Croatia and these are: an increase in private label quality, the maintenance of a price gap between private labels and manufacturers’ brands and a further increase in the private label market share.
Smoking habits of physicians in Enugu, Nigeria
TA Okeke
Journal of Community Medicine and Primary Health Care , 2004,
Abstract: Background: Physicians are highly respected in their communities. They play a crucial role in issues related to health and people turn to them for advice and consultation. This study was therefore conducted to determine the prevalence of smoking among physicians in Enugu, Nigeria, a group of health professionals who should act as role models. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive survey was carried out between June and July 2004 at a tertiary health facility located in Enugu, the capital of Enugu state in south-east Nigeria. Information was obtained with the aid of a self-administered structured questionnaire. Results: Of the 450 physicians contacted, 377 completed the questionnaire, giving a response rate of 83.8%. The mean age of the respondents was 30.9 years and majority 319(84.6%) were males. The physicians comprised of about 8 % current smokers, 13.3% ex-smokers and 78.8% who had never smoked. Majority (60%) of smokers began smoking before the age of 20 and reasons for starting included curiosity (55%), peer pressure (35%), stress of medical school (22.5%) and having a family member who smoked (10%). All respondents agreed that smoking is hazardous to health and majority recognized the association between smoking and various diseases. Non -smokers were more likely than smokers to counsel their patients on the dangers of smoking and to consider themselves as role models. This difference was found to be statistically significant (p<0.05). Majority (60.5%) would recommend a ban on smoking in public places, 50.7% an increase in price of cigarettes and 31.3% prohibition of advertisement of cigarettes. Conclusion: Because of their important role as health educators, physicians should not smoke. It is highly recommended that smoking cessation training be implemented in medical schools and also be made available to practicing Nigerian physicians through continuing medical education. A national policy on tobacco control should also be developed and strictly enforced. KEY WORDS: Tobacco smoking; Physicians; Enugu Journal of Community Medicine & Primary Health Care Vol.16(2) 2004: 34-38
Sexually transmitted infections and private physicians in Peru, 2003
Hsieh,Evelyn J.; Blas,Magaly M.; La Rosa Roca,Sayda; Garcia,Patricia J.;
Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S1020-49892006000900002
Abstract: objectives: to analyze demographic and practice characteristics of private physicians in 10 cities of peru, and to shed light on the role of private practice in the delivery of medical care to patients with sexually transmitted infections (stis). methods: as part of an interventional trial designed to improve physician management of stis in 10 cities in peru, detailed information was compiled regarding numbers of physicians in each city. a door-to-door survey was then conducted within each city of all private and public medical offices and institutions. each physician encountered who had a private practice was asked to answer a questionnaire regarding demographic information, medical education, specialty, type of private and public practices currently engaged in, number of sti cases seen per month, and average earnings per consultation. results: of 2 060 physicians working in the 10 cities, 507 reported having a private practice, either exclusively or concurrently with other clinical positions. almost all the private physicians (97.4%) reported managing cases of stis. regional differences among private physicians were found in physician density, gender, and place of medical training. in addition, significant variations by gender were seen in rates of specialization, earnings per consultation, and numbers of female patients with stis seen per month. conclusions: studies of the physician workforce can provide meaningful insights for potential use in addressing public health problems. this study provides valuable information that can help understand the important role of private physicians in managing stis in peru.
Private Personal Information Verification  [PDF]
Hoang Giang Do, Wee Keong Ng
Journal of Information Security (JIS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jis.2017.83015
Abstract: Physical document verification is a necessary task in the process of reviewing applications for a variety of services, such as loans, insurance, and mortgages. This process consumes a large amount of time, money, and human resources, which leads to limited business throughput. Furthermore, physical document verification poses a critical risk to clients’ personal information, as they are required to provide sensitive details and documents to verify their information. In this paper, we present a systematic approach to address shortcomings in the current state of the processes used for physical document verification. Our solution leverages a semi-trusted party data source (i.e. a governmental agency) and cryptographic protocols to provide a secure digital service. We make use of homomorphic encryption and secure multi-party computation to develop a series of protocols for private integer comparison and (non-) membership testing. Secure boolean evaluation and secure result aggregation schemes are proposed to combine the results of the evaluation of multiple predicates and produce the final outcome of the verification process. We also discuss possible improvements and other applications of the proposed secure system of protocols. Our framework not only provides a cost-efficient and secure solution for document verification, but also creates space for a new service.
Association of depressive symptoms with dietary habits among Japanese physicians  [PDF]
Koji Wada, Yukiko Suehiro, Hiroshi Ohta, Toru Yoshikawa, Takashi Hosaka
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2012.23041
Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine the association of depressive symptoms with dietary habits among physicians working in hospitals in Japan. We mailed an anonymous questionnaire with the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology and items about dietary habits to 10,000 randomly selected physicians. Logistic regression analysis was used to explore the association of depressive symptoms with dietary habits. The participants comprised 3862 physicians (3025 men and 837 women). Among the respondents, 252 (8.3%) men and 88 (10.5%) women were determined to be in depressive symptoms. For men, “never eat a balanced diet” (Odds ratio; 95% confidence interval, 2.54; 1.70 - 3.80), and for women “eat quite small meals” (3.81; 1.14 - 13.1), “always eat until full” (4.40; 1.48 - 13.1), and “never eat a balanced diet” (3.05; 1.49 - 6.23) were associated with depressive symptoms. For men, “do not eat too much” (0.57; 0.39 - 0.83) was associated with prevention of depression. Physicians should recognize the important role of healthy dietary habits in good mental health. Hospitals should intervene to help physicians address depressive symptoms and dietary habits.
PERSONAL , PRIVATE , INDIVIDUAL? DEFINING THE CONCEPT OF THE PERSONAL LIBRARY
Iljina, Olga
Knygotyra , 2006,
Abstract: This article presents a terminological analysis of the concept of the personal library. It notes the lack of presision and uniformity in the way the term is used in bibliographical studies and indicates how this phenomenon of the ‘personal library’ is understood by Russian library scholars. In case is made for the view that the term ‘personal (lichnaja) library’ better conveys the essential character of such libraries than consepts such as ‘private (chastnaja) library’, ‘family (semejnaja) library’.
Consumo de tabaco y uso del consejo médico estructurado como estrategia preventiva del tabaquismo en médicos chilenos The influence of smoking habits of Chilean physicians on the use of the structured medical advice about smoking
M. Virginia Araya A,Francisco Leal S,Patricio Huerta G,Nora Fernández A
Revista médica de Chile , 2012,
Abstract: Background: Structured medical advice on smoking is the prevention strategy with better cost-effectiveness ratio. Aim: To evaluate smoking among health care providers affect the application of this preventive strategy. Material and Methods: We surveyed 235physicians working in public and private hospitals in different cities over the country, about their smoking habits, their views on smoking as cardiovascular risk factor and the implementation of three key points of the structured medical advice about smoking. Results: Physicians aged less than 44 years had the lower frequency of smoking and the higher frequency of ex-smokers concentrated among those aged 60 years or more. All surveyed physicians agreed that smoking is a cardiovascular risk factor. However, 21% considered that this risk appears only among those that smoke more than three cigarettes per day. Independent of their smoking habits, 18% of physicians not always ask their patients about smoking, 25% do not warn about the risk of smoking and 22% not always give advice about quitting. This last action is carried out with a significantly lower frequency by smoking physicians. Conclusions: To improve physician's compliance with their preventive role in clinical practice, it is essential to consider their own smoking habits, and the information and attitudes that they have towards smoking as a cardiovascular risk factor.
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