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As pe?as e os mecanismos do crime organizado em sua atividade tráfico de drogas
Oliveira, Adriano;
Dados , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0011-52582007000400003
Abstract: this article uses the mechanism-based explanation as the method to analyze organized crime and the drug traffic. the authors begin by identifying the underlying components of such organized crime mechanisms and then proceed to describe a criminal organization dealing in drugs. the analysis draws on interviews, reports by brazilian public prosecutors' offices, and police information. the empirical data confirm the components of organized crime and demonstrate the bankruptcy of public institutions, to the extent that criminal groups have succeeded in infiltrating these organizations from within and turning them into allies.
The difficulties of determining the notion of organized crime
Mrvi?-Petrovi? Nata?a
Temida , 2004, DOI: 10.2298/tem0401003m
Abstract: The author emphasizes the most significant difficulties and disagreements in determining the notion of organized crime, which, on one hand, come as a result of a complexity and dynamism of a contemporary organized crime, and on the other hand, may lead to passing the inadequate legislation and/or the failure of actions against the organized crime. Pointing out to the differences between contemporary organized crime and theoretical definitions of it from the first decades of the 20th century, the author concludes that the answer to the organized crime should be systematic, and need to include the rule of law and the principles of division and control of state power. The author suggests that the changes are necessary within the present criminal legislature of Serbia. In these changes the emphasis need to be on the protection of victims rather than on special legal solutions and special court, prosecution and police units for suppression of organized crime.
Understanding Drug Trafficking and Organized Crime in Mali  [PDF]
Traore Sekou Amadou
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2019.95012
Abstract: This article is a sociological analysis of the phenomenon of drug trafficking and organized crime in Mali. It seeks to understand the mechanisms of drug trafficking and organized crime. It is based on the qualitative method as the documentary analysis tool. Hybrid theory served as a model of analysis to understand drug trafficking and organized crime in Mali. Sociological analysis of the phenomenon of drugs and organized crime in Mali shows that the size of the territory, poverty and bad governance are the causes of drug trafficking and organized crime. Thus, there is a real link between drug trafficking and organized crime in Mali. Their socio-economic impacts are global, which need a global response to contain.
Organized crime and the outline of a new structure of security in Europe  [PDF]
Fati? Aleksandar
Medjunarodni Problemi , 2004, DOI: 10.2298/medjp0401056f
Abstract: The modern security threats in Europe, and especially in the transitional region of Southeastern Europe, are considerably different from the traditional military threats arising from statehood-related aspirations of the minorities, or from unresolved border issues between neighbours, or between regional aspirations of the former superpowers. Today's security threats emanate primarily from organized crime and terrorism, two curses that have spread their realm across the globe, and that threaten to establish breeding grounds in Southeastern Europe, due to the relatively soft and porous borders, unresolved status of ethnic communities in neighbouring states, internal instability and weakness of the institutions in the region’s states, as well as contradictory and sometimes counterproductive signals that are sent to the region by the large international organizations and influential countries. A particular danger for the region arises from the newly developing "netted" structures of organized crime, which present organized criminal gangs not only as an alternative "industry" to various legitimate social services, an industry whose parts mutually compete, but increasingly as an aspiring government in itself, namely an industry whose parts cooperate, rather than competing, and which tend to reduce the level of competition and increase the level of cooperation across the region, thus threatening the very foundations of the state, and hijacking the state agenda by co-opting various state agencies and officials through corruption, intimidation, or manipulation into collusion. This paper briefly outlines the main currents of development of the structures and aspirations of organized criminal gangs in the region their changing roles in the region's societies, and the perspectives of their organized synergy with terrorist organizations occurring. It also discusses the most effective methods to address these problems and the conditions for their development and implementation in the region. Namely the paper espouses a central argument that aims to show that the logic of development of terrorism in Europe implies that, sooner or later, especially Islamic terrorist organizations will be faced with a very real dilemma of whether or not to establish systematic cooperation with organized crime. Such cooperation would offer tremendous operational advantages to terrorists, with logistics for terrorist actions being provided by organized crime, while at the same time terrorism could provide an umbrella of "political legitimation" through "service to the right cause" of those
Pursuit on an Organized Crime Network  [PDF]
Charles Z. Marshak,M. Puck Rombach,Andrea L. Bertozzi,Maria R. D'Orsogna
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: We model the hierarchical evolution of an organized criminal network via antagonistic recruitment and pursuit processes. Within the recruitment phase, a criminal kingpin enlists new members into the network, who in turn seek out other affiliates. New recruits are linked to established criminals according to a probability distribution that depends on the current network structure. At the same time, law enforcement agents attempt to dismantle the growing organization using pursuit strategies that initiate on the lower level nodes and that unfold as self-avoiding random walks. The global details of the organization are unknown to law enforcement, who must explore the hierarchy node by node. We halt the pursuit when certain local criteria of the network are uncovered, encoding if and when an arrest is made; the criminal network is assumed to be eradicated if the kingpin is arrested. We first analyze recruitment and study the large scale properties of the growing network; later we add pursuit and use numerical simulations to study the eradication probability in the case of three pursuit strategies, the time to first eradication and related costs. Within the context of this model, we find that eradication becomes increasingly costly as the network increases in size and that the optimal way of arresting the kingpin is to intervene at the early stages of network formation. We discuss our results in the context of dark network disruption and their implications on possible law enforcement strategies.
Organized Crime and the Rule of Law in the Russian Federation  [PDF]
Alexandra V. Orlova
Essex Human Rights Review , 2005,
Abstract: This article examines the popular perceptions of ‘organized crime’, its manipulation by variousindividual and institutional entities, and the effect such manipulation has on the development of trustin the rule of law in the Russian Federation. It explores the complex relationships between thediscourses on criminality, the root causes of crime, authoritarian state policies and human rights. Thearticle commences with an historical overview of the utilization of the concept of ‘organized crime’by political elites to pursue ulterior motives related to the accumulation and retention of power. Itfurther explores how the misuse of the concept of ‘organized crime’ by the government has shakenpopular trust in state reforms and displaced the emerging humanistic attitudes of the public. It showshow this public insecurity was used to pursue authoritarian policies under the guise of combatingorganized crime. The article then moves on to discuss contemporary policies directed againstorganized crime within the context of the Yukos case. Subsequently, the article concentrates onexploring how the misuse of the concept of organized crime undermines popular trust in the rule oflaw and results in the population finding private means of co-existing with criminal elements. It thendiscusses the failure of various institutions outside the executive branch of government to generatesufficient momentum for anti-organized crime reforms. Finally, the ‘Americanization’ of the globalfight against organized crime and its impact on Russia is examined. The author concludes that theextension of intrusive measures beyond the realm of organized crime control and the utilization ofsuch measures for political ends, undermines popular trust in the ability of the government to createa system that is subject to the rule of law. This entrenches the popular perception of democraticreforms as something that is foreign to the Russian way of life.
Crime organizado, estado e seguran a internacional Organized crime, the state and international security  [cached]
Marco Cepik,Pedro Borba
Contexto Internacional , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/s0102-85292011000200005
Abstract: O presente artigo versa sobre o crime organizado internacional, buscando debater seus atributos conceituais e avaliá-lo do ponto de vista da seguran a internacional. O problema norteador do trabalho é compreender o fundamento e as consequências da intera o entre autoridade política e crime organizado, analisando, de um lado, as implica es da criminalidade organizada para a soberania e, de outro, as a es governamentais e internacionais para controlar essas organiza es. Nesse sentido, argumentamos que as capacidades de poder acumuladas pelo crime, na medida em que o próprio processo de consolida o do Estado impede que as organiza es criminosas possam almejar substituírem o Estado, s o funcionais ao seu objetivo primário de enriquecimento ilícito. O desenvolvimento do crime organizado n o é exógeno à vida em sociedade ou patológico, e sim parte constituinte da estrutura social, mantendo uma rela o parasitária com a ordem estabelecida. Como o crime organizado tem implica es negativas sobre a capacidade de o Estado prover seguran a e bem-estar para a sociedade, debatemos as a es policiais, judiciárias e de inteligência a que recorrem os governos como meio para controlar as organiza es criminosas. No ambito internacional, verifica-se que há coopera o multilateral e bilateral na matéria, mas que essa agenda n o configura um ambiente de coopera o irrestrita, visto que, assim como internamente, há interesses divergentes e assimetria na distribui o dos custos e dos benefícios da a o conjunta. The present article analyzes international organized crime as an international security problem. Its main purpose is to comprehend the rationale and the consequences of the interaction between political authority and organized crime, analyzing the implications of organized crime for sovereignty as well as domestic and international measures to control such organizations. The central argument is that the capacities developed by criminal organizations are functional to their main goal of illicit enrichment, and their development is not an alien or pathological feature, but a constituent part of the social structure. Since organized crime has negative implications regarding the public sector's ability to provide security and welfare to society, governmental control measures such as policing, intelligence and lawmaking are discussed. At the international level, there is ongoing multilateral and bilateral cooperation on the subject, but this agenda does not create an environment of unrestricted cooperation due to divergent internal interests and conceptions, as well
One view on the position of crime victim in criminal procedure for organized crime
?kuli? Milan Z.
Temida , 2004, DOI: 10.2298/tem0401017s
Abstract: In this paper the position of victim in criminal procedure for organized crime is analyzed. Through recent changes of our criminal procedure law, the special type of procedure is created in relation to organized crime, with inclusion of large number of specific criminal procedure norms. These new solutions contribute to the protection of victims/witnesses, although there are still more space for the improvement. Legislative body still needs to overcome deeply embedded attitude that the witnesses and victims are the exclusive source of evidence, or, in other words, that the witness testimony is only way to find out evidence information. The victim has to be treated at the first place as a person to whom specific position in criminal procedure, with special regard on the protection of her basic rights, should be guaranteed.
Nermin Halilagi?
Human : Research in Rehabilitation , 2011,
Abstract: Organized crime is a complex and in many ways speci c criminal phenomenon, now considered to be the most dangerous form of crime. It appeared relatively recently in both Bosnia and Herzegovina and the other republics of the former Yugoslavia. This work reviews the level of danger organized crime has presented to society through history. The author of the paper also refers to the characteristics of organized crime and highlights the presence of different both international and domestic opinions on the de nition of the concept of organized crime, and the fact that today there is still no universal de nition of the content of this concept. Also mentioned are criminal offenses related to organized crime.
Non-governmental organizations assisting victims of crime in Belgrade: Survey results  [PDF]
Milivojevi? Sanja K.,Mihi? Biljana D.
Temida , 2003, DOI: 10.2298/tem0301037m
Abstract: This paper presents the results of survey regarding non-governmental organizations assisting victims of crime in Belgrade. The survey was completed at the end of 2002 for purposes of establishing a Victim Support Service in Serbia. In introduction authors give a short review of victim support services development in the World and the region, explaining the need for such service in Serbia, the subject and the aim of the article as well as the purpose of the survey. Second part of the paper contains the sample, methodology and the aim of the interview with NGO representatives. In the third section authors present the analysis of the survey data. Finally, in conclusion authors summarize the data and observed problems, suggestions for possible solution and directions of future development of services and organizations assisting victims of crime in Serbia.
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