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Discriminant and concurrent validity of a simplified DSM-based structured diagnostic instrument for the assessment of autism spectrum disorders in youth and young adults
Gagan Joshi, Carter R Petty, Ronna Fried, Janet Wozniak, Jamie A Micco, Aude Henin, Robert Doyle, Maribel Galdo, Meghan Kotarski, Janet Caruso, Benjamin Meller, Stephen V Faraone, Joseph Biederman
BMC Psychiatry , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-244x-11-204
Abstract: To test concurrent validity, we assessed the structured interview's agreement in 123 youth with the expert clinician assessment and the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS). Discriminant validity was examined using 1563 clinic-referred youth.The structured diagnostic interview and SRS were highly sensitive indicators of the expert clinician assessment. Equally strong was the agreement between the structured interview and SRS. We found evidence for high specificity for the structured interview.A simplified DSM-based ASD structured diagnostic interview could serve as a useful diagnostic aid in the assessment of subjects with ASDs in clinical and research settings.Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) comprise a group of neuropsychiatric disorders that include autistic disorder, Asperger's disorder, and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). They are distinguished from other psychiatric disorders by the presence of deficits in reciprocal social behavior, variously accompanied by deficits in communication, and/or repetitive or stereotyped behaviors. The DSM-III-R [1] and DSM-IV [2] have operationalized the required diagnostic criteria necessary for establishing diagnoses of ASDs based on the presence or absence of a set of categorical symptoms.While a thorough evaluation by an expert clinician who has significant experience in specific diagnoses is considered the best method of diagnosing complex conditions such as ASDs, structured diagnostic interviews have been developed to help non-expert clinicians elicit the required information for these diagnoses. The most widely used structured interview tool for establishing a diagnosis of autism in the research setting is the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R). This interviewer requires specelized training in order to administer it, and the training to become proficient in its administration is expensive and time consuming. Additionally, the ADI-R takes at least 2 hours to complete making it of li
METHODS FOR TESTING DISCRIMINANT VALIDITY  [PDF]
Adriana ZAI?,Patricea Elena BERTEA
Management & Marketing , 2011,
Abstract: The study presents three methods which can be used to assess discriminant validity for multi-item scales. Q-sorting is presented as a method that can be used in early stages of research, being more exploratory, while the chi-square difference test and the average variance extracted analysis are recommended for the confirmatory stages of research. The paper describes briefly the three methods and presents evidence from two surveys that aimed to develop a scale for measuring perceived risk in e-commerce.
The convergent and discriminant validity of the need for cognition  [PDF]
Trogrli? Aleksandra,Vasi? Aleksandar
Psihologija , 2009, DOI: 10.2298/psi0902173t
Abstract: The Serbian version of the short form of the Need for Cognition Scale (NCS - Cacciopo et al., 1984) showed acceptable convergent and discriminant validity. In accordance with previous findings, the need for cognition is gender-independent and age-dependent construct. Correlations of the need for cognition with personality traits and intelligence are also in accordance with previous findings. Concerning the personality traits, the most salient correlates are authoritarianism, extraversion, Big Five openness to experience and neuroticism. There is, also, a marginally significant relationship between the need for cognition and conscientiousness. On the level of narrow cognitive abilities, the need for cognition is significantly associated with dimensions of serial and parallel processing. The g-factor has the same effect as the narrower aspects of cognitive functioning.
Discriminant Validity as a Scale Evaluation Criterion: Theory or Statistics?  [cached]
José Antonio Martínez-García,Laura Martínez-Caro
Universitas Psychologica , 2009,
Abstract: Discriminant validity is one of the usual criterions for evaluating measurement scales that define latent constructs in social sciences. This article shows how different statistical procedures frequently used for accomplishing this aim can yield misleading results. Authors recommend a theoretical judgement about divergence among scales that are manifestation of latent concepts. Therefore, content validity represents a robust condition against certain covariance statistical based analysis.
Measuring Servant Leadership: Tests of Discriminant and Convergent Validity of the Servant Leadership Survey
Christy L. Smith, Felicia Nichols, Mark T. Green, Yu Sun
Journal of Management Science and Business Intelligence , 2016, DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.376754
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to analyze the internal reliability, convergent and discriminant validity of the Servant Leadership Survey (SLS). Exploratory factor analysis of the SLS found that 5 of the 9 servant leadership scales were supported. Additional exploratory factor and correlational analyses were performed using the Servant Leadership Survey, Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) and the Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire (LBDQ). The participants in this study consisted of 128 graduate students enrolled in a leadership program in San Antonio, Houston, and Harlingen, Texas who completed the MLQ, LBDQ and the SLS. All participants were employed full time in a variety of organizations including for profit, non-profit and government organizations. Overall findings indicate that although all three instruments likely share an overarching leadership factor, the courage, forgiveness, humility and authenticity scales from the SLS are likely measuring a different aspect of leadership than those of the MLQ and LBDQ.
The Discriminant Validity Of The Culture Assessment Instrument: A Comparison Of Company Cultures  [cached]
Willie Du Toit,Gert Roodt
South African Journal of Human Resource Management , 2003, DOI: 10.4102/sajhrm.v1i1.5
Abstract: The aim of this study was to assess the discriminant validity of the Culture Assessment Instrument (CAI); that is to distinguish between mean culture scores of different companies. The convenience sample consisted of 4066 respondents from five different companies, originating from various industries. CAI scores of 56 items were factor analysed on two levels, followed by iterative item analyses. Significant differences between company mean scores were identified, but only a small portion of the variance in these scores could be ascribed to culture differences. Based on these findings, it was concluded that the CAI in its current form does not possess discriminant validity. It is recommended that items attuned to deeper levels of culture, based on Schein’s three-level typology, be added to the instrument. Opsomming Die doel van die studie was om die diskriminante geldigheid van die ‘Culture Assessment Instrument’ (CAI) te beoordeel; dit is om tussen gemiddelde kultuurtellings van verskillende ondernemings te onderskei. Die geleentheidsteekproef het bestaan uit 4066 respondente uit vyf verskillende ondernemings afkomstig uit verskeie industrie . CAI-tellings van 56 items is op twee vlakke gefaktoranaliseer, gevolg deur iteratiewe itemontledings. Beduidende verskille tussen ondernemings se gemiddelde kultuurtellings is gevind, maar slegs ’n klein proporsie van die variansie in die tellings kon aan kultuurverskille toegeskryf word. Gebaseer op hierdie bevindinge, is daar tot die slotsom gekom dat die CAI in sy huidige vorm nie oor diskriminante geldigheid beskik nie. Daar is aanbeveel dat items gerig op dieper kultuurvlakke, gebaseer op Schein se drievlaktipologie, tot die instrument gevoeg word.
Brief Measure for Screening Complicated Grief: Reliability and Discriminant Validity  [PDF]
Masaya Ito, Satomi Nakajima, Daisuke Fujisawa, Mitsunori Miyashita, Yoshiharu Kim, M. Katherine Shear, Angela Ghesquiere, Melanie M. Wall
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0031209
Abstract: Background Complicated grief, which is often under-recognized and under-treated, can lead to substantial impairment in functioning. The Brief Grief Questionnaire (BGQ) is a 5-item self-report or interview instrument for screening complicated grief. Although investigations with help-seeking samples suggest that the BGQ is valid and reliable, it has not been validated in a broader population. Methodology/Principal Findings A questionnaire was mailed to a randomly selected sample (n = 5000) residing in one of 4 areas of Japan. The BCQ was examined for responders who were bereaved more than 6 months and less than 10 years (n = 915). Non-specific psychological distress was assessed with the K6 screening scale. Multiple group confirmatory factor analysis supported a uni-dimensional factor structure and the invariance of parameters across gender and age. Cronbach's alpha was sufficiently high (alpha = .75) to confirm internal consistency. Average Variance Extracted (0.39) was higher than the shared covariance (0.14) between BGQ and K6, suggesting discriminant validity. Conclusions The results of this study support the reliability and validity of the BGQ in the Japanese population. Future studies should examine predictive validity by using structured interviews or more detailed scales for complicated grief.
DEVELOPMENT, RELIABILITY, CONTENT AND DISCRIMINANT VALIDITY OF SELF-DESCRIPTION ADOLESCENT INVENTORY
Barcelata Eguiarte, Blanca E.,Lucio Gómez-Maqueo, Emilia,Durán Pati?o, Consuelo
Acta Colombiana de Psicología , 2006,
Abstract: In the last years the adolescent population has incremented in a thoughtful way, especially in America, health problems have also raised too. The World Health Organization as well as the World Federation of Mental Health had considered high-priority to aid adolescents due to the emotional and physical stability is the basis for a healthy and full development in the adulthood. The psychological evaluation during adolescence has charged great relevance. The purpose of this paper is to describe the development of a new instrument, the Self-Description Adolescent Inventory, a proposition which goal is the identification of risk factors in the family, social, personal, school, and health dimensions. The development of the instrument was done basically in two studies. The first one, in order to examine the content validity by using kappa concordance coefficients (31 judges participated), and the second one, to evaluate the realibility and the discriminant validity. There were several adolescents samples (13 to 18 years old); 113 pilot sample students, 1660 normal students of public and private high and junior-school, and clinical sample of adolescents attending mental public and private health institutions in Mexico City. The analysis brought up high kappa coefficients (.935) and high Cronbach alphas too (global alpha .90). Significant differences between normal and clinical sample by using t Student were established
Using partial components to restore and use the concurrent validity of the Index of Readiness  [PDF]
Marc Bourdeau,Philippe Delmas,Hélène Sylvain
Tutorials in Quantitative Methods for Psychology , 2012,
Abstract: In the presence of correlations among the dimensions of psychometric tests with summated scales, it is sometimes difficult to use the scores on the dimensions to predict their effects on various responses of interest through ordinary or generalized regression models, which can serve as concurrent validations. We will use the Index of Readiness (IR) as a case study to describe a statistical procedure to address this problem. Our solution will allow us to propose an optimal strategy of care to increase the adherence of HIV patients to treatments, as measured by a health indicator, by improving their readiness.
Concurrent validity of kidney transplant questionnaire in US renal transplant recipients  [cached]
Chisholm-Burns MA,Erickson SR,Spivey CA,Gruessner RWG
Patient Preference and Adherence , 2011,
Abstract: Marie A Chisholm-Burns1,2, Steven R Erickson3, Christina A Spivey1, Rainer WG Gruessner2, Bruce Kaplan4 1Department of Pharmacy Practice and Science, University of Arizona College of Pharmacy, Tucson, AZ; 2Department of Surgery, University of Arizona College of Medicine, Tucson, AZ; 3Department of Clinical Sciences, University of Michigan College of Pharmacy, Ann Arbor, MI; 4Department of Medicine, The University of Arizona College of Medicine Tucson, AZ, USA Background: Valid instrumentation in the assessment of health-related quality of life (HQoL) in renal transplant recipients is critical to identifying particular nuances and determinants of HQoL in this population. Therefore, the validity of disease-specific instruments to measure HQoL in renal transplant recipients, such as the Kidney Transplant Questionnaire (KTQ), needs further investigation. The objective of this study was to assess the concurrent validity of the KTQ in adult US renal transplant recipients using the well established SF-12 Health Survey version 2 (SF-12v2) as the comparison instrument. Methods: One hundred and fourteen renal transplant recipients met the following inclusion criteria for this study, ie, were at least 21 years of age, more than two years post-transplant, and receiving immunosuppressant therapy. Subjects were asked to complete a series of HQoL instruments, ie, the KTQ and the SF-12v2 (physical component summary [PCS-12] and mental component summary [MCS-12]). Descriptive statistics were calculated, and correlational analyses were conducted to examine the concurrent validity of the HQoL instruments. Results: Among 100 participants (87.7% response rate), the majority of participants were male (52%), had deceased donor transplants (63%), and received Medicare benefits (84%). PCS-12 was positively correlated with three of five KTQ subscales (P < 0.05), ie, KTQ-physical (r = 0.43), KTQ-fatigue (r = 0.42), and KTQ-uncertainty/fear (r = 0.2). MCS-12 was positively correlated with all KTQ subscales (P < 0.01), ie, KTQ-physical (r = 0.26), KTQ-fatigue (r = 0.48), KTQ-uncertainty/fear (r = 0.33), KTQ-emotional (r = 0.47), and KTQ-appearance (r = 0.28). Conclusion: The findings support the concurrent validity of the KTQ in US renal transplant recipients. Future studies should continue exploring the validity of the KTQ, as well as its practical and research utility in HQoL measurement in the renal transplant population. Keywords: concurrent validity, kidney transplant questionnaire, quality of life, renal transplant recipients, SF-12 Health Survey
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