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Reviewing the evidence on effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of HIV prevention strategies in Thailand
Juntana Pattanaphesaj, Yot Teerawattananon
BMC Public Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-10-401
Abstract: A systematic review of the national and international literature on HIV prevention strategies from 1997 to 2008 was undertaken. The outcomes used to consider the effectiveness of HIV prevention interventions were changes in HIV risk behaviour and HIV incidence. Economic evaluations that presented their results in terms of cost per HIV infection averted or cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained were also included. All studies were assessed against quality criteria.The findings demonstrated that school based-sex education plus life-skill programs, voluntary and routine HIV counselling and testing, male condoms, street outreach programs, needle and syringe programs, programs for the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission, male circumcision, screening blood products and donated organs for HIV, and increased alcohol tax were all effective in reducing HIV infection among target populations in a cost-effective manner.We found very limited local evidence regarding the effectiveness of HIV interventions amongst specific high risk populations. This underlines the urgent need to prioritise health research resources to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of HIV interventions aimed at reducing HIV infection among high risk groups in Thailand.Since the introduction of the universal health insurance coverage policy in 2001, Thailand has sought to further ensure efficient resource allocation in the health sector [1]. Evidence-based decision making requires that decisions about health and health care are based on best available information. To use such an approach it is necessary to appraise what constitutes evidence in relation to health-enhancing interventions. While the use of effectiveness information alone to justify health care resource allocation is still common practice, decision makers, academics and health care professionals are increasingly interested in cost-effectiveness data to guide policy making. Such evaluation are designed to guide ex
Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of behavioural strategies in the prevention of cigarette smoking  [cached]
Müller-Riemenschneider, Falk,Rasch, Andrej,Bockelbrink, Angelina,Vauth, Christoph
GMS Health Technology Assessment , 2008,
Abstract: Background: The hazardous health effects of smoking and second hand smoke have been confirmed in numerous studies. For Germany, the mortality attributable to smoking is estimated at 110,000 to 140,000 deaths per year, associated with annual smoking-related costs of 17 to 21 billion euro. Because the majority of smokers initiate this habit early in life, behavioural preventive strategies usually tried to prevent the uptake of smoking among children and youths. Objectives: The goal of this HTA is to summarise the current literature on behavioural strategies for smoking prevention and to evaluate their medical effectiveness/efficacy and cost-effectiveness as well as the ethical, social and legal implications of smoking prevention programs. In addition, this report aims to compare the effectiveness and efficacy of different intervention components and to evaluate the reliability of results in the German context. Methods: Relevant publications were identified by means of a structured search of databases accessed through the German Institute of Medical Documentation and Information (DIMDI). In addition a manual search of identified reference lists was conducted. The present report includes German and English literature published between August 2001 and August 2006 targeting youths up to 18 years old. The methodological quality of included studies was assessed according to pre-defined quality criteria, based on the criteria of evidence-based medicine. Results: Among 3,580 publications 37 medical studies met the inclusion criteria. Overall study quality was satisfactory but only half the studies reported smoking uptake as an outcome, while the remaining studies reported alternative outcome parameters. The follow-up duration varied between twelve and 120 months. Although overall effectiveness of prevention programs showed considerable heterogeneity, there was evidence for the long-term effectiveness of behavioural smoking prevention programs. However, the reduction in smoking rates was only moderate. Community and multisectorial interventions reported more conclusive evidence for reductions in smoking rates, while the evidence for school-based programs alone was inconclusive. Only one study from Germany fulfilled the methodological criteria and was included in this report. Three included economic studies focused on school-based interventions. Study results suggested, that the cost-effectiveness of school-based behavioural interventions is positive. Discussion: Behavioural preventive strategies were effective to delay or decrease uptake of smoking behaviour among
Cost-effectiveness of human papillomavirus vaccination for prevention of cervical cancer in Taiwan
Pang-Hsiang Liu, Fu-Chang Hu, Ping-Ing Lee, Song-Nan Chow, Chao-Wan Huang, Jung-Der Wang
BMC Health Services Research , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6963-10-11
Abstract: We developed a Markov model to compare the health and economic outcomes of vaccinating preadolescent girls (at the age of 12 years) for the prevention of cervical cancer with current practice, including cervical cytological screening. Data were synthesized from published papers or reports, and whenever possible, those specific to Taiwan were used. Sensitivity analyses were performed to account for important uncertainties and different vaccination scenarios.Under the assumption that the HPV vaccine could provide lifelong protection, the massive vaccination among preadolescent girls in Taiwan would lead to reduction in 73.3% of the total incident cervical cancer cases and would result in a life expectancy gain of 4.9 days or 8.7 quality-adjusted life days at a cost of US$324 as compared to the current practice. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was US$23,939 per life year gained or US$13,674 per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained given the discount rate of 3%. Sensitivity analyses showed that this ICER would remain below US$30,000 per QALY under most conditions, even when vaccine efficacy was suboptimal or when vaccine-induced immunity required booster shots every 13 years.Although gains in life expectancy may be modest at the individual level, the results indicate that prophylactic HPV vaccination of preadolescent girls in Taiwan would result in substantial population benefits with a favorable cost-effectiveness ratio. Nevertheless, we should not overlook the urgency to improve the compliance rate of cervical screening, particularly for older individuals.Cervical cancer is one of the most common female malignancies worldwide. The cervical cancer rate has declined in Taiwan over the last decade, an effect largely attributed to widespread screening for cervical cancer. Nonetheless, the compliance with cervical screening in Taiwan remains suboptimal that the annual screening rate was 28.6% for women aged over 30 years [1], and the incidence of cervic
Human papillomavirus testing with Pap triage for cervical cancer prevention in Canada: a cost-effectiveness analysis
Shalini L Kulasingam, Raghu Rajan, Yvan St Pierre, C Victoria Atwood, Evan R Myers, Eduardo L Franco
BMC Medicine , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1741-7015-7-69
Abstract: We developed four Markov decision models using data from relevant Canadian and provincial studies and databases. The models were used to determine the number of false positive test results, cancers, lifetime costs and life-expectancy for 27 different screening strategies that varied by age to begin screening (18 or 25 years), screening interval (one, two, three, or five years) and whether the currently recommended strategy (screening every year from age 18 until 21 and then every three years afterwards with conventional Paps) was conducted prior to age 25. Strategies were compared using incremental cost-effectiveness ratios.Screening strategies beginning at age 18 were associated with a substantial increase in the number of false-positive test results but only small differences in the number of cancers compared to the same strategy conducted beginning at age 25. Strategies of human papillomavirus testing first, followed by triage with Pap smears were associated with lower costs and greater increases in life-expectancy than the currently recommended screening strategy in Canada.A strategy of human papillomavirus testing beginning at age 25, with Pap triage for women with positive human papillomavirus results may be more effective at reducing cervical cancer at a lower cost than the current recommended strategy for screening in Canada.In 2008, approximately 1,450 women were expected to be diagnosed with cervical cancer, and 420 women were expected to die from this disease in Canada [1]. The fact that Pap smear-based screening is offered to women in Canada beginning at age 18 until age 70 is attributed as the major reason for a reduction in cervical cancer mortality of almost 50% with respect to historical levels [2].There are, however, continuing concerns with Pap smear-based screening, including the poor reproducibility of results, insufficient sensitivity and, as a result, the need for screening on a relatively frequent basis in order to achieve acceptable program s
Inclusion of the benefits of enhanced cross-protection against cervical cancer and prevention of genital warts in the cost-effectiveness analysis of human papillomavirus vaccination in the Netherlands  [cached]
Westra Tjalke A,Stirbu-Wagner Irina,Dorsman Sara,Tutuhatunewa Eric D
BMC Infectious Diseases , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-13-75
Abstract: Background Infection with HPV 16 and 18, the major causative agents of cervical cancer, can be prevented through vaccination with a bivalent or quadrivalent vaccine. Both vaccines provide cross-protection against HPV-types not included in the vaccines. In particular, the bivalent vaccine provides additional protection against HPV 31, 33, and 45 and the quadrivalent vaccine against HPV31. The quadrivalent vaccine additionally protects against low-risk HPV type 6 and 11, responsible for most cases of genital warts. In this study, we made an analytical comparison of the two vaccines in terms of cost-effectiveness including the additional benefits of cross-protection and protection against genital warts in comparison with a screening-only strategy. Methods We used a Markov model, simulating the progression from HPV infection to cervical cancer or genital warts. The model was used to estimate the difference in future costs and health effects of both HPV-vaccines separately. Results In a cohort of 100,000 women, use of the bivalent or quadrivalent vaccine (both at 50% vaccination coverage) reduces the cervical cancer incidence by 221 and 207 cases, corresponding to ICERs of €17,600/QALY and €18,900/QALY, respectively. It was estimated that the quadrivalent vaccine additionally prevents 4390 cases of genital warts, reducing the ICER to €16,300/QALY. Assuming a comparable willingness to pay for cancer and genital warts prevention, the difference in ICERs could justify a slightly higher price (~7% per dose) in favor of the quadrivalent vaccine. Conclusions Clearly, HPV vaccination has been implemented for the prevention of cervical cancer. From this perspective, use of the bivalent HPV vaccine appears to be most effective and cost-effective. Including the benefits of prevention against genital warts, the ICER of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine was found to be slightly more favourable. However, current decision-making on the introduction of HPV is driven by the primary cervical cancer outcome. New vaccine tenders could consider the benefits of cross-protection and the benefits of genital warts, which requires more balanced decision-making.
Cost-effectiveness of childbirth strategies for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV among mothers receiving nevirapine in India  [cached]
Mukherjee Kanchan
Indian Journal of Community Medicine , 2010,
Abstract: Background: Mother-to-child transmission of HIV is an important mode of spread of HIV in India. With strategies like caesarian section and nevirapine therapy, this spread has been reduced. However, they have costs attached. In this context, this paper attempts to compare the cost-effectiveness of alternative childbirth strategies among HIV-positive mothers receiving nevirapine. Materials and Methods: Using sentinel surveillance data from three districts in Tamil Nadu, a model was created to test the cost-effectiveness of vaginal delivery against elective caesarian section among mothers receiving nevirapine. Sensitivity analysis was applied to evaluate cost per HIV infection prevented. Results: Vaginal delivery is not only cheaper in HIV-infected mothers receiving nevirapine but also cost-effective as compared to elective caesarian section. The incremental cost for preventing an additional HIV infection through caesarian section was Rs. 76,000. Sensitivity analysis reveals that the findings are robust over a range of HIV transmission probabilities, 0.04-0.14 for vaginal delivery and 0.00-0.02 for caesarian section. Conclusions: From a clinical perspective, the findings suggest that pregnant HIV-infected women receiving nevirapine should consider the benefits of a cheaper and safer vaginal delivery. From an economic perspective, the findings support the strategy of vaginal delivery in mothers receiving nevirapine.
Assessment of effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of HPV testing in primary screening for cervical  [cached]
Mittendorf, Thomas,Nocon, Marc,Roll, Stephanie,Mühlberger, Nikolai
GMS Health Technology Assessment , 2007,
Abstract: Introduction: The introduction of a screening programme for cervical carcinoma in Germany has led to a significant reduction in incidence of the disease. To date, however, diagnosis in Germany has been based solely on cervical cytology, which has been criticised because of a low sensitivity and consequently high rate of false negative results. Because an infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV) previously was found to be a necessary aetiological factor in the development of cervical cancer, there has been some discussion that HPV testing should be included in cervical cancer screening. Objectives: How do HPV tests compare to cytological tests in terms of sensitivity and specificity, and what are the effects of screening for cervical carcinoma in Germany? Is there health economic evidence that may foster an inclusion of HPV testing into national screening programms? Methods: A systematic literature review was performed, including studies that compared the HPV test to cervical cytology in terms of sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of CIN 2+ (CIN=Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia). In addition, a systematic review of the relevant health economic literature was performed to analyze cost-effectiveness in the German setting. Results: A total of 24 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. One study consisted of three substudies. Hence, results of 26 comparisons of HPV and cytology are reported. In 25 of these, the HPV test was more sensitive than cytology, whereas cytology had better specificity in 21 studies. The combination of HPV test and cytology increased sensitivity. Variability in results was considerably larger for cytology than for HPV testing. Results of the economic meta-analysis suggest that in health care settings with already established PAP screening programms, cost-effectiveness strongly depends on screening intervals. In analyses comparing HPV screening to conventional PAP screening with two-yearly intervals, only 25% of the HPV strategies were found to be cost-effective, whereas in comparison with one-, three-, and five-yearly PAP screening, the percentage of overall cost-effective HPV strategies was 83%, 55%, and 92%, respectively. Results for annual screening intervals are based on the assumption of complete screening compliance, which has to be further evaluated in decision analyses in the future adapting to the German health care setting. Discussion: Including HPV testing in screening procedures for cervical carcinoma could lead to a reduction in false positive results. Doing so would involve one of the following approach
Screening for cervical cancer: when theory meets reality
Mari Nyg?rd
BMC Cancer , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2407-11-240
Abstract: Cervical cancer prevention activities need to be monitored and evaluated in each country where they are introduced to see that they meet performance standards. Policy-makers responsible for allocating resources for cervical cancer prevention have a duty to allocate resources not only for cervical cancer screening, but also for screening program surveillance.In the medical field, disease prevention is often considered a cost-effective alternative to treatment. This statement is especially true for cervical cancer, where late-stage treatment is expensive and the outcome generally poor. Indeed, in Norway the 5-year relative survival rate for patients with late-stage cancer at the time of diagnosis has remained largely unchanged since 1956, hovering around 10%. In contrast, the same figure is over 90% for patients with stage I cancer [1]. Through screening individuals with asymptomatic preinvasive lesions are identified and treated to halt the process of cancer development. These findings imply that early diagnosis and treatment of cervical disease comprise a powerful strategy to combat the morbidity and mortality associated with cervical cancer. Unfortunately, implementation of these strategies in some parts of the world is not always feasible, and recently the International Agency for Research on Cancer reported that cervical cancer is still the second most common cancer worldwide, and disproportionately affects low-to-medium-income countries [2].There is no doubt that cervical cancer screening reduces the morbidity and mortality due to cervical cancer. In order to determine which screening model would maximize health benefits within a given set of limited resources, decision makers often use cost-effectiveness models. During the last decade, results from mathematical modeling studies have become increasingly important in policy-making discussions on whether to implement human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and/or cervical cancer screening, as well as in the discuss
Adding a quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine to the UK cervical cancer screening programme: A cost-effectiveness analysis
Shalini L Kulasingam, Steve Benard, Ruanne V Barnabas, Nathalie Largeron, Evan R Myers
Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1478-7547-6-4
Abstract: A Markov model of the natural history of HPV infection incorporating screening and vaccination was developed. A vaccine that prevents 98% of HPV 6, 11, 16 and 18-associated disease, with a lifetime duration and 85% coverage, in conjunction with current screening was considered.Vaccination with screening, compared to screening alone, was associated with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of £21,059 per quality adjusted life year (QALY) and £34,687 per life year saved (LYS). More than 400 cases of cervical cancer, 6700 cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and 4750 cases of genital warts could be avoided per 100,000 vaccinated girls. Results were sensitive to assumptions about the need for a booster, the duration of vaccine efficacy and discount rate.These analyses suggest that adding a quadrivalent HPV vaccine to current screening in the UK could be a cost-effective method for further reducing the burden of cervical cancer.Despite a well-organised screening programme in the UK, and a marked decrease in cervical cancer incidence since 1988, there were 3,181 new cervical cancer cases and 1,529 deaths reported in 2002. In 2003, the National Health Service Cervical Screening Programme modified its recommendations by increasing the age to begin screening from 20 years to 25 years combined with a more frequent screening interval (every 3 years in women aged 25 to 49 years and 5 years for women between 50 and 64).Invasive carcinoma of the cervix is preceded by premalignant lesions. These precancerous lesions are defined as cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), and classified as low grade (CIN 1) or high grade (CIN 2 or CIN 3) according to severity. Prevention of cervical cancer has been based on early detection of these precancerous lesions using conventional Pap smear tests or, more recently, liquid-based cytology (LBC) tests. However, with the knowledge that infection with oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) is necessary for the development of cervical can
Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Bivalent and Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus Vaccines from a Societal Perspective in Colombia  [PDF]
Johanna Aponte-González, Luisa Fajardo-Bernal, Jorge Diaz, Javier Eslava-Schmalbach, Oscar Gamboa, Joel W. Hay
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0080639
Abstract: Objective To compare costs and effectiveness of three strategies used against cervical cancer (CC) and genital warts: (i) Screening for CC; (ii) Bivalent Human Papillomavirus (HPV) 16/18 vaccine added to screening; (iii) Quadrivalent HPV 6/11/16/18 vaccine added to screening. Methods A Markov model was designed in order to simulate the natural history of the disease from 12 years of age (vaccination) until death. Transition probabilities were selected or adjusted to match the HPV infection profile in Colombia. A systematic review was undertaken in order to derive efficacy values for the two vaccines as well as for the operational characteristics of the cytology test. The societal perspective was used. Effectiveness was measured in number of averted Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYS). Results At commercial prices reported for 2010 the two vaccines were shown to be non-cost-effective alternatives when compared with the existing screening strategy. Sensitivity analyses showed that results are affected by the cost of vaccines and their efficacy values, making it difficult to determine with certainty which of the two vaccines has the best cost-effectiveness profile. To be ‘cost-effective’ vaccines should cost between 141 and 147 USD (Unite States Dollars) per vaccinated girl at the most. But at lower prices such as those recommended by WHO or the price of other vaccines in Colombia, HPV vaccination could be considered very cost-effective. Conclusions HPV vaccination could be a convenient alternative for the prevention of CC in Colombia. However, the price of the vaccine should be lower for this vaccination strategy to be cost-effective. It is also important to take into consideration the willingness to pay, budgetary impact, and program implications, in order to determine the relevance of a vaccination program in this country, as well as which vaccine should be selected for use in the program.
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