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Transparent Meta-Analysis of Prospective Memory and Aging  [PDF]
Bob Uttl
PLOS ONE , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0001568
Abstract: Prospective memory (ProM) refers to our ability to become aware of a previously formed plan at the right time and place. After two decades of research on prospective memory and aging, narrative reviews and summaries have arrived at widely different conclusions. One view is that prospective memory shows large age declines, larger than age declines on retrospective memory (RetM). Another view is that prospective memory is an exception to age declines and remains invariant across the adult lifespan. The present meta-analysis of over twenty years of research settles this controversy. It shows that prospective memory declines with aging and that the magnitude of age decline varies by prospective memory subdomain (vigilance, prospective memory proper, habitual prospective memory) as well as test setting (laboratory, natural). Moreover, this meta-analysis demonstrates that previous claims of no age declines in prospective memory are artifacts of methodological and conceptual issues afflicting prior research including widespread ceiling effects, low statistical power, age confounds, and failure to distinguish between various subdomains of prospective memory (e.g., vigilance and prospective memory proper).
Ye. Gezovich,An. Bazhynov
Аvtomob?lnyi Transport , 2009,
Abstract: The solution of the problem concerning the demand of spare parts for power units with regard to future conditions of vehicles operation is stated.
Cognitive spare capacity in older adults with hearing loss  [PDF]
Sushmit Mishra,Stefan Stenfelt,Thomas Lunner,Jerker R?nnberg,Mary Rudner
Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fnagi.2014.00096
Abstract: Individual differences in working memory capacity (WMC) are associated with speech recognition in adverse conditions, reflecting the need to maintain and process speech fragments until lexical access can be achieved. When working memory resources are engaged in unlocking the lexicon, there is less Cognitive Spare Capacity (CSC) available for higher level processing of speech. CSC is essential for interpreting the linguistic content of speech input and preparing an appropriate response, that is, engaging in conversation. Previously, we showed, using a Cognitive Spare Capacity Test (CSCT) that in young adults with normal hearing, CSC was not generally related to WMC and that when CSC decreased in noise it could be restored by visual cues. In the present study, we investigated CSC in 24 older adults with age-related hearing loss, by administering the CSCT and a battery of cognitive tests. We found generally reduced CSC in older adults with hearing loss compared to the younger group in our previous study, probably because they had poorer cognitive skills and deployed them differently. Importantly, CSC was not reduced in the older group when listening conditions were optimal. Visual cues improved CSC more for this group than for the younger group in our previous study. CSC of older adults with hearing loss was not generally related to WMC but it was consistently related to episodic long term memory, suggesting that the efficiency of this processing bottleneck is important for executive processing of speech in this group.
Key focal areas for bridging the fields of aging and disability: findings from the growing older with a disability conference
Vishaya Naidoo,Michelle Putnam,Andria Spindel
International Journal of Integrated Care , 2012,
Abstract: Based upon research presented at the 2011 Festival of International Conferences on Caregiving, Disability, Aging and Technology (FICCDAT)-and specifically the Growing Older with a Disability (GOWD) conference, this paper identifies areas where bridging building between aging and disability is needed to support older adults aging into or with disabilities. Five focal areas emerged: 1) The Need to Forward Bridging Between Aging and Disability Sectors, 2) Theoretical Frameworks of Individual Aging that Facilitate Bridging, 3) Bridging through Consumer Participation and Involvement, 4) Bridging Through Knowledge Transfer and 5) Bridging Opportunities in Long-Term Supports and Services and Assistive Technologies. Discussion of themes is provided within both international and Canadian contexts, reflecting the interests of FICCDAT and GOWD organizers in discussing how to improve bridging in Canada. Findings from this report form the basis of the Toronto Declaration on Bridging Aging and Disability Policy, Practice, and Research.
Transparent Electronics  [PDF]
Lokesh D Shah,S. M. Gulhane
International Journal of Advanced Electrical and Electronics Engineering , 2013,
Abstract: Transparent electronics is an emerging science and technology field concentrates on producing ‘invisible’ electronics circuit and optoelectronics devices. The application contains consumer electronics such as automobile windshield, transparent solar panel, transparent display and real time wearable display. In the conventional Si/III-V based electronics, the structure is based on semiconductor junction & transistor. However, the basic building material for transparent electronic devices which is to be transparent and in visible range is a true challenge! .Therefore to understand and implement such technology there are two scientific goals, to have a material which are optically transparent and electrically conductive and to implement an invisible circuitry. Development of such invisible transparent electronic devices needs expertise together from pure and applied science, material science, chemistry, physics &electronic science.
Cues and expressions  [cached]
Thorbj?rg Hróarsdóttir
Nordlyd : Troms? University Working Papers on Language & Linguistics / Institutt for Spr?k og Litteratur, Universitetet i Troms? , 2004,
Abstract: A number of European languages have undergone a change from object-verb to verb-object order. We focus on the change in English and Icelandic, showing that while the structural change was the same, it took place at different times and different ways in the two languages, triggered by different E-language changes. As seen from the English viewpoint, low-level facts of inflection morphology may express the relevant cue for parameters, and so the loss of inflection may lead to a grammar change. This analysis does not carry over to Icelandic, as the loss of OV there took place despite rich case morphology. We aim to show how this can be explained within a cue-style approach, arguing for a universal set of cues. However, the relevant cue may be expressed differently among languages: While it may have been expressed through morphology in English, it as expressed through information structure in Icelandic. In both cases, external effects led to fewer expressions of the relevant (universal) cue and a grammar change took place.
Spare PRELI Gene Loci: Failsafe Chromosome Insurance?  [PDF]
Wenbin Ma, Morgan R. McKeller, Roberto Rangel, Blanca Ortiz-Quintero, Michael R. Blackburn, Hector Martinez-Valdez
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0037949
Abstract: Background LEA (late embryogenesis abundant) proteins encode conserved N-terminal mitochondrial signal domains and C-terminal (A/TAEKAK) motif repeats, long-presumed to confer cell resistance to stress and death cues. This prompted the hypothesis that LEA proteins are central to mitochondria mechanisms that connect bioenergetics with cell responses to stress and death signaling. In support of this hypothesis, recent studies have demonstrated that mammalian LEA protein PRELI can act as a biochemical hub, which upholds mitochondria energy metabolism, while concomitantly promoting B cell resistance to stress and induced death. Hence, it is important to define in vivo the physiological relevance of PRELI expression. Methods and Findings Given the ubiquitous PRELI expression during mouse development, embryo lethality could be anticipated. Thus, conditional gene targeting was engineered by insertion of flanking loxP (flox)/Cre recognition sites on PRELI chromosome 13 (Chr 13) locus to abort its expression in a tissue-specific manner. After obtaining mouse lines with homozygous PRELI floxed alleles (PRELIf/f), the animals were crossed with CD19-driven Cre-recombinase transgenic mice to investigate whether PRELI inactivation could affect B-lymphocyte physiology and survival. Mice with homozygous B cell-specific PRELI deletion (CD19-Cre/Chr13 PRELI?/?) bred normally and did not show any signs of morbidity. Histopathology and flow cytometry analyses revealed that cell lineage identity, morphology, and viability were indistinguishable between wild type CD19-Cre/Chr13 PRELI+/+ and CD19-Cre/Chr13 PRELI?/? deficient mice. Furthermore, B cell PRELI gene expression seemed unaffected by Chr13 PRELI gene targeting. However, identification of additional PRELI loci in mouse Chr1 and Chr5 provided an explanation for the paradox between LEA-dependent cytoprotection and the seemingly futile consequences of Chr 13 PRELI gene inactivation. Importantly, PRELI expression from spare gene loci appeared ample to surmount Chr 13 PRELI gene deficiency. Conclusions These findings suggest that PRELI is a vital LEA B cell protein with failsafe genetics.
Fabrication of Transparent Conductive Zinc Oxide Co-Doped with Fluorine and Zirconium Thin Solid Films by Ultrasonic Chemical Pyrolysis: Effects of Precursor Solution Aging and Substrate Temperature  [PDF]
Luis Casta?eda
Journal of Coatings , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/519140
Abstract: Highly transparent, conducting zinc oxide [ZnO] thin films co-doped with fluorine and zirconium have been deposited on glass substrates by the ultrasonic chemical spraying technique. The effects of aging of the starting solution and substrate temperature on the structural, morphological, and electrical properties of the ZnO:F:Zr films have been studied. The resistivity of the films decreases with the aging time of the starting solution until the seventeenth day reaching a minimum of about ???cm and then increases. Though all the samples are of polycrystalline hexagonal wurtzite type and grow preferentially with (002) plane parallel to the substrate, their morphology depends strongly on the aging time of the reaction solution. The optical transmittance of all the films remained around 80% in the visible spectral range. These highly transparent, low resistive thin films are expected to be highly useful as transparent electrodes in the fabrication of thin film solar cells. 1. Introduction The demand of low-cost and high-performance optoelectronic devices leads to the development of more efficient transparent conductive oxide (TCO) thin films. Among the popular TCOs, the last decade has seen the emergence of zinc oxide [ZnO] as one of the most important materials for manufacturing transparent electrodes utilized in the fabrication of amorphous silicon-based solar cells. Apart from their high optical transparency, the ZnO thin films are highly stable in the hydrogen-plasma environment commonly used for the fabrication of silicon-based p-i-n structures [1]. ZnO thin films have been deposited by a wide variety of techniques, like evaporation [2], sputtering [3], chemical vapor deposition [4, 5], sol-gel [6, 7], and chemical spray [8, 9], among others. Among those, the chemical spray technique has been successfully used for the deposition of conductive and transparent ZnO thin films. Keeping in mind the high optical transparency as one of the basic requirements, incorporation of several dopants has been tried to reduce the resistivity of ZnO films. On the other hand, like all the chemical deposition techniques, chemical spray technique involves several parameters or deposition conditions which control the physical properties of the fabricated thin films. However, a complete knowledge of the effect of deposition conditions on the physical characteristics of ZnO thin films is far from being reached. The spray pyrolysis technique is based on the pyrolytic decomposition of small droplets of a zinc-containing solution onto a heated substrate, under atmospheric
Forecasting Spare Parts Demand Using Statistical Analysis  [PDF]
Raghad Hemeimat, Lina Al-Qatawneh, Mazen Arafeh, Shadi Masoud
American Journal of Operations Research (AJOR) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ajor.2016.62014
Abstract: Spare parts are very essential in most industrial companies. They are characterized by their large number and their high impact on the companies’ operations whenever needed. Therefore companies tend to analyze their spare parts demand and try to estimate their future consumption. Nevertheless, they face difficulties in figuring out an optimal forecasting method that deals with the lumpy and intermittent demand of spare parts. In this paper, we performed a comparison between five forecasting methods based on three statistical tools; Mean squared error (MSE), mean absolute deviation (MAD) and mean error (ME), where the results showed close performance for all the methods associated with their optimal parameters and the frequency of the spare part demand. Therefore, we proposed to compare all the methods based on the tracking signal with the objective of minimizing the average number of out of controls. This approach was tested in a comparative study at a local paper mill company. Our findings showed that the application of the tracking signal approach helps companies to better select the optimal forecasting method and reduce forecast errors.
Youth spare time: Typical patterns of behavior  [PDF]
Stepanovi? Ivana,Videnovi? Marina,Plut Dijana
Sociologija , 2009, DOI: 10.2298/soc0903247s
Abstract: In this research we have tried to identify typical patterns of young people's behavior in their spare time and to use these patterns in order to group our subjects regarding their interests and preferences. Main-component analysis showed that it was possible to find different patterns of secondary school students' behavior in spare time as well as that the identified models could be the criteria for grouping them. Five patterns have been identified describing youth orientations towards their free time: academic orientation, orientation towards sports, orientation towards entertainment, orientation towards spending time going out and orientation towards music and computers.
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