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Anticancer agents from medicinal plants
Mohammad Shoeb
Bangladesh Journal of Pharmacology , 2006,
Abstract: Cancer is a major public health burden in both developed and developing countries. Plant derived agents are being used for the treatment of cancer. Several anticancer agents including taxol, vinblas-tine, vincristine, the camptothecin derivatives, topotecan and irinotecan, and etoposide derived from epipodophyllotoxin are in clinical use all over the world. A number of promising agents such as flavopiridol, roscovitine, combretastatin A-4, betulinic acid and silvestrol are in clinical or preclinical development.
MEDICINAL PLANTS USED AS ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS: A REVIEW  [PDF]
Parmar Namita,Rawat Mukesh
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2012,
Abstract: Infectious diseases are caused by pathogenic microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, parasites or fungi. Diseases can spread, directly or indirectly, from one person to another. Infectious diseases are the second leading cause of death worldwide. About one-fourth of all the medicines we use, come from rainforest plants. However, scientific studies have been conducted only to a limited extent with few medicinal plants. The development of bacterial resistance to presently available antibiotics has necessitated the search of new antibacterial agents. In rural and backward area of India, several plants are commonly used as herbal medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases. Four such plants commonly used by the people of the area were screened for potential antibacterial activity.
EFFECTS OF SOME ANTIDIABETIC MEDICINAL PLANTS ON PANCREAS AND LIVER OF DIABETIC ALBINO RATS  [PDF]
Ashraf M. Mostafa, 1 Abdel Hamid A. Serwah, 2 Waleed S. Mohamed, 3
Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine , 2013,
Abstract: Background and aim of the study- Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disease which affects large number of population all over the world. More than 400 traditional medicinal plants have been recorded for helping in controlling such disease. This study investigated effects of some plants used in Saudi Arabia and some other Arab countries as antidiabetic agents. Materials and Methods: One hundred fifty adult male Albino rats were divided into six experimental groups each consist of twenty five rats. The first group was considered as a control group. The rest of groups were affected by induction of experimental diabetes by subcutaneous injection of Alloxan. The second group consisted of diabetic rats without any treatment. The third group was treated by the aqueous extract of mixture contains Foenugreek, Nigella and Termis seeds. The fourth group was treated with the aqueous extract of Nigella sativa seeds, while the fifth group was treated with the aqueous extract of Foenugreek seeds.The sixth one was treated with the aqueous extract of Termis seeds with the administered dose of the plant extracts (100 mg/kg body weight).After four weeks of treatment, different biochemical parameters were performed including estimation of blood sugar level and serum insulin level. Pancreatic and liver samples were obtained and processed for microscopic and quantitative evaluation after staining the prepared sections with both heamatoxylin and eosin as well as a special stain for demonstration of the different pancreatic cells in the Islet of Langerhans. Results: The usage of the mixture or each plant alone corrected the glucose level and insulin level. Microscopically there was definite decrease in the number and diameter of beta pancreatic cells in the diabetic group, while the other pancreatic cells were not affected (alpha and delta cells). The use of medicinal plants in the different groups of this study greatly improved such cellular changes and the level of blood sugar level was corrected. The present results showed that the activity of the mixture was the best when compared with Nigella, Foenugreek and Termis seeds. Conclusions: The water extract of the mixture is the most powerful in amelioration hyperglycemia and most of all damage effects of Alloxan on the liver and texture, hematological parameters, and lipid profile. So it is advised to use the plant mixture as an antidiabetic agent rather than the use of each plant separately. Repeating such study with the use of variable doses may be helpful in better evaluation for the required doses.
Chromosomal aberrations and nucleic acids systems affected by some Egyptian medicinal plants used in treating female pregnant diabetic rats  [PDF]
Halima S . Abdou, Sherifa H. Salah, Amira Abd El Raouf, E.A. Abdel-Rahim
American Journal of Molecular Biology (AJMB) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ajmb.2011.11004
Abstract: The influences of medicinal plants Juniperus Phoenicea (Araar), Hyphaene thebaica (Doum), An-astatica hierochuntica (Kafta) and Cleome droserifolia (Sammo) as antidiabetic agents were investigated using female pregnant albino rats. Female rats were injected with 60 mg/kg b.w. alloxan to induce diabe-tes. Diabetic rats treated orally with the methanol extracts of tested plants till the 19 day of gestation. The present studies include the frequencies of chro-mosomal aberrations and nucleic acid system of liver in the female pregnant rats and their embryos. The results showed that injection of alloxan caused highly significant increase in chromosomal aberrations as well as in blood glucose levels as a result of diabetes in pregnant females. It also caused a high incidence of chromosomal deviation in embryos and decreased the liver soluble protein contents of female rats and their embryos. These effects in alloxanized animals were treated and improved by ingestion of the methanol extracts of the tested plants (Araar, Doum, Kafta and Somma) in which under their treatments, the inceased level of blood glu-cose of diabetic rats was deceased. Ingestion with the plants methanolic extracts improved and normalized the effects of diabetes in nucleic acids values of liver tissues. These were accompanied with nucleases (RNAase and DNAase) activities. The inhibited ac-tivities of both DNA ase and RNA ase of pregnant rats and their embryos were stimulated and read-justed around the normal values. Also administration of the plants methanol extracts decreased the per-centage of chromosomal aberrations in the female rats and embryos. It is concluded that there are some biochemical dynamics which might occur in the metabo-lism of glucose, nucleic acids and proteins in order to prevent or to reduce the oxidative stress of diabetes by flavonoides treatment.
Medicinal Plants Used as Antitumor Agents in Brazil: An Ethnobotanical Approach
Joabe Gomes de Melo,Ariane Gaspar Santos,Elba Lúcia Cavalcanti de Amorim,Silene Carneiro do Nascimento,Ulysses Paulino de Albuquerque
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/365359
Abstract: In this study, we describe the medicinal plants that have been reported to be antitumor agents and that have been used in ethnobotanic research in Brazil to answer the following questions: what is the abundance of plants reported to be antitumor in Brazil? Have the plant species used for tumor treatment in traditional Brazilian medicine been sufficiently examined scientifically? Our analysis included papers published between 1980 and 2008. A total of 84 medicinal plant species were reported to be used for cancer and tumor prevention or treatment; 69.05% of these were cited as being used for the treatment of tumors and cancer in general and 30.95% for specific tumors or cancers. The plants that were cited at a higher frequency were Aloe vera, Euphorbia tirucalli, and Tabebuia impetiginosa. At least, one pharmacological study was found for 35.71% of the species. Majority of the studies selected were conducted in rural communities and urban areas and in areas with traditional healers in Brazil. We found the following molecules to be the most studied in vitro and in vivo: silibinin, β-lapachone, plumbagin and capsaicin. The species addressed here constitute interesting objects for future studies to various professionals in the field of natural products.
Investigations on anti-diabetic medicinal plants used by Sugali tribal inhabitants of Yerramalais of Kurnool district, Andhra Pradesh, India  [cached]
S Khaleel Basha,G Sudarsanam,M Silar Mohammad,Niaz Parveen
Stamford Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: An Ethno-botanical survey was carried out among the Sugali tribes in Yerramalais of Eastern Ghats, Kurnool District, Andhra Pradesh for the exploration of antidiabetic herbal remedies. Diabetes mellitus is one of the common metabolic disorders with micro-and macrovascular complications that results in significant morbidity and mortality. It is considered as one of the five leading causes of death in the world. In Allopathy medicine no satisfactory effective therapy is still available to cure diabetes mellitus. There is increasing demand by patients to use natural products with antidiabetic activity due to side effects associated with the use of insulin and oral hypoglycemic agents. The art of herbal treatment has very deep roots in Indian culture. Even today in most of the rural areas people are depending on herbal drug systems for primary health care. The indigenous knowledge of local traditional healers and native plants used for the treatment of diabetics related health disorders were collected through questionnaire and personal interviews. A total of 10 informants with in the age group of 50 to 68 were interviewed, among them two were tribal practitioners. A total of 21 genera and 18 families were identified which are being used for the treatment of diabetes. Results depict that fresh plant materials were invariably preferred for the treatment of long term complications associated with diabetics. Anti-diabetic medicinal plants used by Sugalis have been listed along with plant parts used. The collected information's are arranged in the alphabetic order of the plant botanical name, family with the local (or) common name, and mode of use is listed.
Traditional medicinal plants as anticancer agents from Chhattishgarh, India: An overview  [cached]
Ritesh Jain,Sanmati K. Jain
International Journal of Phytomedicine , 2011,
Abstract: An attempt has been made to review some medicinal plants used for the prevention and treatment of cancer in Chhattisgarh. Information on the name of plants, family, parts used and method of preparation has been collected from Ethanobotanical literatures. Information collected has revealed 53 plants species that are used for treatment of cancer in Chhattisgarh. All these plants were further reviewed for scientific evidence, 33 plants out of 53 plants were found for possess anticancer, cytotoxic or antioxidant activity in various preclinical or clinical studies. Keywords: Anticancer, Medicinal plants, Ethanobotanical, Chhattishgarh
PLANTS AS POTENT ANTI DIABETIC AND WOUND HEALING AGENTS- A REVIEW
Sandhya. S*,Sai Kumar.P,,Vinod K.R,David Banji
Hygeia : Journal for Drugs and Medicines , 2011,
Abstract: Wounds generally termed as physical injuries that result in an opening or breaking ofthe skin.There are different types of wounds which range from mild to potentially fatal.Wound healing is impaired in diabetic patients with infection or hyperglycaemia. Diabetes mellitus is one of the major contributors to chronic wound healing problems. The diabetic patients with ulcer become at high riskfor major complications which include infection and amputation. In traditional medicine plants are generally used for treatment of various acute and chronic diseases and abnormalities in the body. Due to the present fast life of the humans a drastic increase in chronic disease conditions mainly diabetes has been determined. Most of these patients tend to face a tremendous problem whenthey get an infected wound. Hence in the current review a list of the plantsused in traditional medicine for the treatment of wounds and diabetes were screened. The work includes a list of traditionally claimed plants used for diabetes and wounds which are scientifically proved as well as scientifically not proved
Comparative Evaluation of Hypoglycaemic Activity of Two Medicinal Plants in Alloxan Diabetic Rats  [PDF]
Sathyanarayanan Srinivasan,Balasubramanian Karundevi
International Journal of Pharmacology , 2005,
Abstract: Aqueous extracts of the seeds of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) and fruits of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) were tested for their hypoglycemic activity. The aqueous extracts or just the solvent alone (control) were orally administered daily for 7 days (short term) or 15 days (long term) to alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Blood glucose and plasma insulin levels and the subsequent effect on Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) were monitored at 3, 6 and 9 h after the last administration. Daily administration of T. foenum graecum for 7 days failed to induce any significant change in the blood glucose levels. However, an extended 15-day treatment regimen was found to significantly reduce the blood glucose levels. The blood glucose levels were found to decrease at 6 and 9 h after the final administration of the extract. In contrast, both 7 and 15 days daily administration of M. charantia reduced the blood glucose levels drastically (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively). Significant reduction in blood glucose levels was observed at 6 and 9 h after the short-term treatment and at 3, 6 and 9 h after the long-term treatment. Long term administration of both T. foenum graecum and M. charantia was found to decrease blood glucose levels during OGTT at 30, 60 and 90 min when compared to OGTT of diabetic animals. There was no change in plasma insulin levels subsequent to administration of either T. foenum graecum or M. charantia. The observed results indicate that T. foenum graecum and M. charantia have hypoglycemic effect. The fact that the plasma insulin levels were unaltered suggests that the probable mechanism does not involve -cell and may be attributable to decrease in intestinal absorption of glucose.
Healing potential of Iranian traditional medicinal plants on burn wounds in alloxan-induced diabetic rats
Pirbalouti, A Ghasemi;Azizi, S;Koohpayeh, A;
Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-695X2011005000183
Abstract: malva sylvestris, punica granatum, amygdalus communis, arnebia euchroma and scrophularia deserti are important medicinal plants in iranian traditional medicine (unani) whose have been used as remedy against edema, burn, and wound and for their carminative, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities. the ethanol extracts of m. sylvestris and p. granatum flowers, a. communis leaves, a. euchroma roots and s. deserti stems were used to evaluate the burn healing activity in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. burns were induced in wistar rats divided into nine groups as following; group-i: normal rats were treated with simple ointment base (control), group-ii: diabetic rats were treated with simple ointment base (control), groups-iii and -vii: diabetic rats were treated with simple ointment base containing of extracts (diabetic animals), groups viii: diabetic rats were treated with simple ointment base containing of mixed extracts, group-ix: diabetic rats received the standard drug (silver sulfadiazine). the efficacy of treatments was evaluated based on wound area, epithelialization time and histopathological characteristics. wound contraction showed that there is high significant difference between the different groups (p<0.001). at the 18th day, a. euchroma, s. deserti, a. communis and mixed extract ointment treated groups healed 80-90%. at the 9th and 18th days the experiment, the best results were obtained with a. communis and standard drug, when compared to the other groups as well as to the controls. it may be concluded that almond leaves (sweet and bitter) formulated in the simple ointment base is effective in the treatment of burns and thus supports its traditional use.
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