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Anthroposophic Therapy for Anxiety Disorders: A Two-year Prospective Cohort Study in Routine Outpatient Settings
Harald J. Hamre, Claudia M. Witt, Gunver S. Kienle, Anja Glockmann, Renatus Ziegler, Stefan N. Willich and Helmut Kiene
Clinical Medicine Insights: Psychiatry , 2012,
Abstract: Background and Methods: Anthroposophic treatment for anxiety disorders includes special artistic and physical therapies and special medications. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 64 consecutive adult outpatients starting anthroposophic treatment for anxiety disorders under routine conditions. Main outcomes were Anxiety Severity (physician and patient ratings 0–10), Self-rating Anxiety Scale (0–100), Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, German version (CES-D, 0–60), and SF-36 Mental Component Summary. Results: Mean age was 42.3 years. Most frequent diagnoses were generalized anxiety disorder (44% of patients, n = 28/64) and panic disorder (39%). Median disease duration was 4.5 years. The anthroposophic treatment modalities used were medications (56% of patients), eurythmy therapy (41%), art therapy (30%), and rhythmical massage therapy (3%). Median number of eurythmy/art/massage sessions was 12, median therapy duration was 120 days. From baseline to six-month follow-up, all outcomes improved significantly; average improvements were: Physician-rated Anxiety Severity 3.60 points (95% confidence interval 2.97–4.22, p < 0.001), patient-rated Anxiety Severity 3.50 (2.88–4.12, p < 0.001), Self-rating Anxiety Scale 11.88 (7.70–16.05, p < 0.001), CES-D 8.79 (5.61–11.98, p < 0.001), and SF-36 Mental Component 9.53 (5.98–13.08, p < 0.001). All improvements were maintained until last follow-up after 24 months. Conclusions: Patients with anxiety disorders under anthroposophic treatment had long-term improvements of symptoms and quality of life.
Anthroposophic therapy for children with chronic disease: a two-year prospective cohort study in routine outpatient settings
Harald J Hamre, Claudia M Witt, Gunver S Kienle, Christoph Meinecke, Anja Glockmann, Stefan N Willich, Helmut Kiene
BMC Pediatrics , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2431-9-39
Abstract: In conjunction with a health benefit program, consecutive outpatients starting anthroposophic treatment for any chronic disease participated in a prospective cohort study. Main outcome was disease severity (Disease and Symptom Scores, physicians' and caregivers' assessment on numerical rating scales 0–10). Disease Score was documented after 0, 6, and 12 months, Symptom Score after 0, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months.A total of 435 patients were included. Mean age was 8.2 years (standard deviation 3.3, range 1.0–16.9 years). Most common indications were mental disorders (46.2% of patients; primarily hyperkinetic, emotional, and developmental disorders), respiratory disorders (14.0%), and neurological disorders (5.7%). Median disease duration at baseline was 3.0 years (interquartile range 1.0–5.0 years). The anthroposophic treatment modalities used were medications (69.2% of patients), eurythmy therapy (54.7%), art therapy (11.3%), and rhythmical massage therapy (6.7%). Median number of eurythmy/art/massage therapy sessions was 12 (interquartile range 10–20), median therapy duration was 118 days (interquartile range 78–189 days).From baseline to six-month follow-up, Disease Score improved by average 3.00 points (95% confidence interval 2.76–3.24 points, p < 0.001) and Symptom Score improved by 2.41 points (95% confidence interval 2.16–2.66 points, p < 0.001). These improvements were maintained until the last follow-up. Symptom Score improved similarly in patients not using adjunctive non-anthroposophic therapies within the first six study months.Children under anthroposophic treatment had long-term improvement of chronic disease symptoms. Although the pre-post design of the present study does not allow for conclusions about comparative effectiveness, study findings suggest that anthroposophic therapies may play a beneficial role in the long-term care of children with chronic illness.Chronic illness affects 15%–18% of children [1] and can lead to functional limitation, depe
Insufficient depression treatment in outpatient settings
Schneider, Frank,Kratz, Sandra,Bermejo, Isaac,Menke, Ralph
GMS German Medical Science , 2004,
Abstract: Background: The present status of outpatient treatment of depression in Germany was evaluated with respect to the adherence of general practitioners (GPs) and specialists of psychiatry to clinical practice guidelines. Methods: In total, 488 depressed patients' psychopathology, diagnostic assessment, therapeutic measures and referral frequency were documented at inclusion into study by 43 general practitioners and 23 specialists of psychiatry in three regions of Germany. The investigation of change in depressive symptoms after six to eight weeks by means of self-assessment could be evaluated for 165 patients. Results: The results of diagnostic assessment demonstrated that diagnoses of depression were not always based on the diagnostic criteria for depression (ICD-10): 33% of GPs' and 17% of specialists' patients were included as depressed patients into the study despite not fulfilling the ICD-10 criteria in the standardized documentation. Therapeutic undertreatment was more often found in the group of GPs. Referrals were found not to be oriented towards guidelines. After six to eight weeks, one half of patients reported a reduction in depressed symptoms, the other half of patients reported a stagnation or even a progression. Conclusions: The study has shown that physicians in outpatient settings still fail to orient themselves towards guideline recommendations. This reflects the need for physicians to receive guideline training, with the aim of improving the quality of care for depression. A quality management intervention program consisting of guideline training and an interdisciplinary quality circle to improve depression treatment and networking was supported by the authors and is currently being evaluated.
Outpatient Healthcare Settings and Transmission of Clostridium difficile  [PDF]
Lucy A. Jury, Brett Sitzlar, Sirisha Kundrapu, Jennifer L. Cadnum, Kim M. Summers, Christine P. Muganda, Abhishek Deshpande, Ajay K. Sethi, Curtis J. Donskey
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0070175
Abstract: Background Recent reports suggest that community-associated Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) (i.e., no healthcare facility admission within 90 days) may be increasing in frequency. We hypothesized that outpatient clinics could be an important source for acquisition of community-associated CDI. Methods We performed a 6-month prospective study of CDI patients to determine frequency of and risk factors for skin and environmental shedding during outpatient visits and to derive a prediction rule for positive cultures. We performed a point–prevalence culture survey to assess the frequency of C. difficile contamination in outpatient settings and evaluated the frequency of prior outpatient visits in patients with community-associated CDI. Results Of 67 CDI patients studied, 54 (81%) had 1 or more outpatient visits within 12 weeks after diagnosis. Of 44 patients cultured during outpatient visits, 14 (32%) had skin contamination and 12 (27%) contaminated environmental surfaces. Decreased mobility, fecal incontinence, and treatment with non-CDI antibiotics were associated with positive cultures, whereas vancomycin taper therapy was protective. In patients not on CDI therapy, a prediction rule including incontinence or decreased mobility was 90% sensitive and 79% specific for detection of spore shedding. Of 84 clinic and emergency department rooms cultured, 12 (14%) had 1 or more contaminated environmental sites. For 33 community-associated CDI cases, 31 (94%) had an outpatient visit during the 12 weeks prior to onset of diarrhea. Conclusions Patients with recent CDI present a significant risk for transmission of spores during outpatient visits. The outpatient setting may be an underappreciated source of community-associated CDI cases.
The Association between Cold Spells and Pediatric Outpatient Visits for Asthma in Shanghai, China  [PDF]
Yuming Guo, Fan Jiang, Li Peng, Jun Zhang, Fuhai Geng, Jianming Xu, Canming Zhen, Xiaoming Shen, Shilu Tong
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0042232
Abstract: Background Asthma is a serious global health problem. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between cold spells and pediatric outpatient visits for asthma. Objective To examine the association between cold spells and pediatric outpatient visits for asthma in Shanghai, China. Methods We collected daily data on pediatric outpatient visits for asthma, mean temperature, relative humidity, and ozone from Shanghai between 1 January 2007 and 31 December 2009. We defined cold spells as four or more consecutive days with temperature below the 5th percentile of temperature during 2007–2009. We used a Poisson regression model to examine the impact of temperature on pediatric outpatient visits for asthma in cold seasons during 2007 and 2009. We examined the effect of cold spells on asthma compared with non-cold spell days. Results There was a significant relationship between cold temperatures and pediatric outpatient visits for asthma. The cold effects on children's asthma were observed at different lags. The lower the temperatures, the higher the risk for asthma attacks among children. Conclusion Cold temperatures, particularly cold spells, significantly increase the risk of pediatric outpatient visits for asthma. The findings suggest that asthma children need to be better protected from cold effects in winter.
Accuracy of telepsychiatric assessment of new routine outpatient referrals
Surendra P Singh, Dinesh Arya, Trish Peters
BMC Psychiatry , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1471-244x-7-55
Abstract: This is a primary, cross-sectional, single-cluster, balanced crossover, blind study involving new routine psychiatric referrals. Thirty-seven out of forty cases fulfilling the selection criteria went through a complete set of independent face to face and video assessments by the researchers who were blind to each other's findings.The accuracy ratio of the pooled results for DSM-IV diagnoses, risk assessment, non-drug and drug interventions were all above 0.76, and the combined overall accuracy ratio was 0.81. There were substantial intermethod agreements for Cohen's kappa on all the major components of evaluation except on the Risk Assessment Scale where there was only weak agreement.Telepsychiatric assessment is a dependable method of assessment with a high degree of accuracy and substantial overall intermethod agreement when compared with standard face to face interview for new routine outpatient psychiatric referrals.Verbal information and visual cues are major and primary ingredients of psychiatric assessment. The sounds and images transmitted through video-conferencing are equivalent to these two parameters respectively. Other factors such as empathy and rapport are also crucial and their influence on the outcome of assessment is well understood but not well quantified. The assumption that video-conferencing would provide results equivalent to those from face-to-face psychiatric interview is related to these corollaries and requires testing and quantification. Trust and confidence in using this technology can be greatly enhanced if this assumption is proved true. In view of rapid developments in hardware, wireless technology and data-transmission, psychiatric intervention through video-conferencing (telepsychiatry) can be an effective mode of service delivery, especially for remotely located population clusters.Meeting mental health needs for remotely and sparsely populated communities has been a challenge to service providers due to various factors including r
Routine HIV Testing in Adolescents and Young Adults Presenting to an Outpatient Clinic in Durban, South Africa  [PDF]
Lynn Ramirez-Avila, Kristy Nixon, Farzad Noubary, Janet Giddy, Elena Losina, Rochelle P. Walensky, Ingrid V. Bassett
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0045507
Abstract: Objectives Although youth (12–24 years) in Sub-Saharan Africa have a high HIV risk, many have poor access to HIV testing services and are unaware of their status. Our objective was to evaluate the proportion of adolescents (12–17 years) and young adults (18–24 years) who underwent HIV testing and the prevalence among those tested in an urban adult outpatient clinic with a routine HIV testing program in Durban, South Africa. Design We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of adolescent and young adult outpatient records between February 2008 and December 2009. Methods We determined the number of unique outpatient visitors, HIV tests, and positive rapid tests among those tested. Results During the study period, 956 adolescents registered in the outpatient clinic, of which 527 (55%) were female. Among adolescents, 260/527 (49%, 95% CI 45–54%) females underwent HIV testing compared to 129/429 (30%, 95% CI 26–35%) males (p<0.01). The HIV prevalence among the 389 (41%, 95% CI 38–44%) adolescents who underwent testing was 16% (95% CI 13–20%) and did not vary by gender (p = 0.99). During this period, there were 2,351 young adult registrations, and of these 1,492 (63%) were female. The proportion consenting for HIV testing was similar among females 980/1,492 (66%, 95% CI 63–68%) and males 543/859 (63%, 95% CI 60–66%, p = 0.25). Among the 1,523 (65%, 95% CI 63–67%) young adults who underwent testing, the HIV prevalence was 22% (95% CI 19–24%) in females versus 14% in males (95% CI 11–17%, p<0.01). Conclusions Although the HIV prevalence is high among youth participating in an adult outpatient clinic routine HIV program, the uptake of testing is low, especially among 12–17 year old males. There is an urgent need to offer targeted, age-appropriate routine HIV testing to youth presenting to outpatient clinics in epidemic settings.
Use of Antibiotics within the IMCI Guidelines in Outpatient Settings in Papua New Guinean Children: An Observational and Effectiveness Study  [PDF]
Nicolas Senn, Patricia Rarau, Mary Salib, Doris Manong, Peter Siba, Stephen Rogerson, Ivo Mueller, Blaise Genton
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0090990
Abstract: Introduction There is a need to investigate the effectiveness and appropriateness of antibiotics prescription within the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) strategy in the context of routine outpatient clinics. Methods Making use of a passive case detection system established for a malaria prevention trial in outpatient clinics in Papua New Guinea, the appropriateness and effectiveness of the use of antibiotics within the IMCI was assessed in 1605 young children. Main outcomes were prescription of antibiotics and re-attendances within 14 days for mild pneumonia, mild diarrhoea and uncomplicated malaria whether they were managed with or without antibiotics (proxy of effectiveness). Appropriateness was assessed for both mild and severe cases, while effectiveness was assessed only for mild diseases. Results A total of 6975 illness episodes out of 8944 fulfilled inclusion criteria (no previous attendance <14 days+full medical records). Clinical incidence rates (episodes/child/year; 95% CI) were 0.85 (0.81–0.90) for pneumonia, 0.62 (0.58–0.66) for malaria and 0.72 (0.65–0.93) for diarrhoea. Fifty three percent of 6975 sick children were treated with antibiotics, 11% were not treated with antibiotics when they should have been and in 29% antibiotics were prescribed when they should not have been. Re-attendance rates within 14 days following clinical diagnosis of mild pneumonia were 9% (126/1401) when managed with antibiotics compared to 8% (56/701) when managed without (adjusted Hazard Ratio (aHR) = 1.00 (0.57–1.76), p = 0.98). Rates for mild diarrhoea were 8% (73/874) and 9% (79/866) respectively (aHR = 0.8 (0.42–1.57), p = 0.53). Conclusion Non-adherence to IMCI recommendations for prescription of antibiotics is common in routine settings in Papua New Guinea. Although recommended, the use of antibiotics in young children with mild pneumonia as defined by IMCI criteria did not impact on their outcome. Better tools and new strategies for the identification of bacterial infections that require antibiotics are urgently needed.
Anthroposophic therapy for attention deficit hyperactivity: A two-year prospective study in outpatients
Harald J Hamre, Claudia M Witt, Gunver S Kienle, et al
International Journal of General Medicine , 2010, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S11725
Abstract: nthroposophic therapy for attention deficit hyperactivity: A two-year prospective study in outpatients Original Research (3843) Total Article Views Authors: Harald J Hamre, Claudia M Witt, Gunver S Kienle, et al Published Date August 2010 Volume 2010:3 Pages 239 - 253 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S11725 Harald J Hamre1, Claudia M Witt2, Gunver S Kienle1, Christoph Meinecke3, Anja Glockmann1, Renatus Ziegler4, Stefan N Willich2, Helmut Kiene1 1Institute for Applied Epistemology and Medical Methodology, Freiburg, Germany; 2Institute of Social Medicine, Epidemiology, and Health Economics, Charité University Medical Center, Berlin, Germany; 3Pediatric Consultant, Community Hospital Havelh he, Berlin, Germany; 4Society for Cancer Research, Arlesheim, Switzerland Background: Anthroposophic treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) includes special artistic and physical therapies and special medications. Methods: We studied 61 consecutive children starting anthroposophic treatment for ADHD symptoms under routine outpatient conditions. Primary outcome was FBB-HKS (a parents’ questionnaire for ADHD core symptoms, 0–3), and secondary outcomes were disease and symptom scores (physicians’ and parents’ assessment, 0–10) and quality of life (KINDL total score, 0–100). Results: A total of 67% of patients fulfilled the DSM-IV criteria for ADHD, 15% had an exclusion diagnosis such as pervasive developmental disorders, while 18% did not fulfill ADHD criteria for another reason. Anthroposophic treatment modalities used were eurythmy therapy (in 56% of patients), art therapy (20%), rhythmical massage therapy (8%), and medications (51%). From baseline to six-month follow-up, all outcomes improved significantly; average improvements were FBB-HKS total score 0.30 points (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.18–0.43; P < 0.001), FBB-HKS inattention 0.36 (95% CI: 0.21–0.50; P < 0.001), FBB-HKS hyperactivity 0.29 (95% CI: 0.14–0.44; P < 0.001), FBB-HKS impulsivity 0.22 (95% CI: 0.03–0.40; P < 0.001), disease score 2.33 (95% CI: 1.84–2.82; P < 0.001), symptom score 1.66 (95% CI: 1.17–2.16; P < 0.001), and KINDL 5.37 (95% CI: 2.27–8.47; P = 0.001). Improvements were similar in patients not using stimulants (90% of patients at months 0–6) and were maintained until last follow-up after 24 months. Conclusion: Children with ADHD symptoms receiving anthroposophic treatment had -long-term improvement of symptoms and quality of life.
Anthroposophic therapy for attention deficit hyperactivity: A two-year prospective study in outpatients  [cached]
Harald J Hamre,Claudia M Witt,Gunver S Kienle,et al
International Journal of General Medicine , 2010,
Abstract: Harald J Hamre1, Claudia M Witt2, Gunver S Kienle1, Christoph Meinecke3, Anja Glockmann1, Renatus Ziegler4, Stefan N Willich2, Helmut Kiene11Institute for Applied Epistemology and Medical Methodology, Freiburg, Germany; 2Institute of Social Medicine, Epidemiology, and Health Economics, Charité University Medical Center, Berlin, Germany; 3Pediatric Consultant, Community Hospital Havelh he, Berlin, Germany; 4Society for Cancer Research, Arlesheim, SwitzerlandBackground: Anthroposophic treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) includes special artistic and physical therapies and special medications.Methods: We studied 61 consecutive children starting anthroposophic treatment for ADHD symptoms under routine outpatient conditions. Primary outcome was FBB-HKS (a parents’ questionnaire for ADHD core symptoms, 0–3), and secondary outcomes were disease and symptom scores (physicians’ and parents’ assessment, 0–10) and quality of life (KINDL total score, 0–100).Results: A total of 67% of patients fulfilled the DSM-IV criteria for ADHD, 15% had an exclusion diagnosis such as pervasive developmental disorders, while 18% did not fulfill ADHD criteria for another reason. Anthroposophic treatment modalities used were eurythmy therapy (in 56% of patients), art therapy (20%), rhythmical massage therapy (8%), and medications (51%). From baseline to six-month follow-up, all outcomes improved significantly; average improvements were FBB-HKS total score 0.30 points (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.18–0.43; P < 0.001), FBB-HKS inattention 0.36 (95% CI: 0.21–0.50; P < 0.001), FBB-HKS hyperactivity 0.29 (95% CI: 0.14–0.44; P < 0.001), FBB-HKS impulsivity 0.22 (95% CI: 0.03–0.40; P < 0.001), disease score 2.33 (95% CI: 1.84–2.82; P < 0.001), symptom score 1.66 (95% CI: 1.17–2.16; P < 0.001), and KINDL 5.37 (95% CI: 2.27–8.47; P = 0.001). Improvements were similar in patients not using stimulants (90% of patients at months 0–6) and were maintained until last follow-up after 24 months.Conclusion: Children with ADHD symptoms receiving anthroposophic treatment had -long-term improvement of symptoms and quality of life.Keywords: anthroposophy, attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity, combined modality therapy, prospective studies, quality of life
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