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Semantics, pragmatics, and formal thought disorders in people with schizophrenia
Salavera C,Puyuelo M,Antoñanzas JL,Teruel P
Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment , 2013,
Abstract: Carlos Salavera, Miguel Puyuelo, José L Anto anzas, Pilar TeruelUniversidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza, SpainBackground: The aim of this study was to analyze how formal thought disorders (FTD) affect semantics and pragmatics in patients with schizophrenia.Methods: The sample comprised subjects with schizophrenia (n = 102) who met the criteria for the disorder according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition Text Revision. In the research process, the following scales were used: Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) for psychopathology measurements; the Scale for the Assessment of Thought, Language, and Communication (TLC) for FTD, Word Accentuation Test (WAT), System for the Behavioral Evaluation of Social Skills (SECHS), the pragmatics section of the Objective Criteria Language Battery (BLOC-SR) and the verbal sections of the Wechsler Adults Intelligence Scale (WAIS) III, for assessment of semantics and pragmatics.Results: The results in the semantics and pragmatics sections were inferior to the average values obtained in the general population. Our data demonstrated that the more serious the FTD, the worse the performances in the Verbal-WAIS tests (particularly in its vocabulary, similarities, and comprehension sections), SECHS, and BLOC-SR, indicating that FTD affects semantics and pragmatics, although the results of the WAT indicated good premorbid language skills.Conclusion: The principal conclusion we can draw from this study is the evidence that in schizophrenia the superior level of language structure seems to be compromised, and that this level is related to semantics and pragmatics; when there is an alteration in this level, symptoms of FTD appear, with a wide-ranging relationship between both language and FTD. The second conclusion is that the subject’s language is affected by the disorder and rules out the possibility of a previous verbal impairment.Keywords: schizophrenia, formal thought disorder, semantics, pragmatics
Semantics, pragmatics, and formal thought disorders in people with schizophrenia
Salavera C, Puyuelo M, Anto anzas JL, Teruel P
Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment , 2013, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S38676
Abstract: ntics, pragmatics, and formal thought disorders in people with schizophrenia Original Research (753) Total Article Views Authors: Salavera C, Puyuelo M, Anto anzas JL, Teruel P Published Date February 2013 Volume 2013:9 Pages 177 - 183 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S38676 Received: 29 September 2012 Accepted: 05 December 2012 Published: 08 February 2013 Carlos Salavera, Miguel Puyuelo, José L Anto anzas, Pilar Teruel Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain Background: The aim of this study was to analyze how formal thought disorders (FTD) affect semantics and pragmatics in patients with schizophrenia. Methods: The sample comprised subjects with schizophrenia (n = 102) who met the criteria for the disorder according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition Text Revision. In the research process, the following scales were used: Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) for psychopathology measurements; the Scale for the Assessment of Thought, Language, and Communication (TLC) for FTD, Word Accentuation Test (WAT), System for the Behavioral Evaluation of Social Skills (SECHS), the pragmatics section of the Objective Criteria Language Battery (BLOC-SR) and the verbal sections of the Wechsler Adults Intelligence Scale (WAIS) III, for assessment of semantics and pragmatics. Results: The results in the semantics and pragmatics sections were inferior to the average values obtained in the general population. Our data demonstrated that the more serious the FTD, the worse the performances in the Verbal-WAIS tests (particularly in its vocabulary, similarities, and comprehension sections), SECHS, and BLOC-SR, indicating that FTD affects semantics and pragmatics, although the results of the WAT indicated good premorbid language skills. Conclusion: The principal conclusion we can draw from this study is the evidence that in schizophrenia the superior level of language structure seems to be compromised, and that this level is related to semantics and pragmatics; when there is an alteration in this level, symptoms of FTD appear, with a wide-ranging relationship between both language and FTD. The second conclusion is that the subject’s language is affected by the disorder and rules out the possibility of a previous verbal impairment.
Além de Piaget? Sim, mas Primeiro Além da Sua Interpreta??o Padr?o!
Louren?o,Orlando;
Análise Psicológica , 1998,
Abstract: piaget's theory has been subject to what may be called its standard interpretation. although made possible by piaget's ambiguity about some of his key concepts (e.g., stage and structure), such an interpretation is greatly due to its focus on piaget's structural-stage theory at the expense of his equilibration theory, and also to its emphasis on factual investigations at the cost of conceptual investigations. in this paper, i show that it is possible and important to go beyond the standard reading of piaget's theory, and to extend or reinterpret it on the basis of the constructivist epistemology that lies at the heart of his work. i argue that when one goes beyond the standard reading of piaget, then in his theory (1) people are not at stages, performances are; (2) age is an indicator, not a criterion, of development; (3) logical necessity, not truth, is the central question of psychogenesis; (4) structures-of-the-whole are formal, not functional, entities; (5) the construction of knowledge is not a solitary, but a social enterprise; (6) there are multiple, not one, developmental pathways; (7) while reasoning, subjects do not follow logical rules, but act and operate upon reality; and (8) meaning and content, not only form and structure, play a central role in operational understanding and development. i also claim that when one goes beyond the standard interpretation of piaget, most of the criticisms against his theory partly lose their empirical content and ?raison d'être?, and one discovers that the problems are somewhat different than they appeared at first.
Toward a Formal Model of the Shifting Relationship between Concepts and Contexts during Associative Thought  [PDF]
Tomas Veloz,Liane Gabora,Mark Eyjolfson,Diederik Aerts
Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: The quantum inspired State Context Property (SCOP) theory of concepts is unique amongst theories of concepts in offering a means of incorporating that for each concept in each different context there are an unlimited number of exemplars, or states, of varying degrees of typicality. Working with data from a study in which participants were asked to rate the typicality of exemplars of a concept for different contexts, and introducing an exemplar typicality threshold, we built a SCOP model of how states of a concept arise differently in associative versus analytic (or divergent and convergent) modes of thought. Introducing measures of state robustness and context relevance, we show that by varying the threshold, the relevance of different contexts changes, and seemingly atypical states can become typical. The formalism provides a pivotal step toward a formal explanation of creative thought proesses.
Beyond Reductionism Twice: No Laws Entail Biosphere Evolution, Formal Cause Laws Beyond Efficient Cause Laws  [PDF]
Stuart Kauffman
Quantitative Biology , 2013,
Abstract: Newton set the stage for our view of how science should be done. We remain in what I will call the `Newtonian Paradigm' in all of physics, including Newton, Einstein, and Schrodinger. As I will show shortly, Newton invented and bequeathed to us `efficient cause entailing laws' for the entire becoming of the universe. With Laplace this became the foundation of contemporary reductionism in which all that can happen in the world is due to efficient cause entailing laws. More this framework stands as our dominant way to do science. The Newtonian Paradigm has done enormous work in science, and helped lead to the Industrial Revolution, and even our entry into Modernity. In this paper I propose to challenge the adequacy of the Newtonian Paradigm on two ground: 1) For the evolution of the biosphere beyond the watershed of life, we can formulate no efficient cause entailing laws that allow us to deduce the evolution of the biosphere. A fortiori, the same holds for the evolution of the economy, legal systems, social systems, and culture. Because I have discussed this before with my colleagues Longo and Montevil (1,2) and elsewhere, (3,4), my discussion of this first point will be rather brief. 2) What I shall choose to call, after Aristotle's four causes, noted below, Formal Cause Laws derived from specific `ensemble theories' tell us about the world. But Formal Cause Laws are not reducible to efficient cause entailing laws of the Newtonian Paradigm and, critically, have already, unnoticed, crept into biology concerning the origin of life, and economics concerning economic growth. Formal cause laws appear to be a new way to do science, independent of efficient cause entailing laws. Thus Formal Cause laws can be independent of any specific material substrate. This may bear on the sufficiency of Materialism in our account of the world.
Creativity in Gifted Education: Contributions from Vygotsky and Piaget  [PDF]
Tania Stoltz, Fernanda Hellen Ribeiro Piske, Maria de Fátima Quintal de Freitas, Marlene Schüssler D’Aroz, Járci Maria Machado
Creative Education (CE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2015.61005
Abstract: This research aims to highlight the importance of developing creativity in the school environment by promoting quality education to gifted students, with contributions from Vygotsky and Piaget. For Vygotsky creativity is inherent in the human condition, and it is the most important activity because it is the expression of consciousness, thought and language. It is the highest expression of subjectivity (Vygotsky, 2010). According to Piagetian theory, Stoltz (2013) points out that although the source of creativity is a mystery to Piaget, it manifests itself doubly: in the construction of knowledge structures and construction of real or structure and cognitive functioning. The method of this research is a bibliographic study of the area of high ability/giftedness, the cultural-historical theory of Vygotsky and Piaget’s genetic epistemology. We conclude that for Vygotsky (2008) as well as for Piaget (1968) the environment has essential importance to the development of creative potential. In the environment the child has his/her experiences that stimulate curiosity, desire to learn, fantasy and imagination. The teacher should enable gifted students to share their high abilities with their couple performing challenging activities in a stimulating and responsive environment.
INFLUENCE OF VIGOTSKY AND PIAGET TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF DEFECTOLOGY  [PDF]
Aleksandar KJORDIC,Petar IVANOVIC,Dragan LUKIC,Svetomir BOJANIN
Journal of Special Education and Rehabilitation , 1997,
Abstract: Vigotsky's work about the problems in defectology point at social dimension of handicap and the need of multidisciplinary approach towards rehabilitation of the handicap persons. His attitude in defectology more humanistic in meeting with handicapped person.Piaget offers to the defectology completely new and more plentiful approaches in the work with the handicapped children, and in providing defectological help to the children, having dis cognitive problems in regular schools, as well.
Piaget e as teorias da evolu??o organica
Almeida, Argus Vasconcelos de;Falc?o, Jorge Tarcísio da Rocha;
Psicologia: Reflex?o e Crítica , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-79722008000300022
Abstract: theories of organic evolution, mainly those proposed by darwin, have strongly influenced human sciences in general, and psychology in particular. piaget has brought from biology several theoretical proposals which gave support to his formulations concerning human ontogenetic development. the theoretical link between biological and psychological formulations was based on the proposition of correspondences and partial isomorphism between evolutionary biology and cognitive development. however, piaget's ideas about phylogenetic evolution of live organisms have had little influence over current biology. nevertheless, epigenetic contemporary theories of biological evolution make use of piaget's propositions, in theoretical opposition to the neo-darwinist views. because of that, it is proposed in this paper the crucial contribution of piaget in terms of the proposition of a common theoretical ground for psychogenesis and organic evolution.
Use of Piaget's theory in preschool nutrition education
Ba?kale, Hatice;Bahar, Zuhal;Ba?er, Günsel;Ari, Meziyet;
Revista de Nutri??o , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S1415-52732009000600012
Abstract: the preschool period is a time when children learn many concepts and develop life-long habits. in that period, children learn about appropriate and balanced nutrition and acquire good eating habits for later years. piaget determined that children's cognitive development is important for their understanding of and learning about the world around them. piaget's theory can be used as a guide in nutrition education. in fact, it helps to design effective nutrition education appropriate for the developmental stages of childhood. the purpose of this article is to describe piaget's theory and nutrition education based on this theory. this article will discuss how piaget's theory is to be used in the development of nutritional habits of preschool children and will make an attempt to provide a viewpoint for those who provide nutrition education.
Piaget and the theories of organic evolution / Piaget e as teorias da evolu o organica  [cached]
Argus Vasconcelos de Almeida,Jorge Tarcísio da Rocha Falc?o
Psicologia: Reflex?o e Crítica , 2008,
Abstract: Theories of organic evolution, mainly those proposed by Darwin, have strongly influenced human sciences in general, and psychology in particular. Piaget has brought from biology several theoretical proposals which gave support to his formulations concerning human ontogenetic development. The theoretical link between biological and psychological formulations was based on the proposition of correspondences and partial isomorphism between evolutionary biology and cognitive development. However, Piaget's ideas about phylogenetic evolution of live organisms have had little influence over current biology. Nevertheless, epigenetic contemporary theories of biological evolution make use of Piaget's propositions, in theoretical opposition to the neo-Darwinist views. Because of that, it is proposed in this paper the crucial contribution of Piaget in terms of the proposition of a common theoretical ground for psychogenesis and organic evolution.
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