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Ergonomic assessment of the posture of surgeons performing endoscopic transurethral resections in urology
Alwin Luttmann, Matthias J?ger, Jürgen S?keland
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1745-6673-4-26
Abstract: Postures were analysed on the basis of video recordings of the surgeons performed in the operation theatre during live operations and subsequent visual posture estimation executed by an observer. In particular, head, trunk and arm positions were assigned to posture categories according to a newly developed posture classification schema. 10 urological operations with direct endoscopy and 9 with monitor endoscopy were included.Application of direct endoscopy coincides with distinct lateral and sagittal trunk and head inclinations, trunk torsion and strong forearm and upper arm elevations of the surgeons whereas operations with monitor endoscopy were performed with an almost upright head and trunk and hanging arms. The disadvantageous postures observed during direct endoscopy are mainly caused by the necessity to hold the endoscope continuously in close contact with the eye.From an ergonomic point of view, application of the video-assisted resection method should be preferred in transurethral endoscopic operations in order to prevent awkward postures of the surgeons and to limit muscular strain and fatigue. Furthermore, the application of the monitor method enables the use of a chair equipped with back support and armrests and benefits the reduction of postural stress.The application of endoscopic operation methods has a long tradition especially in urology. As early as 1879 optical endoscopy began when the urologist Maximilian Nitze demonstrated the first rod-shaped cystoscope equipped with an optical lens system and an electrical light source (for historical review of cystoscopy see [1,2]). In the following decades the instruments were improved by introducing light transmitting glass fibres for the illumination and so-called 'air-lens or rod-lens systems' for the visual inspection of the operation area.Since the first application of such a cystoscope in the last decades of the 19th century until the eighties of the 20th century, i.e. for about 100 years, only "direct
Ergonomic Analysis of UI Bicycle Using Posture Evaluation Index (PEI) Method in Virtual Environment
Erlinda Muslim,Liza Afrinotha,Zulkarnain,Boy Nurtjahyo
Makara Seri Teknologi , 2010,
Abstract: Ergonomic Analysis of UI Bicycle Using Posture Evaluation Index (PEI) Method in Virtual Environment. This research was conducted to study ergonomic aspect from University of Indonesia bicycle in virtual environment. Software Jack 6.0 was used to analyze it. PEI was used as approach that integrated the results of three methods: Lower Back Analysis, Ovako Working Posture Analysis, and Rapid Upper Limb Assessment. The research objective is to evaluate existing design of University of Indonesia bicycle and to determine the most ergonomic redesign which concern with handlebar height and saddle height modification. The result showed that the most ergonomic design of University of Indonesia bicycle is the one with the highest handlebar height (22 cm) and the lowest saddle height (11 cm).
Vestibular signal processing in a subject with somatosensory deafferentation: The case of sitting posture
Jean Blouin, Normand Teasdale, Laurence Mouchnino
BMC Neurology , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2377-7-25
Abstract: Although she was unstable, the deafferented subject (DS) was able to remain seated with the eyes closed in the absence of feet, arm and back supports. However, with the head unconsciously rotated towards the left or right shoulder, the DS's instability markedly increased. Small electrical stimulations of the vestibular apparatus produced large body tilts in the DS contrary to control subjects who did not show clear postural responses to the stimulations.The results of the present experiment show that in the lack of vision and somatosensory information, vestibular signal processing allows the maintenance of an active sitting posture (i.e. without back or side rests). When head orientation changes with respect to the trunk, in the absence of vision, the lack of cervical information prevents the transformation of the head-centered vestibular information into a trunk-centered frame of reference of body motion. For the normal subjects, this latter frame of reference enables proper postural adjustments through vestibular signal processing, irrespectively of the orientation of the head with respect to the trunk.The control of human upright and seated postures is based on information about body orientation and motion [1,2]. Neck-muscle proprioception plays a crucial role to this process as it allows the central nervous system to create an internal estimate of body motion through visual and vestibular signals [3-7].Supporting this view is the early seminal observation made by De Jong and colleagues [8] and Cohen [9] of extensive sensorimotor deficits resulting from injection of local anaesthetics in the neck in animals as well as in humans [8], or from sections of the dorsal roots in monkeys [9]. For instance, in humans, the interruption of afferent flow from neck muscles induces ataxia, staggering gait, hypotonia of lower and upper segments, and a sensation of falling [8].Evidence for cervical and vestibular neural integration is found in the rostral fastigial nuclei. In th
Heterogeneity in the Energy Cost of Posture Maintenance during Standing Relative to Sitting: Phenotyping According to Magnitude and Time-Course  [PDF]
Jennifer L. Miles-Chan, Delphine Sarafian, Jean-Pierre Montani, Yves Schutz, Abdul Dulloo
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0065827
Abstract: Background Reducing sitting-time may decrease risk of disease and increase life-span. In the search for approaches to reduce sitting-time, research often compares sitting to standing and ambulation, but the energetic cost of standing alone versus sitting is equivocal, with large variation in reported mean values (0% to >20% increase in energy expenditure (EE) during standing). Objective To determine the magnitude and time-course of changes in EE and respiratory quotient (RQ) during steady-state standing versus sitting. Design Min-by-min monitoring using a posture-adapted ventilated-hood indirect calorimetry system was conducted in 22 young adults with normal BMI during 10 min of steady-state standing versus sitting comfortably. Results This study reveals three distinct phenotypes based on the magnitude and time-course of the EE response to steady-state standing. One-third of participants (8/22) showed little or no change in EE during standing relative to sitting (ΔEE <5%; below first quartile). Of the 14 responders (ΔEE 7–21%), 4 showed sustained, elevated EE during standing, while 10 decreased their EE to baseline sitting values during the second half of the standing period. These EE phenotypes were systematically mirrored by alterations in RQ (a proxy of substrate oxidation), with ΔEE inversely correlated with ΔRQ (r = 0.6–0.8, p<0.01). Conclusion This study reveals different phenotypes pertaining to both energy cost and fuel utilization during standing, raising questions regarding standing as a strategy to increase EE and thermogenesis for weight control, and opening new avenues of research towards understanding the metabolic and psychomotor basis of variability in the energetics of standing and posture maintenance.
Evaluating Pressure Ulcer Development in Wheelchair-Bound Population Using Sitting Posture Identification  [PDF]
Farve Daneshvar Fard, Sahar Moghimi, Reza Lotfi
Engineering (ENG) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2013.510B027
Abstract:

Pressure ulcers are a common complication among wheelchair-bound population. They are resulted from prolonged exposure to high pressure, which restricts blood flow and leads to tissue necrosis. In this work, a continuous pressure monitoring system is developed for pressure ulcer prevention. The system consists of 64 pressure sensors on a 40×50 cm2 sheet. Real time pressure data and corresponding maps are displayed on a computer simultaneously. Furthermore, a posture detection procedure is proposed for sitting posture identification. Having information about the patient’s postural history, caregivers are capable of a better decision about repositioning and treating the patient.

The effects of kinesio taping on sitting posture and functional independence in children with myelomeningocele: report of four cases  [cached]
Tülay Tarsuslu ?im?ek,Bahriye Türkücüo?lu,Gonca üstünba?,Nilay ?okal
Turk Pediatri Ar?ivi , 2011,
Abstract: Myelomeningocele, is a defect of neural arch which causes body structure and function disorders, participation restrictions and activity limitation in children. Keeping body structure and functions, and gaining functional independence are the most important goals in the rehabilitation of children with myelomeningocele. In this study, we analysed the effects of Kinesio Taping on sitting posture and functional independence in 4 cases with myelomeningocele. (Turk Arch Ped 2011; 46: 177-80)
Photographic measurement of upper-body sitting posture of high school students: A reliability and validity study
Sjan-Mari van Niekerk, Quinette Louw, Christopher Vaughan, Karen Grimmer-Somers, Kristiaan Schreve
BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2474-9-113
Abstract: The study was conducted in a laboratory at the Department of Human Biology, University of Cape Town. A random sample of 40 adolescents were recruited from the Cape metropolitan schools, to detect differences of three degrees or more between the repeated measures of upright, normal or slouched posture (photographs) and between the posture photographs and LODOX measures. Eligible participants were healthy male and female subjects aged 15 or 16 years old, in Grade 10, and who were undertaking Computer or Computype studies at their schools. Two posture measurement tools were used in the study, namely: Photographs were taken using the Photographic Posture Analysis Method (PPAM) and Radiographs were taken using the LODOX (LODOX (Pty) Ltd) system. Subjects' posture was assessed in simulated computer workstations. The following angles were measured: the sagittal head angle, cervical angle, protraction/retraction angle, arm angle and the thoracic angle.Data from 39 subjects (19 males, 20 females) was used for analysis (17 15-year-olds (7 boys and 10 girls), 22 16-year-olds (12 boys and 10 girls)). All but one photographic angle showed moderate to good correlation with the LODOX angles (Pearson r values 0.67–0.95) with the exception being the shoulder protraction/retraction angle Pearson r values. Bland Altman limits of agreement illustrated a slight bias for all angles. The reliability study findings from repeated photographs demonstrated moderate to good correlation of all angles (ICC values 0.78–0.99).The findings of this study suggest that photographs provide valid and reliable indicators of the position of the underlying spine in sitting. Clinically it is important to know whether a patient is showing true progression in relation to a postural intervention. Based on the results of this study, the PPAM can be used in practice as a valid measure of sitting posture.The prevalence of back pain among high school students has been regularly reported to be an international publ
Ergonomic Analysis of Garment Industry using Posture Evaluation Index (PEI) in Virtual Environment
Erlinda Muslim,Boy Nurtjahyo,Romadhani Ardi
Makara Seri Teknologi , 2011,
Abstract: Ergonomic Analysis of Garment Industry using Posture Evaluation Index (PEI) in Virtual Environment. This research tried to study, in a virtual environment, the ergonomics of four divisions in garment industry: cutting division, sewing division, button division, and finishing division. Variables that influence the working conditions in each division are different; depend on the real situations that happened. The purpose is to assess the real working conditions based on ergonomics study using Posture Evaluation Index (PEI). PEI integrates the scores of low back analysis (LBA), ovako working posture (OWAS), and rapid upper limb assessment (RULA). Analysis phase was done using digital human model in virtual environment that available on Jack 6.0. The results show that the working conditions in garment industry had enough amount of risk that can injured the musculoskeletal system of the workers. This research enriches the body of ergonomics knowledge in Indonesia because it is the first research in Indonesia that applied virtual environment approach to ergonomics analysis in industry.
Contributors
Mark Congdon
Partnerships : A Journal of Service-Learning and Civic Engagement , 2013, DOI: 10.7253/partj.v4i1.711
Abstract: Brief biographies about the contributors to this journal issue
Work Ergonomic Hazards for Musculoskeletal Pain among University Office Workers  [cached]
Sunisa CHAIKLIENG,Pornnapa SUGGARAVETSIRI,Yodchai BOONPRAKOB
Walailak Journal of Science and Technology , 2010, DOI: 10.2004/vol7iss2pp169-176
Abstract: This cross-sectional analytic study aimed to investigate ergonomic hazards in the workplace for musculoskeletal pain among university office workers. There were 142 full-time office staff from Khon Kaen University. Demographic characteristics and musculoskeletal pain were evaluated from a structured questionnaire. Ergonomic workstations, i.e. size of table, seat, work area and illuminations were measured at the workstations and anthropometric parameters were determined. Descriptive statistics were used for data analysis which were percentage, mean, and standard deviation. Inferential statistics were chi-square test and the student t-test at 95 % confidence interval. The results showed that 81.7 % of office workers were female, the mean age was 38.0 ± 10.0 years, the average work experience was 12.3 ± 10.8 years. One-month prevalence of musculoskeletal pain was 69.0 %. The onset of symptoms was during working hours and the majorly reported the cause as prolonged sitting in the same posture at work (73.3 %). From measurements, 55.8 % of all workstations had insufficient illumination being lower than the minimum standard requirement (400 lux). Most workstations (75.6 %) had significantly inappropriate height (above elbow height of workers) at p < 0.001. From questionnaires, the seat height was significantly associated with musculoskeletal pain (p = 0.034). Moreover, anthropometric characteristics of musculoskeletal pain cases (i.e. buttock-popliteal length, hip breadth, sitting elbow height) were significantly different from healthy office workers (p < 0.05). The findings suggest that ergonomic workstations need to be improved appropriately for individual workers and improvements in working conditions following standard requirements should be considered.
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