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Tumor inhibition and Cytotoxicity assay by aqueous extract of onion (Allium cepa) & Garlic (Allium sativum): an in-vitro analysis  [cached]
Shilpa Shrivastava,N. Ganesh
International Journal of Phytomedicine , 2011,
Abstract: The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of aqueous extract of four different varieties of Allium cepa (Onion) & Allium sativum (Garlic) on B16F10 Melanoma cell population by ex-vivo. For cytotoxicity assay, cellular micronucleus, apoptotic assay and cell viability assay were followed. Our results showed significant activity of garlic and onion as cytoprotective agents of normal cells and cytotoxicity agents for tumor cells. A significant decrease in Melanoma B16F10 cell population by crude extract was observed. Therefore, Allium cepa & Allium sativum might be a candidate for naturally healing the tumor. Keywords: Allium cepa; Allium sativum; B16F10 Melanoma; cell lines; in- vitro culture
Estudio microbiológico de ajo(Allium sativum L.) y cebolla (Allium cepa L.) deshidratados Microbiological study of garlic (Allium sativum L.) and onion (Allium cepaL.) dehydrated
S.R. Fuselli,B. Filsinger,R. Fritz,M.I. Yeannes
Revista argentina de microbiolog?-a , 2004,
Abstract: En este trabajo se efectuó un estudio microbiológico durante la deshidratación y el almacenamiento de ajo (Allium sativum L.) y de cebolla (Allium cepa L.). Al ajo se le efectuó un proceso de escaldado y a la cebolla un salmuereado previo a la deshidratación. En las materias primas los recuentos promedio expresados en UFC/g fueron: bacterias aerobias mesófilas entre 1,2 x 102y 1,6 x 103, mohos y levaduras entre 60 y 1,6 x 103, Lactobacillus spp. y Leuconostocmesenteroidessubesp. mesenteroides entre 10 y 50.Se identificaron: Penicillium spp., Monilia spp. Lactobacillus brevis,Leuconostoc mesenteroides subesp. mesenteroides y levaduras en ajo; Mucor spp., Penicillium spp., Monilia spp., Lactobacillus brevis y levaduras en dos tipos de cebolla. Leuconostoc mesenteroides subesp. mesenteroides sólo se detectó en un tipo de cebolla. En ajos deshidratados y durante el almacenamiento se hallaron Penicillium spp., Monilia spp., Lactobacillus brevis y levaduras mientras que los mismos con escaldado no presentaron desarrollo. Mucor spp., Penicillium spp., Monilia spp. y Lactobacillus brevis se identificaron en los dos tipos de cebolla deshidratadas. Con la incorporación del salmuereado la microflora se redujo significativamente hallándose solamente Penicillium spp. La utilización de barreras adicionales de control microbiano tales como escaldado y salmuereado produce un aporte importante a la estabilidad microbiológica de los productos. A microbiological study during the process and the storage of garlic (Allium sativum L.) and onion (Allium cepa L.) dehydrated, with the additional barriers of blanching or brine immersion, was made. In all raw materials the average counts of aerobic mesophilic bacteria expressed in CFU/g ranged from 1.2 x 102to 1.6 x 103, molds and yeasts from 60 to 1.6 x 103, Lactobacillus spp. and Leuconostocmesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides between 10 and 50. Microorganisms identified were Penicillium spp., Monilia spp., Lactobacillus brevis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides and yeasts in garlic; Mucor spp., Penicillium spp., Monilia spp., Lactobacillus brevis and yeasts in both types of onions. Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides was detected in only kind of onion. In dehydrated garlic storage, Penicillium spp., Monilia spp., Lactobacillus brevis and yeasts were detected. In garlic, when a blanching step was carried out no microflora was detected. Mucor spp., Penicillium spp., Monilia spp. and Lactobacillus brevis were identified in both types of dehydrated onions. When brine immersion was included the microflora dete
Effects of Feeding Onion (Allium cepa) and Garlic (Allium sativum) on Some Performance Characteristics of Broiler Chickens
Slyranda Baltini Aji,Kennedy Ignatius,Asha` Adatu Y. Ado,Joel Bakari Nuhu,Auwal Abdulkarim,Usman Aliyu,Muhammad Bello Gambo,Mohammed Adamu Ibrahim,Haruna Abubakar,Mohammed M. Bukar,Hama`Adama M. Imam,Patrick T. Numan
Research Journal of Poultry Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/rjpscience.2011.22.27
Abstract: In view of the current shift towards the use of growth promoters of natural origin, this study was carried out to determine the effects of feeding onion and garlic on some performance characteristics (body weight, feed intake, water intake, feed conversion ratio, feeding cost and carcass yield) of broiler chickens. A total of 104,4 weeks old broiler chickens were divided into 2 equal groups of 62 birds each at random (one for onion and the other for garlic) and used in the study. The result of the study revealed that garlic and onion significantly (p<0.05) increased the body weight of birds at 50 and 100 mg dose whereas only 100 mg of onion significantly (p<0.05) increased their feed and water intake. There was improvement in the feed conversion ratio of all the treated birds but those of the group that were given onion appeared better. The study also revealed that onion at 25 and 50 mg decreased the feeding cost of the treated group of birds at the end of the 21 days trial period but at 100 mg and garlic at all the doses regimens used increased their feeding cost. Both treatments did not affect the carcass yield of the birds. It was concluded that onion and garlic could be used to improve the productive performance of broiler chickens but more studies need be done to establish the appropriate amount, age and other favorable conditions under which the best result can be achieved with these plant materials.
Control of Aspergillus niger with garlic, onion and leek extracts
R Irkin, M Korukluoglu
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2007,
Abstract: Antifungal activity of “Allium” vegetables that is garlic (Allium sativum L.), onion (Allium cepa L.) and leek (Allium porrum L.) were investigated against Aspergillus niger. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFC) of aqueous, ethyl alcohol and acetone extracts were determined by disc diffusion and broth dilution methods in the test tubes. Onion extract with ethyl alcohol (275 mg/mL MFC), aqueous garlic extract (325 mg/mL MFC) and aqueous leek extract (900 mg/mL MFC) found the most inhibitory against A. niger.
Use of Garlic (Allium sativum), Black Cumin Seeds (Nigella sativa L.) and Wild Mint (Mentha longifolia) in Broiler Chickens Diets
O. Ashayerizadeh,B. Dastar,M. Shams Shargh,A. Ashayerizadeh,E. Rahmatnejad,S.M.R. Hossaini
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012,
Abstract: This experiment was conducted for comparison, the effect of garlic powder, black cumin seeds powder and wild mint powder on performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens. Based a randomized completely design, 320 days old Ross 308 broilers were distributed into 16 floor pens and reared for 42 days. A basal diet was formulated according to NRC recommendations for starter (0-21 days) and grower (22-42 days) periods. The basal diet was also supplemented with garlic powder, black cumin seeds powder and wild mint powder, resulting 4 dietary treatments were prepared including control group. Each dietary treatment was fed ad-libitum to 4 replicates group of 20 birds at the bigining of rearing period. There were no significant differences in feed consumption at all of treatments in rearing period (p>0.05). The birds fed the diet containing black cumin seeds powder had the highest body weight gain as compared with other treatments (p<0.05). The best Feed Conversion Ratios (FCR) was recorded with birds fed diets contained black cumin seeds powder compared with control and other groups through all growing periods (p>0.05). The lowest (p<0.05) abdominal fat percent were recorded for broilers fed the diets supplemented with garlic powder and black cumin seeds powder (p<0.05). Also, the highest carcass percent were recorded for birds fed diets supplemented with black cumin seeds powder and garlic powder (p<0.05). The percent of breast in birds received black cumin seeds powder significantly was higher than wild mint and control groups (p<0.05). The percent of thigh was not affected with feed treatments (p>0.05).
Bioactivity of Powder and Extracts from Garlic, Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae) and Spring Onion, Allium fistulosum L. (Alliaceae) against Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) on Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp (Leguminosae) Seeds  [PDF]
Abiodun A. Denloye
Psyche , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/958348
Abstract: Laboratory bioassays were conducted to investigate the bioactivity of powders, extracts, and essential oils from Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae) and A. fistulosum L. (Liliaceae) against adults, eggs, and larvae of Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). On the basis of 48?hr median lethal toxicity ( L C 5 0 ), test plant powders and extracts from A. sativum were more toxic to C. maculatus adults than those from A. fistulosum. The 48?hr L C 5 0 values for the powder against the test insect species were 9.66?g/kg and 26.29?g/kg for A. sativum and A. fistulosum, respectively. Also the 48 hr L C 5 0 values obtained show that aqueous extracts of the test plant species, 0.11?g/L (A. sativum) and 0.411?g/L (A. fistulosum) were more toxic to C. maculatus than the corresponding ethanol extracts. There was no significant difference in the toxicity of vapours from the two test plant species against C. maculatus, although A. sativum gave lower values. The study shows that A. sativum and A. fistulosum have potentials for protecting stored cowpea from damage by C. maculatus. 1. Introduction Grain storage has often resulted in quantitative and qualitative losses due to physical, chemical, and most importantly biological factors such as pests which may be birds, rodents, fungi, or insects [1–3]. The most important among storage pests are insects because apart from their direct damage they create conditions that allow secondary infestation by rot organisms mainly fungi [1, 4]. Once infestation is established pest insects cause gradual and progressive damage leading to losses in weight, nutritional, organoleptic, and aesthetic quality of stored grains. Osuji [1] listed 40 insects affecting stored grains, the most important among which is the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera; Bruchidae) responsible for up to 100% infestation of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp (Leguminosae) during storage [1, 3, 5]. These observations justify the control of insect pests like C. maculatus in order to reduce losses in stored cowpea. Several methods are used in controlling insects in stored grains, including physical (smoking, sun-drying, heating), cultural, biological (male insect sterilization, natural enemies, resistant grain varieties), and chemical (synthetic and natural products) methods. The most common and widely used is the chemical method involving mainly the use of synthetic insecticides. Several workers have reported the successful wide scale use of synthetic organic insecticides, commencing with the organochlorines in the middle 1940s,
The Transfer of Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe between Soils and Allium Plants (Garlic and Onion), and Tomato in the Southwest of the Buenos Aires Province, Argentina  [PDF]
María del Pilar Moralejo, Silvia Graciela Acebal
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2014.54062
Abstract:

Chemical extraction methods are generally used to evaluate trace element concentrations in soils. The adequacy of these soil tests is commonly assessed by comparing the extraction results with the metal contents in the plants. In this study, soil and leaf samples were collected in the southwest area of the Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. Garlic (Allium sativum L.), onion (Allium cepa L.) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) are species of great regional economic importance. These crops need good mineral nutrition for optimum growth and sustainable production. Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe micronutrient uptake by plants was analyzed together with the trace element contents in the soil in which those plants were grown. A single EDTA-extraction procedure was performed to determine soil micronutrients. The amount of extractable-trace elements increased as the concentration of the chelating agent EDTA increased. The range of total element content in soil was: 15.68-31.5 mg·kg-1 for Cu, 75.0-386.3 mg·kg-1 for Zn, 542.5 -1686 mg·kg-1 for Mn and 28,325

Antibacterial Effect of Garlic (Allium sativum L.) on Staphylococcus aureus  [PDF]
M. Shokrzadeh,A.G. Ebadi
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2006,
Abstract: Garlic (Allium sativum L.) has an important dietary and medicinal role for centuries. It is a large annual plant of the Liliaceae family, which grows in most of Europe and in northern Iran. Iranian garlic is used in traditional medicine for infectious diseases, flu and as an anti-febrile. The present study tested the aqueous extract of garlic in vitro for its antibacterial activity. The extract showed concentration-dependent antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus 8327. This activity was heat resistant, but the activity of freeze-dried extract gradually diminished during a 90 days period. The traditional use of Iranian garlic for infectious diseases and for controlling fever appears to be justified.
The Protective Effects of Nigella sativa Oil and Allium sativum Extract on Amikacin-induced Nephrotoxicity  [PDF]
Iman Abdelaziz,Mahmoud Kandeel
International Journal of Pharmacology , 2011,
Abstract: Amikacin is a valuable aminoglycoside in serious infections. However, its use is associated with undesirable renal toxicity. This study was designed to check the effect of Nigella sativa oil and Allium sativum extract in ameliorating amikacin-induced renal damage by using a rat model of nephrotoxicity. Rats received nephrotoxic dose of amikacin and the amelioration of amikacin-induced nephrotoxicity was assessed through microscopic lesion scoring of damaged renal tissue and estimating the changes in biomarkers of tissue damage. Nigella sativa oil and Allium sativum extract significantly decreased the levels of NO, malondialdehyde and total antioxidant capacity. Furthermore, they increased the level of reduced glutathione. These changes are indicative for lower tissue damage and reduced free radical formation. These results were coinciding with the lower levels of urea, uric acid and creatinine (which were significantly elevated in amikacin treated groups). Semi-quantitative analysis of cellular infiltration, necrosis of tubular cells and tubular cellular damage indicated the protective effect of the used plant materials in reducing renal damage induced by amikacin. By using a rat model, Nigella sativa oil and Allium sativum extract efficiently ameliorated the renal toxic effect of amikacin. Further studies are required for applications in other animals or human subjects.
Ethnopharmacological and Phytochemical Review of Allium Species (Sweet Garlic) and Tulbaghia Species (Wild Garlic) from Southern Africa
SL Lyantagaye
Tanzania Journal of Science , 2011,
Abstract: Tulbaghia (wild Garlic) is a plant genus most closely related to the genus Allium both in the family Alliaceae and is entirely indigenous to Southern Africa. Indigenous people use several species of the genus as food and medicine, and few species are commonly grown as ornamentals. Biological and pharmacological research on Tulbaghia species and their relationship with Allium sativum (sweet Garlic) are presented and critically evaluated. Informations from studies on the treatment of microbes-caused diseases as well as of cancer have been presented in ethnobotanical reports. Moreover, recent scientific studies have been performed on crude extracts for certain Tulbaghia species as reviewed in this article. This article gives a critical assessment of the literature to date and aims to show that the pharmaceutical potential of the members of the genus Tulbaghia is comparable to that of its close relative A. sativum but has been underestimated and deserves closer attention.
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