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Herbal medicinal teas from South Africa
Bhat,RB; Moskovitz,G;
Phyton (Buenos Aires) , 2009,
Abstract: an investigation of herbal medicinal teas from western cape, south africa was conducted to assess the varieties of herbal teas used to treat various ailments. each packet of medicinal tea is a blend of carefully selected four or more herbs which are commonly grown in the organic garden in an ancient valley near the southernmost tip of south africa and some indigenous herbs picked up in the nearby mountains. the teas are specific for the diseased organ/s and also include the herbs to support and strengthen the systems serving the ailing organ/s. the study shows that there are about twenty-one different types of herbal teas, and the packets of 50 g each are sold in south african markets under the trade names of arthritea, asthmitea, constipatea, detoxtea, diabetea, dietea, energetea, flootea, hangovertea, heartburntea, hi lo b p tea, indigestea, kidneytea, liveritea, relaxitea, sleepitea, slimtea, tranquilitea, tummytea, ulcertea, and voomatea. they include 28 herbal species belonging to 12 families. the efficacy of herbal teas and use of traditional remedies are held with high esteem in south africa .
Isolation of Cronobacter sakazakii from different herbal teas  [PDF]
Stojanovi? Marija M.,Kati? Vera,Kuzmanovi? Jelena
Vojnosanitetski Pregled , 2011, DOI: 10.2298/vsp1110837s
Abstract: Bacground/Aim. Cronobacter sakazakii (C. sakazakii) is an emerging food-borne pathogen that has increasingly raised interest among the whole public community and food industry, especially in the production of powder infant formula. It has been isolated from water, sediment and soil. The question is whether this pathogen can be present in herbal teas. Herbal teas are widely used for great number of health problems, as an additional or sometimes only “medicine” given. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of C. sakazakii in herbal teas which are traditionally used for all restricted populations, including newborns and immunocompromised infant and adults. Methods. In this study 150 samples of dried herbal teas were tested: Children (Baby) tea (11), Althaea officinalis (7), Sennae folium (4), Mentha piperita (8), Hypericum perforatum (3), Thymus serpyllum (5), Matricaria recutita (6), Fruit tea (18), Black, Green and Rooibos tea (11), Salvia officinalis (9), Arctostaphylos uva ursi (5), Urtica dioica (3), Achillea millefolium (2), Melissa officinalis (4), Cynosbati fructus (3), Flower Herbal tea (3) and 17 different mixtures of tea (48 samples). The presence of C. sakazakii was also investigated in previously positive samples of prepared teas (48 samples) after 2 h, 12 h and 24 h. C. sakazakii was isolated by the use of the official method ISO TS 22964 : 2006 and confirmed with the biochemical test API 20E (Biomerieux-France). Results. The obtained results showed that C. sakazakii was isolated from 48 (32%) samples dried herbal teas. C. sakazakii was not isolated only from 2 (4%) of the 48 tested samples of prepared tea and in 46 (96%) of the samples C. sakazakii remained viable after 2 h, 12 h and 24 h. Conclusion. Herbal teas should be carefully used, especially for infants and immunocompromited people with severe chronic diseases because of the possibility of infection by C. sakazakii. Better control and improve testing as well as new facts about this pathogen are necessarry.
Comparison of the mineral composition of leaves and infusions of traditional and herbal teas
Jana Olivier,Elize A. Symington,Cornelia Z. Jonker,Isaac T. Rampedi
South African Journal of Science , 2012, DOI: 10.4102/sajs.v108i1/2.623
Abstract: Most research on teas has focused on organic composition and less attention has been given to the mineral composition. The aim of this study was to examine and compare the mineral compositions (Na, Mg, K, Ca, P, S, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu and Al) of eight commonly consumed teas. The teas included three traditional black or green teas (from Africa, China and Sri Lanka) and five herbal teas – two from South America (maté and coca) and three from South Africa (rooibos, honeybush and Athrixia phylicoides). Analyses were conducted on five samples of dry tea leaves of each of the teas and their infusions (steeping time: 6 min) using identical techniques in inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). It was found that each tea has a unique mineral profile. Dry tea leaves and their respective infusions also exhibited different mineral profiles. The tea infusions that contained relatively higher concentrations of beneficial minerals were maté, coca and Athrixia. High levels of aluminium were found in the traditional black and green teas whilst rooibos was high in sodium. Although teas are not rich sources of nutrients, the consumption of maté could contribute significantly to dietary manganese requirements.
40种中国花草茶的抗氧化活性研究
Antioxidant Activities of Forty Chinese Herbal Teas
 [PDF]

邵东燕,张利娟,师俊玲,唐蕊华,黄庆生,,,,
- , 2015, DOI: 10.7606/j.issn.1004-1389.2015.08.015
Abstract: 对40种中国花草茶的体外抗氧化活性包括DPPH· 、O-2·、·OH清除活性和还原能力进行研究。结果显示,不同的抗氧化活性评价体系,不同花草茶样品表现出巨大差异。对40种花草茶的检测结果进行聚类分析和模糊评价。以相应的抗氧化活性指标为依据,针对每种抗氧化活性体系,可将花草茶样品主要聚为3类。模糊评价结果显示,虽然低于质量浓度为1 g·L-1维生素C的评价值,苦丁茶具有最高得分。另有13种花草茶的评价值高于相应的0.1 g·L-1维生素C的评价值。研究结果可为花草茶的功能性开发提供有用信息,并揭示其作为功能性添加成分应用于食品领域的潜在可能性。
The antioxidant activities of the extracts of teas by hot water which is the teas’ usual preparation mode were unknown. In this study, the aqueous extracts of 40 Chinese herbal teas had their antioxidant activities screened in vitro, using four assay systems of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH·), superoxide anion radical (O-2· ), hydroxyl radical (·OH) scavenging, and reducing power. Considerable variation was found between the herbal teas in every assay system. Interrelationships and the comprehensive evaluation of these herbal teas were investigated by hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation (FCE).HCA classified the herbal teas into three main clusters, on the basis of measured parameters in every assay system. FCE revealed that Ilex kudingcha had the highest comprehensive evaluation value, although it was still lower than that of 1 g·L-1 ascorbic acid (vitamin C).Thirteen herbal teas showed comprehensive evaluation values higher than that of 0.1 g·L-1 vitamin C. This study provided useful information on the health benefits of herbal teas and suggested their potential application as a health-promoting functional ingredient in foods.
Chemopreventive and Anti-Inflammatory Potential of Select Herbal Teas and Cinnamon in an In-Vitro Cell Model  [PDF]
Shantrell Willis, Rajitha Sunkara, Fredreana Hester, Louis Shackelford, Lloyd T. Walker, Martha Verghese
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2019.109083
Abstract: Colon cancer is the third leading cause of death in the US. Herbal teas and spices may reduce the incidence of chronic diseases, including colon cancer. The objectives of this study were to determine the chemopreventive effects of herbal teas and cinnamon in an in-vitro cell model and to evaluate the inhibitory effects of selected extracts on enzymes associated with inflammatory disease. Effects of raspberry leaf (0.5 - 2.0 mg/mL), strawberry leaf (0.4 - 1.0 mg/mL), hibiscus flower (4.0 - 10.0 mg/mL) and cinnamon (400 - 1500 μg/mL) were evaluated for cytotoxicity, induction of caspase and DNA fragmentation in colon cancer (Caco-2) cells to determine possible chemopreventive effects. Effects of extracts on inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were also measured to determine possible anti-inflammatory potential. Caco-2 cells were obtained from American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) and maintained in Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium with 10% fetal bovine serum. As concentrations of tea increased, LDH release from Caco-2 cells increased, with cytotoxicity ranging from 1% - 80% (hibiscus flower 1.0 mg/mL and strawberry leaf (1.0 mg/mL) for teas. All
OXYGEN RADICAL ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY (ORAC) VALUES OF HERBAL TEAS OBTAINED EMPLOYING DIFFERENT METHODOLOGIES CAN PROVIDE COMPLEMENTARY DATA
POBLETE,A; LóPEZ-ALARCóN,C; LISSI,E; CAMPOS,A.M;
Journal of the Chilean Chemical Society , 2009, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-97072009000200013
Abstract: the antioxidant capacity of six herbal tea infusions (mentha piperita, erythroxylum coca, rosa moschata, tilia spp, plantago major, and aloysia citriodora) was measured by orac type methodologies employing fluorescein (orac-fl) and pyrogallol red (orac-pgr) as target compounds. probe consumption profiles were widely different, with neat induction times when fl is employed as target. relative orac values of different herbal infusions depend upon the test molecule employed. relative orac-pgr values follow the order: rosa moschata > mentha piperita > tilia spp > plantago major > aloysia citriodora >erythroxylum coca, while orac-f1 values order is: mentha piperita > aloysia citriodora > erythroxylum coca >rosa moschata > tilia spp > plantago major. these differences are related to the different relevance of the parameters (amount of phenols and reactivity) that determine orac values for different target molecules. in particular, orac-fl values are associated with the polyphenolic levels present in the sample and, hence, correlate with the folin index of the infusion. on the other hand, orac-pgr values are determined by the quantity and average quality of the antioxidants present in the tested sample. from these results, it is proposed that the ratio orac-pgr/orac-fl could be employed as a rough measure of the antioxidant average quality of the phenols present in the tested infusion.
OXYGEN RADICAL ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY (ORAC) VALUES OF HERBAL TEAS OBTAINED EMPLOYING DIFFERENT METHODOLOGIES CAN PROVIDE COMPLEMENTARY DATA  [cached]
A POBLETE,C LóPEZ-ALARCóN,E LISSI,A.M CAMPOS
Journal of the Chilean Chemical Society , 2009,
Abstract: The antioxidant capacity of six herbal tea infusions (Mentha piperita, Erythroxylum coca, Rosa moschata, Tilia spp, Plantago major, and Aloysia citriodora) was measured by ORAC type methodologies employing fluorescein (ORAC-FL) and pyrogallol red (ORAC-PGR) as target compounds. Probe consumption profiles were widely different, with neat induction times when FL is employed as target. Relative ORAC values of different herbal infusions depend upon the test molecule employed. Relative ORAC-PGR values follow the order: Rosa moschata > Mentha piperita > Tilia spp > Plantago major > Aloysia citriodora >Erythroxylum coca, while ORAC-F1 values order is: Mentha piperita > Aloysia citriodora > Erythroxylum coca >Rosa moschata > Tilia spp > Plantago major. These differences are related to the different relevance of the parameters (amount of phenols and reactivity) that determine ORAC values for different target molecules. In particular, ORAC-FL values are associated with the polyphenolic levels present in the sample and, hence, correlate with the Folin index of the infusion. On the other hand, ORAC-PGR values are determined by the quantity and average quality of the antioxidants present in the tested sample. From these results, it is proposed that the ratio ORAC-PGR/ORAC-FL could be employed as a rough measure of the antioxidant average quality of the phenols present in the tested infusion.
Microbiological Profile of Some Ghanaian Herbal Preparations—Safety Issues and Implications for the Health Professions  [PDF]
Joseph A. Ampofo, Anthonia Andoh, Wilhermina Tetteh, Mohammed Bello
Open Journal of Medical Microbiology (OJMM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojmm.2012.23018
Abstract: Thirty-one herbal preparations produced and sold on the Ghanaian market were randomly purchased from sales outlets and analyzed for their microbiological quality by testing for the presence of total coliform bacteria, faecal coliform bac- teria, and total heterotrophic bacteria count. Also tested for was detection of pathogenic bacteria such as the Salmonella spp. and Clostridium spp. Opportunistic bacterial pathogens (Aeromonas spp., Enterococcus spp. and Pseudomonas spp.) and mould were also tested for. The herbal preparations tested came from different processing companies and in- cluded those labeled as suitable for treating arthritis, asthma, anaemia, diabetes mellitus, epilepsy, cough, hypertension, dysmenorrhoea, malaria, urine retention and loss of appetite. Aliquots of the various herbal products were cultured on various selective media. Eight (8) of the products showed the presence of all microorganism analyzed for including the pathogenic ones and are recommended not be used. Five (5) of the products did not have any microorganism present. Eleven (11) products showed the presence of only total heterotrophic bacteria and the values ranged from 1 to 94 cfu per ml. These two groups of total of sixteen (16) products can be used without any microbiological risk. Another three (3) products showed presence of only total heterotrophic bacteria but the values ranged from 118 to 1648 cfu per ml. Majority of the herbal preparations showed the presence of pathogenic bacteria. These three products may pose danger to the user can be used with caution. None of the herbal products recorded the presence of Enterococcus spp.
Fluoride and aluminum in teas and tea-based beverages
Hayacibara,Mitsue Fujimaki; Queiroz,Celso Silva; Tabchoury,Cínthia Pereira Machado; Cury,Jaime Aparecido;
Revista de Saúde Pública , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-89102004000100014
Abstract: objective: to evaluate fluoride and aluminum concentration in herbal, black, ready-to-drink, and imported teas available in brazil considering the risks fluoride and aluminum pose to oral and general health, respectively. methods: one-hundred and seventy-seven samples of herbal and black tea, 11 types of imported tea and 21 samples of ready-to-drink tea were divided into four groups: i-herbal tea; ii-brazilian black tea (camellia sinensis); iii-imported tea (camellia sinensis); iv-ready-to-drink tea-based beverages. fluoride and aluminum were analyzed using ion-selective electrode and atomic absorption, respectively. results: fluoride and aluminum levels in herbal teas were very low, but high amounts were found in black and ready-to-drink teas. aluminum found in all samples analyzed can be considered safe to general health. however, considering 0.07 mg f/kg/day as the upper limit of fluoride intake with regard to undesirable dental fluorosis, some teas exceed the daily intake limit for children. conclusions: brazilian and imported teas made from camellia sinensis as well as some tea-based beverages are sources of significant amounts of fluoride, and their intake may increase the risk of developing dental fluorosis.
Fluoride and aluminum in teas and tea-based beverages  [cached]
Hayacibara Mitsue Fujimaki,Queiroz Celso Silva,Tabchoury Cínthia Pereira Machado,Cury Jaime Aparecido
Revista de Saúde Pública , 2004,
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To evaluate fluoride and aluminum concentration in herbal, black, ready-to-drink, and imported teas available in Brazil considering the risks fluoride and aluminum pose to oral and general health, respectively. METHODS: One-hundred and seventy-seven samples of herbal and black tea, 11 types of imported tea and 21 samples of ready-to-drink tea were divided into four groups: I-herbal tea; II-Brazilian black tea (Camellia sinensis); III-imported tea (Camellia sinensis); IV-ready-to-drink tea-based beverages. Fluoride and aluminum were analyzed using ion-selective electrode and atomic absorption, respectively. RESULTS: Fluoride and aluminum levels in herbal teas were very low, but high amounts were found in black and ready-to-drink teas. Aluminum found in all samples analyzed can be considered safe to general health. However, considering 0.07 mg F/kg/day as the upper limit of fluoride intake with regard to undesirable dental fluorosis, some teas exceed the daily intake limit for children. CONCLUSIONS: Brazilian and imported teas made from Camellia sinensis as well as some tea-based beverages are sources of significant amounts of fluoride, and their intake may increase the risk of developing dental fluorosis.
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