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Surveillance for action – managing foodborne Campylobacter in New Zealand  [cached]
Donald Campbell,Peter van der Logt,Steve Hathaway
Western Pacific Surveillance and Response , 2012,
Abstract: In New Zealand, information gathered by the human disease surveillance system has been used to inform its well-documented, science-based Food Safety Risk Management Framework and response to an increasing national public health problem–campylobacteriosis. This paper discusses the use of surveillance data in initial prioritization, goal setting, source attribution and monitoring and review for Campylobacter infection in New Zealand.
Strengthening foodborne diseases surveillance in the WHO African region: An essential need for disease control and food safety assurance
P Mensah, L Mwamakamba, S Kariuki, MC Fonkoua, A Aidara-Kane
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development , 2012,
Abstract: Several devastating outbreaks of foodborne diseases have been reported in the African region including acute aflatoxicosis in Kenya in 2004 and bromide poisoning in Angola in 2007. There are concerns about transmission of multiple antibiotic resistant bacteria and pesticide residues in foods. The globalization of the food trade which could increase the spread of food contaminants internationally is an emerging issue. The new International Health Regulations (IHR) (2005) cover events of international importance including contaminated food and outbreaks of foodborne disease. The IHR (2005) and other international as well as regional agreements require Member States to strengthen surveillance systems including surveillance for foodborne diseases. WHO has been supporting countries to strengthen foodborne disease surveillance since 2003. This paper reports on the work of WHO and partners in the area of foodborne disease surveillance, the challenges and opportunities and provides perspectives for the area of its work. The paper shows that laboratory-based surveillance is the preferred system for foodborne disease surveillance since it allows early detection of outbreak strains and identification of risk factors with laboratory services as the cornerstone. Foodborne disease surveillance has been included in the revised Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) Strategy and there are guidelines for use by countries. WHO in collaboration with partners, especially the Global Food Infections Network (GFN), has been supporting countries to strengthen national analytical capacity for foodborne disease surveillance and research. Training for countries to detect, control and prevent foodborne and other enteric infections from farm to table has been conducted. The training for microbiologists and epidemiologists from public health, veterinary and food sectors involved in isolation, identification and typing of Salmonella sp, Campylobacter sp., Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio sp. and Shigella from human and food samples have been carried out. Research into specific topics in microbiology and chemical contaminants has been conducted. Three institutions in Cameroun, Mali and Nigeria have been designated as centres of excellence for chemical contaminants. Despite these significant achievements, a number of challenges remain. Most food safety programmes and food safety systems remain fragmented resulting in duplication of efforts and inefficient use of resources; and most laboratories in the African Region are poorly resourced. In countries where facilities exist, there is underutilization and lack of synergy among laboratories. Countries should, therefore, conduct audits of existing laboratories to determine their strengths and weaknesses and strategize as appropriate. It is also imperative to continue to strengthen partnerships and forge new ones and increase resources for food safety, in general, and for foodborne disease surveillance, in particular, and conti
Vigilancia de brotes de enfermedades transmitidas por alimentos en Chile Foodborne disease outbreaks surveillance in Chile
Andrea Olea,Janepsy Díaz,Rodrigo Fuentes,Alejandra Vaquero
Revista chilena de infectología , 2012,
Abstract: Antecedentes: Las enfermedades transmitidas por alimentos (ETA) son una importante carga de enfermedad en el mundo. La OMS las se ala como la principal causa de enfermedad y muerte en países en desarrollo, mientras que en países desarrollados son responsables de altos niveles de pérdida de productividad. Objetivo: Describir epidemiológicamente los brotes de ETA chilenos de acuerdo a la información contenida en un sistema automatizado de vigilancia. Método: Estudio observacional descriptivo de los brotes notificados en el sistema de vigilancia, entre los a os 2005 y 2010 en Chile. La descripción se basó en el aspecto etiológico, distribución temporal y espacial, y descripción epidemiológica de los brotes durante dicho período. Resultados: Se notificaron 5.689 brotes. La mayoría se presentó durante el 2006 (1.106 brotes, tasa 6,7 por 100.000 hab) y 2008 (1.316 brotes, tasa 7,9 por 100.000 hab) con un aumento en los meses de verano. El 54% ocurrió en la Región Metropolitana. El grupo de 15 a 44 a os fue el más afectado. Del 64% que registró el alimento involucrado, pescados y productos de la pesca alcanzaron el 42%. Un 81% del total de brotes no tuvo un diagnóstico etiológico preciso. Del total de pacientes, 97% fueron ambulatorios, 3,2% se hospitalizaron, y 0,1% fallecieron. Sólo 49% de los brotes registró pérdida de inocuidad del alimento, siendo el mayor porcentaje (34,1%) atribuible al proceso de manipulación del alimento. Conclusiones: El sistema de vigilancia chileno permitió conocer el comportamiento epidemiológico de las ETA, y facilitó la adopción de medidas de control oportunas. Background: Foodborne disease outbreaks are one of the main health problems globally, having an extensive impact on human welfare. The World Health Organization considers them as the main cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries, and responsible for high levels of loss of productivity in developed countries. Aim: To describe the epidemiology of foodborne disease outbreaks according to data contained in an automated surveillance system. Method: Descriptive observational study of notified outbreaks from the surveillance system, between 2005 and 2010 in Chile. The information was based on etiology, temporal and spatial distribution, and epidemiologic description of outbreaks during this period. Results: There were 5,689 notified outbreaks. Most of them occurred during 2006 (1,106 outbreaks, rate 6.7 per 100,000 inhabitants) and 2008 (1,316 outbreaks, rate 7.9 per 100, 000 inhabitants) with an increase during summer. Fifty four percent occurred in the Metropol
Epidemiology of emerging foodborne pathogens  [cached]
Maria De Giusti,Dario De Medici,Daniela Tufi,Marzuillo Carolina
Italian Journal of Public Health , 2007, DOI: 10.2427/5898
Abstract: Foodborne diseases still represent an important global public health issue, including Europe and Italy, which endangers the health of the population and leads to socio-economic costs and a threat to the market trend. In developed countries it is estimated that up to one third of the population are affected by microbiological foodborne diseases each year. In these countries, it has been observed that traditional infectious foodborne diseases have decreased while re-emerging and emerging pathogens like Escherichia coli O157, Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter jejuni, Norovirus and Hepatitis A virus have increased. In 2004, in Italy the incidence for Listeriosis was 0.06 per 100,000 population and is included among the statutory notifiable diseases. E. coli O157:H7 is not subject to statutory notification in Italy; however, a voluntary national surveillance system for HUS in paediatric patients and for VTEC, has lead to the notification of 429 paediatric HUS cases and 344 clinical cases of VTEC from 1988 to 2004. Data on campylobacteriosis are available thanks to the voluntary notifications received from the Enternet Laboratories: 582 cases were isolated from human clinical specimens in 2004. Furthermore, data from a specific surveillance system for acute viral hepatitis (SEIEVA) shows that the incidence of reported cases in Italy is declining. The necessity to alert the authorities responsible for epidemiological surveillance nationally remains paramount. Communication as well as educational campaigns aimed at different target groups, for example consumers, will play an important role in the prevention of foodborne diseases.
Learning Analytics  [cached]
Erik Duval,Katrien Verbert
E-learning and Education , 2012,
Abstract: This paper provides a brief introduction to the domain of ‘learning analytics’. We first explain the background and idea behind the concept. Then we give a brief overview of current research issues. We briefly list some more controversial issues before concluding.
Experiencias en la vigilancia epidemiológica de agentes patógenos transmitidos por alimentos a través de electroforesis en campo pulsado (PFGE) en el Perú Experiences in the epidemiological surveillance of foodborne pathogens by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) in Peru  [cached]
María Luz Zamudio,Ana Meza,Henri Bailón,Jaime Martinez-Urtaza
Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Pública , 2011,
Abstract: Las enfermedades transmitidas por alimentos (ETA) y otras enfermedades entéricas infecciosas ocurren a menudo como brotes y son causa de morbilidad y mortalidad en todo el mundo. En el Perú, son un importante problema de salud pública y son causados por una gran variedad de agentes infecciosos. Para la investigación epidemiológica se utiliza una variedad de métodos de tipificación. Una de las herramientas más importantes en la subtipificación molecular de patógenos bacterianos es la técnica de la electroforesis en campo pulsado (PFGE), que es un método altamente resolutivo que permite la discriminación entre diferentes aislamientos bacterianos epidemiológicamente relacionados. El Instituto Nacional de Salud (INS) del Perú integra las redes WHO Global Foodborne Infections Network y la Red PulseNet América Latina y Caribe, con quienes comparte los perfiles genéticos de las cepas patógenas aisladas, permitiendo comparar los genotipos de cepas semejantes halladas en diferentes países y reconocer la ocurrencia de brotes epidémicos en la región, fortaleciendo el sistema de vigilancia epidemiológica regional y generando una rápida respuesta conjunta entre países. Se presenta la experiencia de los dos últimos a os sobre los avances en la utilización de estas herramientas estratégicas que nos ha permitido caracterizar patrones de genotipo de principales patógenos implicados en ETA a partir de aislamientos recuperados de la red de laboratorios del Perú. Foodborne diseases and other enteric infections often occur as outbreaks and cause morbidity and mortality all over the world. In Perú, they represent a serious public health problem, and are caused by a great variety of infectious agents. For epidemiological research, a wide array of typification methods are used. One of the most important tools for the molecular subtyping of bacterial pathogens is the Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE), which is a highly precise method that allows the discrimination between different bacterial isolates which are epidemiologically related. The Instituto Nacional de Salud del Perú (INS) is part of the WHO Global Foodborne Infections Network (WHO-GFN) and of the PulseNet Latin American and Caribbean Net (PN-AL & C), with whom it shares the genetic profiles of the isolated pathogenic strains, so that it is possible to compare de genotypes of similar strains found in different countries and to identify the occurrence of epidemic outbreaks in the region, strengthening the regional system of epidemiological surveillance and generating a rapid, coordinated response between the coun
Vigilancia epidemiológica de enfermedades transmitidas por alimentos en la provincia de Río Negro, Argentina, 1993-2001 Surveillance of foodborne diseases in the Province of Rio Negro, Argentina, 1993 - 2001  [cached]
Silvana Di Pietro,Karina Haritchabalet,Gustavo Cantoni,Liliana Iglesias
Medicina (Buenos Aires) , 2004,
Abstract: Se describen 39 brotes de enfermedades transmitidas por alimentos que afectaron a 958 personas en la provincia de Río Negro, Argentina, en el período 1993- 2001. Se identifican los agentes causales, los alimentos involucrados, los sitios de ocurrencia, los factores de riesgo involucrados y los mecanismos de notificación empleados. Salmonella spp (38%), Trichinella spiralis (15%), Escherichia coli (13%) y Staphylococcus aureus (15%) resultaron los agentes más frecuentes en los brotes. Salmonella spp. también produjo el mayor número de casos (52%). Los principales alimentos involucrados resultaron cárneos (36%), quesos (10%), fiambres y sándwiches (10%), postres (10%) y helados (8%). El mayor número de casos, por su parte, fue causado por la ingestión de helados (37%). Con relación al origen de los alimentos, 41% de los brotes fueron causados por comidas elaboradas en los domicilios, 23% en establecimientos comerciales, 13% en fiestas familiares, 8% en fiestas comunitarias y 8% en restaurantes de hoteles. En el 28% de los brotes fue identificado el agente etiológico por análisis epidemiológico exclusivamente, en el 64% se logró el aislamiento del agente, mientras que en el 8% de los casos no se logró el diagnóstico definitivo. Se analiza el valor de la encuesta epidemiológica en los estudios de enfermedades transmitidas por alimentos, la necesidad de fortalecer el sistema de notificación médica de casos y brotes y la importancia de las buenas prácticas en la manipulación de alimentos. A total of 39 outbreaks of foodborne diseases affecting 958 people in the province of Rio Negro, Argentina between 1993 and 2001 are described and evaluated. The main causal agents were identified involving food, sites of occurrence, risk factors and notification system used. Salmonella spp (38%), Trichinella spiralis (15%), Escherichia coli (13%) and Staphylococcus aureus (15%) were the most frequent agents present in outbreaks. Salmonella spp produced the largest number of cases (52%). Food involved were cooked meat (36%), cheese (10%), sandwiches (10%), deserts (10%) and ice cream (8%). Indeed, ice creams were involved in the largest number of cases and of people affected. In relation to the source of food, 41% of outbreaks were caused by homemade meals, 23% by catering or ice cream parlor, 13% in family parties, 8% in county fairs and 8% in hotel restaurants. In 28% of the outbreaks the etiological agent was identified exclusively by epidemiological analysis, in 64 % isolation of the agent was carried out, and in 8% of the cases, a final diagnosis could not be obtained.
FEASIBILITY OF INVESTMENT IN BUSINESS ANALYTICS
Mladen Varga,Miljenko Vukovi?
Journal of Information and Organizational Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: Trends in data processing for decision support show that business users need business analytics, i.e. analytical applications which incorporate a variety of business oriented data analysis techniques and task-specific knowledge. The paper discusses the feasibility of investment in two models of implementing business analytics: custom development and packed analytical applications. The consequences of both models are shown on two models of business analytics implementation in Croatia.
Prevention of foodborne listeriosis  [cached]
Rebagliati Victoria,Philippi Romina,Rossi Maria,Troncoso Alcides
Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology , 2009,
Abstract: Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that can cause serious invasive illness, mainly in certain well-defined high-risk groups, including elderly and immunocompromised patients, pregnant women, newborns and infants. L. monocytogenes primarily causes abortion, septicemia or meningitis. Contaminated meats (such as hot dogs, delicatessen meats and patι), dairy products and seafood have all been implicated in outbreaks of listeriosis. The public health importance of listeriosis is not always recognized, particularly because listeriosis is a relatively rare disease compared with other common foodborne illnesses such as salmonellosis or botulism. However, because of its high case fatality rate, listeriosis ranks among the most frequent causes of death due to foodborne illness, ranking second after salmonellosis. L. monocytogenes emerged as an important foodborne pathogen in the latter part of the 20th century. Extensive work has been performed in many countries during the last decade to prevent outbreaks and decrease the incidence of listeriosis. An important reduction occurred in listeriosis incidence in some of these countries during the 90s, suggesting a relationship between preventive measures and incidence decrease of human listeriosis.
Mobile Web Analytics  [cached]
Ruchi Gupta,Kinjal Mehta,Kaushal Bhavsar,Dr. Hiren Joshi
International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics Engineering , 2013,
Abstract: This Paper presents an overview of the Mobile Web analytics, with a focus on providing insight and actionable outcomes from collecting and analyzing Internet data. The amazing and tremendous growth of web site over the Mobile Internet has raised many concerns for organizations to analyze the lifetime value of their customers, and also improve their marketing strategies in the competitive world through the their website. So this has uplifted the need and requirement of Mobile Web Analytics. There are short comings of applying traditional web analytics to mobile web analytics. Mobile Web analytic process converts the collected data to meaningful key performance indicators in order to measure the organizational goals or potential opportunities. Mobile Web analytics in used to improve Web systems, increase customer satisfaction, and target revenue through effective analysis of user interactions with the organization’s Website.
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