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Toxoplasmosis in Goats in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
S.I. Al-Mufarrej,M.F. Hussein,R.S. Aljumaah,A.R. Gar ElNabi
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/javaa.2011.2779.2782
Abstract: During an outbreak of caprine abortion in a farm in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, serum samples from 57 Aardi goats with recent history of abortion and stillbirths (herd 1) along with samples from 30 control goats without abortion history (herd 2) were analyzed for anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies using indirect Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and Indirect Haemagglutination (IHA) tests. Antibodies against T. gondii were detected by ELISA in 63.2% of the goats in herd 1 and 50% of the control goats (herd 2). About >80% of the former goats had ELISA percent optical densities (O.D.%) ≥100 while >86% of the control goats were weakly positive with ELISA O.D. s (%) <100. IHA tests were positive in 51.7% of herd 1 versus 30% of control goats. About 78% of all IHA positive goats in herd 1 had antibody titers ranging between 1:640-1:2560 including nearly 30% with titers ranging between 1:1280-1:2560. By contrast, all IHA positive goats in herd 2 had titers ranging only between 1:80-1:160, except one goat with a titer of 1:640 and none with higher titers. IHA tests for IgM antibodies using 2-mercaptoethanol treated sera revealed IgM antibodies in 16 (28%) goats with abortion history (herd 1) and none in control goats (herd 2). Focal pathological changes were observed in the fetal brain and the placenta of some of the aborted goats. These findings strongly suggest T. gondii as the cause of abortion in herd 1.
Prevalence and characteristics of cigarette smoking among 16 to 18 years old boys and girls in Saudi Arabia  [cached]
Al Ghobain Mohammed,Al Moamary Mohamed,Al Shehri Sulieman,AL-Hajjaj Mohamed
Annals of Thoracic Medicine , 2011,
Abstract: Objective: To study the prevalence and characteristics of cigarette smoking among secondary school students (16- to 18-year-old boys and girls) in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. Methods: We applied a standard two-stage, cross-sectional study design. Secondary schools for both boys and girls in Riyadh city were randomly selected using a cluster sampling method. We used the global youth tobacco survey (GYTS) tool to achieve our objectives. Results: Among 1272 students (606 boys and 666 girls), the prevalence of those ever smoked cigarettes was 42.8% (55.6% of boys and 31.4% of girls). The prevalence of current smoking was 19.5% (31.2% of boys and 8.9% of girls). Despite the fact that the majority of students think smoking is harmful, most do not wish to stop smoking, and they had not tried to stop in the past year. Cigarette smoking is significantly associated with the male gender, having friends who smoke, and having parents who smoke, but is not significantly associated with the type of school attended. Conclusion: Smoking prevalence among secondary schools students in Saudi Arabia is high and alarming. There is a need to implement an education program about the risks of smoking and to include parents and friends as healthy models to prevent students from beginning to smoke.
The Global Youth Tobacco Survey: 2001–2002 in Riyadh region, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Al-Bedah AM,Qureshi NA
Substance Abuse and Rehabilitation , 2011,
Abstract: Abdullah Mohammed Al-Bedah1, Naseem Akhtar Qureshi21Arabian Center for Tobacco Control, 2General Administration for Medical Research and Mental Health and Social Services, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaBackground: Tobacco use is a major public health problem, and its prevalence is globally increasing, especially among children and adolescents.Objective: The Global Youth Tobacco Survey aimed to explore the epidemiological trends and risk factors of tobacco smoking among intermediate school boys in Riyadh region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.Method: A two-stage cluster sample design was used to produce a representative sample of male students from selected schools. The participants (n = 1830) self recorded their responses on the Global Youth Tobacco Survey questionnaire.Results: Lifetime prevalence of cigarette smoking was 35%, while 13% of students currently used other tobacco products. About 16% of students currently smoked at home, and 84% of students bought cigarettes without any refusal from storekeepers. Thirty-one percent and 39% of students were exposed to secondhand tobacco smoke inside and outside the house, respectively, which was definitely or probably harmful to health as opined by 87% of participants, and 74% voiced to ban smoking from public places. Among current smokers, 69% intended (without attempt) to quit and 63% attempted (but failed) to quit during the past year. Almost an equal number of students saw antismoking and prosmoking media messages in the last month, and 28% of students were offered free cigarettes by a tobacco company representative. In schools, more than 50% of students were taught about the dangers of cigarette smoking in the last year. Smoking by parents, older brothers, and close friends, watching prosmoking cigarette advertisements, free offer of cigarettes by tobacco company representatives, perception of smoking being not harmful, and continuing smoking which can be easily quit significantly increased the odds of smoking by students.Conclusion: The common use of tobacco in school populations needs to be addressed by, among other tobacco control measures, a strict ban on cigarette selling to minors and intensive regular tobacco control campaigns involving health and religious messages.Keywords: tobacco use, secondhand tobacco smoke, environmental tobacco smoke, intermediate school boys, Global Youth Tobacco Survey, Saudi Arabia
New additions to the scorpion fauna of Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia
Al-Asmari, AK;Al-Saief, AA;Abdo, NM;Al-Moutaery, KR;
Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S1678-91992009000400003
Abstract: in this work, we present additional morphological data about the scorpion fauna of saudi arabia. this investigation was carried out in the central region (riyadh) of the country and identified existing and newly discovered scorpion species for taxonomic documentation while determining the medically important ones. the survey covered the entire riyadh region, including all major districts, and collected a total of 4,164 specimens. morphological identification of collected animals was based on identification keys. there were two species (one with a subspecies) that belonged to the family scorpionidae, namely scorpio maurus kruglovi (0.02%) and hemiscorpius arabicus (0.05%). the latter, currently, is part of the hemiscorpiidae family that had been upgraded from a subfamily. eight more species from the buthidae family were found: leiurus quinquestriatus (7.20%), androctonus crassicauda (17.24%), androctonus bicolor (64.60%), compsobuthus arabicus (3.84%), compsobuthus werneri (0.94%), buthacusyotvatensis nigroaculeatus (2.31%), buthacusleptochelys (3.24%) and orthochirus innesi (0.55%). the major locations of collection were the outskirts of riyadh city and the airport vicinity. the specimens were transported from all central region areas in 124 short trips.
Anemia and Iron Intake of Adult Saudis in Riyadh City-Saudi Arabia  [PDF]
Abdullah H. Al-Assaf
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2007,
Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate iron deficiency anemia among adult healthy Saudi males and adult healthy non-pregnant Saudi females in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia. 234 healthy adults were recruited of which, 102 were females and 132 were males. Male subjects were reclassified to cigarette smokers (n = 52) and non-smokers (n = 80). Anemia was assessed by dietary iron intake, hemoglobin and hematocrit levels. Iron intake was measured by analyzing the intake of three consecutive days. The results showed that iron intake, hemoglobin and hematocrit levels were significantly higher in males compared to females. Mean iron intake of males (13.6±3.1 mg/day) was adequate compared to DRI recommendation. Mean concentrations of hemoglobin (15.89±0.95 g/dL) and hematocrit (47.7±3.6%) for males were normal. Hemoglobin and hematocrit levels were significantly higher in smokers compared to non-smokers, but both were normal, which suggested that iron deficiency anemia is not found among adult Saudi males. Mean iron intake of females (10.2±2.8 mg/day) was inadequate compared to DRI recommendation. Mean hemoglobin level (13.68±0.83 g/gL) and mean hematocrit level (38.9±3.2%) of females were lower than cutoff values for determining iron deficiency anemia. Based on hemoglobin and hematocrit values, 21.6% and 20.6% of female participants, respectively were anemic. Based on iron intake, 95.1% of female participants had intake lower than the recommendation. Results of this study illustrated that iron deficiency anemia is highly prevalent among adult Saudi women in Riyadh City and suggests actions to eradicate iron deficiency anemia. These actions include increasing nutritional awareness and education for the purpose of changing inappropriate consumption patterns as well as fortification of certain foods in combination with additional intakes of iron from supplements.
Radon Awareness among Saudi People in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  [PDF]
Abdulaziz S. Alaamer
World Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology (WJNST) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/wjnst.2012.24025
Abstract: People should be aware of sources of health hazards, such as radon gas; and efforts should be made to educate them. Radon awareness among people is important for monitoring its level in their residential houses to reduce the risk of ad-verse health effects. Furthermore, radon awareness among public would support and facilitate researchers working for such surveys during the field work. In the present study, a public survey was conducted to investigate radon awareness level among Saudi people in Riyadh. A questionnaire was designed and distributed among 2297 persons of various educational background. It was found that about 82% of the Saudi public in Riyadh were ignorant of radon and its associated health risks. It was also found that only ~18% of educated public knew about radon. It was concluded that Saudi public needs to be educated in this respect properly.
Knowledge, attitude and practice of tobacco smoking by medical students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  [cached]
Al-Haqwi Ali,Tamim Hani,Asery Ali
Annals of Thoracic Medicine , 2010,
Abstract: Background: Tobacco consumption is associated with considerable negative impact on health. Health professionals, including future doctors, should have a leading role in combating smoking in the community. Objectives: The aims of the study were to assess the prevalence of smoking among medical students of newly established medical colleges in Riyadh city, the capital of Saudi Arabia, as well as to assess students′ attitude, practice and their knowledge on the risk factors of tobacco consumption. Methods: A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study of students from two medical colleges in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia was carried out. The questionnaire used was anonymous, self-administered and developed mainly from Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS). Results: A total of 215 students participated in this study. Forty students (19%) indicated that they smoke tobacco at the time of the study. All of them were males, which raise the prevalence among male students to 24%. Tobacco smoking was practiced by males more than females (P value < 0.0001) and by senior more than junior students (< 0.0001). About 94% of the study sample indicated that smoking could cause serious illnesses. About 90% of the students indicated that they would advice their patients to quit smoking in the future and 88% thought that smoking should be banned in public areas. Forty-four students (20%) thought that smoking has some beneficial effects, mainly as a coping strategy for stress alleviation. Conclusion: Despite good knowledge about the hazards of tobacco consumption, about 25% of the medical students in this study continue to smoke. The main reported reasons should be addressed urgently by policy-makers. Special efforts should be taken to educate medical students on the effective strategies in managing stress during their study as they thought that tobacco smoking could be used as a coping strategy to face such a stress.
Aluminum, Cadmium and Microorganisms in Female Hair and Nails from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  [PDF]
A.R. Hashem,K.F. Abed
Journal of Medical Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: Mineral analysis from hair and nails may be useful in knowing the elemental concentration in body tissue. This study was conducted to ascertain levels of aluminum, cadmium and microorganisms in hair and nails from 20 adult Saudi women aged between 20-25 years old from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between December 2005 and January 2006. Metal analysis were carried out by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) using Electrothermal atomization (Pye Unican Sp9) and done according to Ellis, Ramirez, Buchanan and Gibbons methodology. The levels of aluminum was 5.23±1.31 to 26.02±3.65 μg g-1 and cadmium was 0.04±0.01 to 0.014±0.002 μg g-1 in hair and nail samples. Aluminum is more significantly concentrated in the nails than hair (p<0.0001). Cadmium levels were significantly higher in hair than in nails (p<0.0001). However, levels of aluminum are higher in both hair and nail samples compared to cadmium (p<0.0001). These levels are much lower compared to reports from other countries like Spain, Germany, Norway and USA. Microbial isolates revealed Microsporum, Staphylococcus, Klebsiella, Bacillus and Pseudomonas. Fungal isolates included Penicillium, Trichophyton and Aspergillus. These are all known bacterial and fungal isolates from the soil. Despite lower level findings of aluminum and cadmium compared to other countries, further information is needed on concentrations of elements in the hair of individuals with known exposures to trace elements. Our levels are within the worldwide range for normal occupationally exposed population despite the booming economic growth and rapid industrialization of Saudi Arabia.
Knowledge and practice of spirometry among pediatricians in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  [cached]
Al-Saadi Muslim
Annals of Thoracic Medicine , 2008,
Abstract: Background: Spirometry is the most basic, widely used and effort-dependent pulmonary function test. It assesses the lung volumes and flows, and is ideally suited to describe the effects of restriction or obstruction on lung function. Therefore, keeping in view the clinical applications of spirometry, this study attempts to explore the knowledge and practice about spirometry among pediatricians. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire-based study was conducted across multiple centers in various hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The structured questionnaire, based upon knowledge and practice of spirometry, was distributed to 150 pediatricians in the various tertiary care hospitals in the metropolitan area of Riyadh. Results: Ninety-four percent of 113 pediatricians agreed that spirometry is a valuable tool in pediatric clinical practice. However, knowledge relating to spirometry was lacking among pediatricians, and about 86% of the study population did not demonstrate up-to-date knowledge of spirometry in pediatrics. Only 11% of pediatricians were very confident in interpreting spirometry results. No statistically significant association was observed between the distribution of responses relating to knowledge and practice of spirometry and the study variables including academic position, duration of practicing experience and number of patients attended daily. Conclusion: The results indicated that pediatricians in Riyadh were lacking adequate knowledge about the clinical applications of spirometry in their daily clinical practice. Hence, it was suggested that pediatricians should attend periodical training, workshops and continuous medical education programmes to enhance their knowledge. This should especially be performed during their pediatric residency training programmes, as spirometry is one of the essential components in clinical practice.
Microbial Contamination and Mycotoxins from Nuts in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  [PDF]
Suaad S. Alwakeel,Laila A. Nasser
American Journal of Food Technology , 2011,
Abstract: The occurrence of harmful aflatoxins from agricultural products varies with geographic location, farming practices and processing. To date, no data was reported from Saudi Arabia on mycotoxin content of nuts and edible seeds. Forty samples of edible nuts and dried seeds were randomly collected from different locations in Al-Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Fungi were detected by seed-plate and dilutions plate method and were cultured on glucose-Czapek's agar, sucrose-Czapek's agar and starch yeast agar. Purified fungal isolates were identified morphologically. Mycotoxins were extractedusing chloroform and detected by thin layer chromatography. Bacterial analysis was done using total plate count method. There was a predominance of A. niger and A. flavus in all medium types. Aflatoxin B1 (8.5 μg mL-1) was detected in peanuts containing A. flavus. Aflatoxin B1 (1.7 μg mL-1) and B2 (1.7 μg mL-1) was detected in sunflower seeds containing A. terreus. T2 toxin (2.8 mg mL-1) was detected in pumpkinseeds containing Stachybotrys chartarum and DAS (2.4 μg mL-1) was detected in a salted peanut sample containing Trichthecium roseum. Four nut samples showed contamination with bacteria. Turkish pine seeds and American walnut had total plate counts of 12x10. Pakistani pine seeds and Iranian salted pistachio had TPC of 3x10. Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from American walnut samples. Government authorities for food safety consumption should continue to monitor and set appropriate guidelines and information initiatives for public knowledge on the safety of these agricultural products whole year round.
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