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The Assessment of Heavy Metal Contamination in the Waters of the Nilufer Stream in Bursa  [PDF]
Gokhan Ekrem Ustun
Ekoloji , 2011,
Abstract: This study was conducted from 2002 through 2007 with no studies in 2004, to evaluate 8 metalcontaminants (As(total), Cd, Cr (total), Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) of the Nilufer Stream, where intensiveindustrialization, urbanization, and agricultural activities take place. The results were then compared withnational and international water quality guidelines. The effect of the wastewater treatment facilities thatwere established during the measurement period on water quality was also taken into account. It wasdetermined that the Nilüfer Stream water quality along the basin has declined rapidly year to year. Intensivewastewater discharge causes a waste dominating flow in the stream and has caused the water quality tosteadily decline over time. The total chromium (Cr) and lead (Pb) levels in the basin outlet of the NiluferStream water were evaluated as "high polluted water" according to the national standards in theclassification of the quality of the surface water. The mean metal concentrations in the Nilüfer stream waterare generally higher than the international guidelines. As a result, metal contaminant pollution of theNilüfer Stream was found to be connected to human activities in its catchments.
Consanguineous Marriages among Women in Bursa Nilufer Public Health Training and Research Area
Nilufer Tavukcu,Emel Irgil
TAF Preventive Medicine Bulletin , 2008,
Abstract: AIM/BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate socio-demographic and fertility features, opinions on consanguinity, and the types of congenital disorders encountered in the babies of women in consanguineous marriages in the Nilufer Public Health Training and Research Area in the province of Bursa in northwest Turkey. METHODS: This case-control study was conducted between September 2005 and March 2006. The case group consisted of 393 women in consanguineous marriages in the Nilufer Public Health Training and Research Area; the control group consisted of 393 women of similar age living in the same neighborhoods but in non-consanguineous marriages. RESULTS: Women involved in a consanguineous marriage were on average younger than women in the control group. The mean numbers of pregnancies, births, stillbirths, and living and deceased babies were all significantly higher among the consanguineous marriages. When the sample and the control groups were compared, it was obtained that the women in the case group were socio-economically in a lower status statistically, by means of their husband s and their own education and occupational status, than the women in the control group. The women in the case group were more likely to believe that consanguinity is not detrimental to a child s health, and they approved of consanguineous marriages for their own children. These opinions were held despite there being a significantly higher incidence of congenital disorders among the children of the consanguineous marriages. CONCLUSION: Women there should be offered genetic counseling to help reduce the occurrence of children being born with congenital abnormalities. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2008; 7(2): 107-112]
Distribution Patterns of Burned Areas in the Brazilian Biomes: An Analysis Based on Satellite Data for the 2002–2010 Period  [PDF]
Fernando Moreira de Araújo,Laerte Guimar?es Ferreira,Arielle Elias Arantes
Remote Sensing , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/rs4071929
Abstract: Fires modify the structure of vegetation communities, the carbon and water cycles, the soil’s chemistry, and affect the climate system. Within this context, this work aimed to understand the distribution patterns of burned areas in Brazil, during the period of 2002 to 2010, taking into consideration each one of the six Brazilian biomes (Amazon, Caatinga, Cerrado, Atlantic Forest, Pampa and Pantanal) and the respective major land cover classes. Data from the MODIS MCD45A1 product (burned area), as well as thermal anomalies (MOD14 and MYD14) and precipitation (TRMM), were analyzed according to the 2002 Brazilian official land cover and land use map (PROBIO). The Brazilian savanna biome, known as Cerrado, presented the largest concentration of burned areas detected by MODIS (73%), followed by the Amazon (14%), Pantanal (6%), Atlantic Forest (4%), Caatinga (3%), and Pampa (0,06%) biomes. Indeed, in the years of 2007 and 2010, 90% and 92% of Brazil’s burned areas were concentrated in the Cerrado and Amazon biomes, respectively. TRMM data indicated that during these two years there was a significant influence of La Ni?a, causing low rainfall in the Amazon, Cerrado, Caatinga, and Atlantic Forest biomes. Regarding the land cover classes, approximately 81% of the burned areas occurred over remnant vegetation areas. Although no unequivocal correlation can be established between burned areas and new land conversions, the conspicuous concentration of fire scars, particularly in Amazon–Cerrado transition (i.e., the Arc of Deforestation) is certainly not a simple coincidence. Such patterns and trends corroborate the need of improved territorial governance, in addition to the implementation of systematic fire warning and preventive systems.
Observed temporal evolution of global mean age of stratospheric air for the 2002 to 2010 period
G. P. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, F. Haenel, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, U. Grabowski, S. Kellmann, M. Kiefer, A. Linden, S. Lossow,M. López-Puertas
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2012,
Abstract: An extensive observational data set, consisting of more than 106 SF6 vertical profiles from MIPAS measurements distributed over the whole globe has been condensed into monthly zonal means of mean age of air for the period September 2002 to January 2010, binned at 10° latitude and 1–2 km altitude. The data were analysed with respect to their temporal variation by fitting a regression model consisting of a constant and a linear increase term, 2 proxies for the QBO variation, sinusoidal terms for the seasonal and semi-annual variation and overtones for the correction of the shapes to the observed data set. The impact of subsidence of mesospheric SF6-depleted air and in-mixing into non-polar latitudes on mid-latitudinal absolute age of air and its linear increase was assessed and found to be small. The linear increase of mean age of stratospheric air was found to be positive and partly larger than the trend derived by Engel et al. (2009) for most of the Northern mid-latitudes, the middle stratosphere in the tropics, and parts of the Southern mid-latitudes, as well as for the Southern polar upper stratosphere. Multi-year decrease of age of air was found for the lowermost and the upper stratospheric tropics, for parts of Southern mid-latitudes, and for the Northern polar regions. Analysis of the amplitudes and phases of the seasonal variation shed light on the coupling of stratospheric regions to each other. In particular, the Northern mid-latitude stratosphere is well coupled to the tropics, while the Northern lowermost mid-latitudinal stratosphere is decoupled, confirming the separation of the shallow branch of the Brewer-Dobson circulation from the deep branch. We suggest an overall increased tropical upwelling, together with weakening of mixing barriers, especially in the Northern Hemisphere, as a hypothetical model to explain the observed pattern of linear multi-year increase/decrease, and amplitudes and phase shifts of the seasonal variation.
Spatiotemporal Patterns of Japanese Encephalitis in China, 2002–2010  [PDF]
Li-Ya Wang equal contributor,Wen-Yi Zhang equal contributor,Fan Ding equal contributor,Wen-Biao Hu equal contributor,Ricardo J. Soares Magalhaes equal contributor,Hai-Long Sun,Yi-Xing Li,Wen Zou,Yong Wang,Qi-Yong Liu ,Shen-Long Li,Wen-Wu Yin,Liu-Yu Huang,Archie C. A. Clements,Peng Bi,Cheng-Yi Li
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002285
Abstract: Objective The aim of the study is to examine the spatiotemporal pattern of Japanese Encephalitis (JE) in mainland China during 2002–2010. Specific objectives of the study were to quantify the temporal variation in incidence of JE cases, to determine if clustering of JE cases exists, to detect high risk spatiotemporal clusters of JE cases and to provide evidence-based preventive suggestions to relevant stakeholders. Methods Monthly JE cases at the county level in mainland China during 2002–2010 were obtained from the China Information System for Diseases Control and Prevention (CISDCP). For the purpose of the analysis, JE case counts for nine years were aggregated into four temporal periods (2002; 2003–2005; 2006; and 2007–2010). Local Indicators of Spatial Association and spatial scan statistics were performed to detect and evaluate local high risk space-time clusters. Results JE incidence showed a decreasing trend from 2002 to 2005 but peaked in 2006, then fluctuated over the study period. Spatial cluster analysis detected high value clusters, mainly located in Southwestern China. Similarly, we identified a primary spatiotemporal cluster of JE in Southwestern China between July and August, with the geographical range of JE transmission increasing over the past years. Conclusion JE in China is geographically clustered and its spatial extent dynamically changed during the last nine years in mainland China. This indicates that risk factors for JE infection are likely to be spatially heterogeneous. The results may assist national and local health authorities in the development/refinement of a better preventive strategy and increase the effectiveness of public health interventions against JE transmission.
How correct are the infant mortality rate calculations in the provinces of Turkey? A study from Bursa - Original Article
Kay?han Pala,Alpaslan Türkkan,Harika Ger?ek
Turk Pediatri Ar?ivi , 2010,
Abstract: Aim: The Provincial Health Authority, declared that in 2008, infant mortality rate was 6,0 per thousand, in Bursa. As this rate is very low for Turkey, there was a need to investigate it. The objective of this study was to estimate the infant mortality rate for 2008, in Bursa. Material and Method: In order to calculate the infant mortality rate, data was requested from the Provincial Health Authority, Turkish Statistical Institute and the Provincial Population and Citizenship Authority. We also gathered data from every municipality in Bursa.Results: There were 206 and 235 infant deaths according to the Health Authority and the Population and Citizenship Authority respectively. According to data from the municipalities the number of infant deaths was 795. We estimated the infant mortality rate as 20,8 per thousand.Conclusions: We found a much higher infant mortality rate than the Health Authority of Bursa. When using health indicators to evaluate the achievements of the health system the most important point is to collect reliable data. It might be appropriate also to use cemetery records while calculating the infant mortality rate. (Turk Arch Ped 2010; 45: 264-7)
O partidarismo no Brasil (2002/2010)
Veiga, Luciana Fernandes;
Opini?o Pública , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-62762011000200005
Abstract: the aim of this article is to evaluate the oscilating wave of party identity, to explain the changes of the characteristics of the electorate, in what relates to the level of education, ideology and region, and to contribute to the debate about party identity chagings among different social groups. the profile of voters with party identity brazil in 2010 shows higher levels of education than in 2006, is more located in the northeast and north/centerwest regions and is more conservative than in other periods.
Change in the number of inhabitants of ajka ka in the period from 1869 to 2002  [PDF]
Ivanovi? Ljubica,?ur?ev Branislav S.
Zbornik Matice Srpske za Drustvene Nauke , 2010, DOI: 10.2298/zmsdn1031293i
Abstract: Demographic processes and tendencies of the population movement represent basic social determinants which are presented by various demographic indicators. The change in the number of inhabitants in ajka ka is the result of multi-decade variation in the birth rate, population aging process and mortality movement, which all are conditioned by a series of historical, socio-economical, cultural, educational as well local and family factors. The total number of individuals rose for 34.029 in the period between 1869 and 2002. .
Analysis of effectiveness of the state industrial policy in ferrous metallurgy of Ukraine for the period 1996 – 2010 Анализ результативности государственной промышленной политики в черной металлургии Украины за 1996 – 2010 гг.  [PDF]
Denisov Konstantin V.
Business Inform , 2013,
Abstract: The article contains analysis of results of realisation of legislative and regulatory acts, which determined development of the state industrial policy in ferrous metallurgy of Ukraine from 1996 till 2010. Analysis was conducted with the use of national statistics and international organisations: World Steel Association and International Steel Statistical Bureau. Analysis showed discrepancy of obtained results with the goals, which were set by the state within the framework of the branch industrial policy. This concerns development of the industrial and technological base, trade structure of production and export and also internal consumption of steel. Despite a number of benefits provided by the state, the technological level of the branch was low. Primary steel and semi-finished products dominate in the trade structure of production. Internal consumption of steel is limited and is lower than export indicators. The situation in other countries is quite opposite, due to which the article underlines a necessity to use their experience of branch industrial policy. В статье проведен анализ результатов реализации нормативно-правовых актов, которые определяли развитие государственной промышленной политики в черной металлургии Украины с 1996 по 2010 гг. Анализ проводился с использованием данных национальной статистики, а также международных организаций World Steel Association и nternational Steel Statistical Bureau. Анализ показал несоответствие полученных результатов тем целям, которые определялись государством в рамках отраслевой промышленной политики. Это касается развития производственно-технологической базы, товарной структуры производства и экспорта, а также внутреннего потребления стали. Несмотря на предоставление государством целого ряда льгот, технологический уровень отрасли оставался низким. В товарной структуре производства и экспорта доминирует первичная сталь и полуфабрикаты. Внутреннее потребление стали ограничено и уступает по своим объемам показателям экс
Changing Patterns of Malaria Epidemiology between 2002 and 2010 in Western Kenya: The Fall and Rise of Malaria  [PDF]
Guofa Zhou,Yaw A. Afrane,Anne M. Vardo-Zalik,Harrysone Atieli,Daibin Zhong,Peter Wamae,Yousif E. Himeidan,Noboru Minakawa,Andrew K. Githeko,Guiyun Yan
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0020318
Abstract: The impact of insecticide treated nets (ITNs) on reducing malaria incidence is shown mainly through data collection from health facilities. Routine evaluation of long-term epidemiological and entomological dynamics is currently unavailable. In Kenya, new policies supporting the provision of free ITNs were implemented nationwide in June 2006. To evaluate the impacts of ITNs on malaria transmission, we conducted monthly surveys in three sentinel sites with different transmission intensities in western Kenya from 2002 to 2010.
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