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The Environmental Dimension of Groundwater in Brazil: Conflicts between Mineral Water and Water Resource Management  [PDF]
Ana Lucia Desenzi Gesicki, Francesco Sindico
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2014.616140
Abstract: There are three legal categories of groundwater in Brazil. Mineral water and potable table water are considered mineral resources, are part of the Federative Union’s assets, and follow the legal regime applicable for the mining sector. “Normal” groundwater, on the other hand, falls under State’s jurisdiction and is dealt within the Brazilian System of Water Resource Management, which promotes a decentralized and participatory management of water resources on surface or stored underground. This has led to conflicts of competences between federal (mining regulation) and state agencies (water resource management) because different concepts and styles of management are involved. This article argues for the urgent need to reopen the discussion aimed at a possible major revision of Brazilian mineral water legislation, in order to duly take into account the environmental dimension of groundwater as a public good for common use. An open-minded and transparent discussion involving the government and different sectors of society with competing interests in mineralized groundwater would therefore be highly recommended.
Efficient Algorithms for Several Constrained Resource Allocation, Management and Discovery Problems  [PDF]
Mugurel Ionut Andreica,Madalina Ecaterina Andreica,Daniel Ardelean
Computer Science , 2009,
Abstract: In this paper we present efficient algorithmic solutions for several constrained resource allocation, management and discovery problems. We consider new types of resource allocation models and constraints, and we present new geometric techniques which are useful when the resources are mapped to points into a multidimensional feature space. We also consider a resource discovery problem for which we present a guessing game theoretical model.
A Dynamic and Efficient Resource Management by using Heuristics Algorithm.  [PDF]
International Journal of Engineering Sciences & Research Technology , 2013,
Abstract: Dynamic resource management for a large-scale cloud environment is problematic one. We propose a gossip protocol that ensures fair resource allocation among sites/applications, dynamically adapts the allocation to load changes and scales both in the number of physical machines and sites/applications. We present a protocol that computes an optimal solution without considering memory constraints and prove correctness and convergence properties. Next, we extend that protocol to provide an efficient heuristic solution for the complete problem, which includes minimizing the cost for adapting an allocation. The protocol continuously executes on dynamic, local input and does not require global synchronization, as other proposed gossip protocols do.
Toward Cloud-based Vehicular Networks with Efficient Resource Management  [PDF]
Rong Yu,Yan Zhang,Stein Gjessing,Wenlong Xia,Kun Yang
Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: In the era of Internet of Things, all components in intelligent transportation systems will be connected to improve transport safety, relieve traffic congestion, reduce air pollution and enhance the comfort of driving. The vision of all vehicles connected poses a significant challenge to the collection and storage of large amounts of traffic-related data. In this article, we propose to integrate cloud computing into vehicular networks such that the vehicles can share computation resources, storage resources and bandwidth resources. The proposed architecture includes a vehicular cloud, a roadside cloud, and a central cloud. Then, we study cloud resource allocation and virtual machine migration for effective resource management in this cloud-based vehicular network. A game-theoretical approach is presented to optimally allocate cloud resources. Virtual machine migration due to vehicle mobility is solved based on a resource reservation scheme.
Energy-Efficient and Thermal-Aware Resource Management for Heterogeneous Datacenters  [PDF]
Hongyang Sun,Patricia Stolf,Jean-Marc Pierson,Georges Da Costa
Computer Science , 2014, DOI: 10.1016/j.suscom.2014.08.005
Abstract: We propose in this paper to study the energy-, thermal- and performance-aware resource management in heterogeneous datacenters. Witnessing the continuous development of heterogeneity in datacenters, we are confronted with their different behaviors in terms of performance, power consumption and thermal dissipation: Indeed, heterogeneity at server level lies both in the computing infrastructure (computing power, electrical power consumption) and in the heat removal systems (different enclosure, fans, thermal sinks). Also the physical locations of the servers become important with heterogeneity since some servers can (over)heat others. While many studies address independently these parameters (most of the time performance and power or energy), we show in this paper the necessity to tackle all these aspects for an optimal resource management of the computing resources. This leads to improved energy usage in a heterogeneous datacenter including the cooling of the computer rooms. We build our approach on the concept of heat distribution matrix to handle the mutual influence of the servers, in heterogeneous environments, which is novel in this context. We propose a heuristic to solve the server placement problem and we design a generic greedy framework for the online scheduling problem. We derive several single-objective heuristics (for performance, energy, cooling) and a novel fuzzy-based priority mechanism to handle their tradeoffs. Finally, we show results using extensive simulations fed with actual measurements on heterogeneous servers.

Xie Xinmin,

自然资源学报 , 1993,
Abstract: According to the concrete task for the groundwater resource system in Jinan to manage and study the protection of springs and water supply, a multi-purpose management model for the groundwater resource system has been built up mathematically in this paper. Using the fuzzy mathematical theory, a fuzzy-weight method is proposed. It can solve the incomparabil-ity and the primary and secondary between various objectives at the same time. The theoretical analysis and a case study show that the multi-purpose management model and the fuzzy-weight method are rational and effective.
The groundwater monitoring in the Novgorod region in the system of regional nature management  [PDF]
Dudin I. N.,Shebesta A. A.
Baltic Region , 2011, DOI: 10.5922/2079-8555-2011-1-10
Abstract: This article examines the current state of the groundwater system monitoring in the Novgorod region. The groundwater monitoring observations serve as the basis for prediction assessment of water resources. The efficiency of water resource management largely depends on the comprehensiveness and reliability of information on the groundwater condition.The existing groundwater monitoring system has proven to be incapable of fully implementing its functions. It requires a fundamental reorganization and further development at the contemporary scientific and technical level, since groundwater resource management is impossible without a quantitative forecast of groundwater condition and properties.From the perspective of rational Nature management, the leading ecological function of underground hydrosphere is carried out by fresh underground waters. Rational Nature management underlies the sustainable development of the Northwest region, which is economically viable for the European territory of the country.
A proposed groundwater management framework for municipalities in South Africa
K Riemann, N Chimboza, M Fubesi
Water SA , 2012,
Abstract: Groundwater is not being perceived as an important water resource and therefore has been given limited attention in South Africa. This is reflected in general statistics showing that only 13% of the nation’s total water supply originates from groundwater. In contrast, most towns in arid areas depend on groundwater either as a sole supply or as an essential supply for drought management. The perception remains that groundwater is not a sustainable resource for bulk domestic supply and cannot be managed properly. Despite this, a growing number of municipalities utilise groundwater on a regular basis, and provide examples of successful management of this resource. Various guidelines for groundwater management in South Africa have been developed. These are valuable sources of information in terms of requirements and steps to protect and manage aquifers. However, an overarching groundwater management framework was still lacking. Hence, the Water Research Commission (WRC) has commissioned a project to develop a Groundwater Management Framework that incorporates all aspects of groundwater management at municipal level. The proposed Groundwater Management Framework aims to improve on the management of groundwater resources by equipping the responsible authorities with the required tools and capacity. This goes beyond data collection and monitoring, and requires human and capital resources. The framework includes a detailed description of the different functions and the relevant responsibilities, the required skills, the optimal position within the municipal structure and required communication lines. Hence, the assigned responsibilities and available tools to achieve sustainable groundwater management reflect the local level of water institutions, i.e. Water Services Authority (WSA), Water Services Provider (WSP) and Water User Associations (WUAs). However, the principles of the framework can be applied at all levels and all scales. It is recommended that this framework be rolled out and promoted at the local government level, in combination with requisite skills development at operational level, and training of municipal officials, as well as providing incentives for successful implementation and integration of groundwater management in municipal planning.
Biometric Methods for Secure Communications in Body Sensor Networks: Resource-Efficient Key Management and Signal-Level Data Scrambling  [cached]
Francis Minhthang Bui,Dimitrios Hatzinakos
EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing , 2008, DOI: 10.1155/2008/529879
Abstract: As electronic communications become more prevalent, mobile and universal, the threats of data compromises also accordingly loom larger. In the context of a body sensor network (BSN), which permits pervasive monitoring of potentially sensitive medical data, security and privacy concerns are particularly important. It is a challenge to implement traditional security infrastructures in these types of lightweight networks since they are by design limited in both computational and communication resources. A key enabling technology for secure communications in BSN's has emerged to be biometrics. In this work, we present two complementary approaches which exploit physiological signals to address security issues: (1) a resource-efficient key management system for generating and distributing cryptographic keys to constituent sensors in a BSN; (2) a novel data scrambling method, based on interpolation and random sampling, that is envisioned as a potential alternative to conventional symmetric encryption algorithms for certain types of data. The former targets the resource constraints in BSN's, while the latter addresses the fuzzy variability of biometric signals, which has largely precluded the direct application of conventional encryption. Using electrocardiogram (ECG) signals as biometrics, the resulting computer simulations demonstrate the feasibility and efficacy of these methods for delivering secure communications in BSN's.
Groundwater resource evaluation of urban Bulawayo aquifer
Freeternity Rusinga, AE Taigbenu
Water SA , 2005,
Abstract: Judicious management of a groundwater system requires an understanding of its hydrogeology and response to various recharge and pumping stresses. However, in developing countries, groundwater resource evaluations are hampered by a lack of adequate data that will allow for its complete characterisation. Under such circumstances it is not uncommon for ad hoc groundwater management measures to be embarked upon, especially during drought conditions. These were the conditions that existed during the 1991/92 drought when the CSIR Stellenbosch evaluated the groundwater resource of an urban aquifer in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe. Their recommendations revealed that about 3.5×106 m3/a could be safely abstracted from the aquifer. In this work, a more comprehensive hydrogeological investigation was carried out which included pumping tests, estimation of abstraction rates and recharge, and numerical modelling of the aquifer. The investigations indicate that the aquifer is unconfined with hydraulic conductivity and specific yield ranging from 0.1 m/d to 2.09 m/d and 0.02 to 0.11, respectively. Recharge estimates indicate an annual recharge of 105.5 mm with 38.4%, 52.1% and 9.5% accounting respectively for direct recharge, water mains and sewer leakages. Furthermore, a long-term sustainable annual abstraction of 6.1×106 m3 or 15% of current city water demand can be obtained from the aquifer.
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