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Challenges with using estimates when calculating ART need among adults in South Africa
AAM Gerritsen, JS Mitchell, SM Johnson, W Delva
South African Medical Journal , 2012,
Abstract: Background. The Foundation for Professional Development (FPD) collects information annually on HIV/AIDS service provision and estimates service needs in the City of Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality (CTMM). Methods. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) data from the Department of Health and Statistics South Africa (SSA) mid-year population estimates were used to approximate the ART need among adults in the CTMM. Results. According to SSA data, ART need decreased dramatically from 2010 to 2011 and was lower than the number of adults receiving ART. Although the noted difference was probably due to changes in the calculations by SSA, no detailed or confirmed explanation could be offered. Conclusions. We provide a constructive contribution to the discussion regarding the use of model-derived estimates of ART need.
The provision of recreation services for the aged in the Durban Metropolitan Area (DMA)
NR Ngcobo
Inkanyiso: Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: This paper investigated the provision of recreation services for the aged in the Durban Metropolitan Area (DMA). The main argument in the research is that the aged like any other age groups need to be provided with recreation services. The objectives underpinning this investigation include the following: To reveal the adequacy of existing recreation services which are provided for the aged in the Durban Metropolitan Area. To determine the views that the aged population holds towards recreation participation by the aged. To establish the extent to which the aged in the Durban Metropolitan Area value their recreation participation. To establish the level of concessions granted to the aged by the recreation service providers in the Durban Metropolitan Area on utilising recreation facilities. A survey research method, comprising a self-completed questionnaire and a structured interview schedule, was used to gather data from the respondents who comprised 260 aged (main sample), 120 general members of the public and 10 recreation service providers in the DMA. This was further supplemented by the observation method. Having analysed the data, the chi-square test was used to test the validity and reliability of the hypotheses. The most salient findings indicate that the aged in the DMA are not adequately provided with recreation services, despite the fact that they attach certain positive values to recreation participation. The research further highlighted that the DMA needs to provide recreation programmes that the aged can afford. Non-prescriptive recommendations revolve inter alia around: conducting a needs analysis survey prior to the provision of recreation services for the aged. The location of recreation facilities to be used by the aged must be in an area that is easily accessible. Furthermore, the aged must be granted special concessions in the utilisation of recreation facilities.
Evaluation of general practitioners’ routine assessment of patients with diabetes in Tshwane, South Africa
KG Leslie, L Nkombua
South African Family Practice , 2012,
Abstract: Background: Diabetes mellitus is a composite disease that, if not well managed and controlled, may lead to severe complications. To avoid or delay these debilitating complications, it is necessary for the practitioner to implement adequate management of the disease by using currently available clinical guidelines. The authors wished to establish the use of existing diabetes management guidelines by general practitioners (GPs) in the City of Tshwane (Pretoria) Metropolitan Municipality of South Africa. Method: A cross-sectional and descriptive study was conducted. A total of 50 randomly selected general practitioners participated in the survey. Results: A large majority of the participants (92%) was aware of the existence of the latest guidelines for the management of diabetes in South Africa. The assessments performed by most GPs were body mass index and lipid profile, as reported by 96% of the respondents, followed by foot examination, microalbumin (88%) and glycated haemoglobin (84%) measurements. The practice of eye specialist referrals was found adequate in 22% of the participants. Fifty-four per cent reported that they did not undertake any continuing professional development activity regarding diabetes in the preceding year. Conclusion: Although the GPs surveyed in the Tshwane district were aware of the existence of guidelines for the assessment of patients with diabetes, their implementation was not satisfactory. Training institutions play a pivotal role in guiding future practitioners to improve such implementation. Also, the improvement of the quality of primary health care systems is of great importance.
The Metropolitan Area of the Municipality of Bucharest. Present-Day Features Relating to Some Environmental Issues in an International Context
DAN B?LTEANU,INES GRIGORESCU
Romanian Review of Regional Studies , 2005,
Abstract: The development of metropolitan areas represents the main characteristic of today’s urban evolution trends. The first initiatives to delimitate and define metropolitan areas have been in the United States since 1910. In Europe, this concept was adopted at the beginning of the1990s when the United States had already had 250 metropolitan areas. Romania adopted the concept of metropolitan area in the late 1990s, namely in 1997 when a study on the Directions, Ways, and Intensities of Development in the Municipality of Bucharest and its Metropolitan Zone. Environmental protection politics appeared. This made public a point of view about the Bucharest metropolitan area, which was legally defined by Law no. 351 of July 6th 2001 regarding the National Territory Management Plan, Section IV – Settlements. But many other limits of this area were also taken into account. The uncontrolled evolution of the Bucharest Metropolitan Area as well as of many other European capital cities can be stopped or stabilized by developing green belts or green areas.
Cerdà and Barcelona: The need for a new city and service provision  [PDF]
Montserrat Pallares Barbera,Anna Badia,Jordi Duch
Urbani Izziv , 2011,
Abstract: This paper examines Ildefons Cerdà’s 1860 Plan for the Urban Expansion of Barcelona; specifically, how and why it was conceived in a unique way, in which the provision of services to the population was an important part. Cerdà based his expansion proposal on an in depth socio statistical study of old Barcelona’s population conditions. The high mortality rates of the working class population and poor health and education conditions pushed Cerdà to design a new type of urban planning, which he defined as “urbanism”. In his proposal for the new city, he planned the location of services such as marketplaces, schools and hospitals. The first part of this paper introduces the urban and political preconditions of Barcelona and the statistics on which Cerdà based his contribution. The second part uses location theory and a geographic information system (GIS) to analyse the pattern of location and the population served by markets and hospitals. In addition, topographic maps from 1926 and 1975 are used to study the development of the expansion up to when it was fully developed. The evolution of the city differed from Cerdà’s proposal, partly due to unexpected increases in population density, the built environment, and higher amounts of building occupation. Nevertheless, Cerdà’s layout of streets and avenues has prevailed.
Clinical epidemiological profile of American tegumentary leishmaniasis at the Pinto Sugar Mill in Moreno Municipality, Greater Metropolitan Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil
Brito, Maria Edileuza Felinto de;Silva, Cláudio Júlio;Silva, Cristiane Máximo;Salazar, Pedro Raposo;Coutinho, Juliana Santos;Reis, Luiza de Campos;Pereira, Valéria Rego Alves;Brand?o-Filho, Sinval Pinto;Medeiros, ?ngela Cristina Rapela;
Cadernos de Saúde Pública , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-311X2008001000025
Abstract: american tegumentary leishmaniasis (atl) is present in all regions of pernambuco state, brazil, where it is spreading, with the emergence of foci in new areas like the municipality (county) of moreno in greater metropolitan recife. the objective of the current study was to assess the prevalence of infection and identify autochthonous cases of atl. in april 2006 a population survey was performed using a questionnaire and the montenegro skin test (mst) in 481 individuals from the pinto sugar mill, of whom 47% were males and 74% were younger than 30 years. one hundred forty-four individuals (30%) showed a positive mst. of these, five presented active lesions, 41 were cured after meglumine antimoniate treatment, and one showed a spontaneous cure. indirect immunofluorescence (iif) was performed on sera from 89 individuals and showed a 36% positive rate. the high atl prevalence demonstrates the epidemiological spread of the disease in greater metropolitan recife, a worrisome development since there are no effective measures for atl control except ecological awareness raising to minimize the risk of infection.
Revisiting the role of woman pastors in the church in Tshwane
Elizabeth C. Wagner-Ferreira
HTS Theological Studies/Teologiese Studies , 2011, DOI: 10.4102/hts.v67i2.932
Abstract: The purpose of this article was to obtain feedback from women pastors in and around the Tshwane metropole in South Africa on their experiences of their role as pastors. The question at stake was: are woman pastors more often approached for counselling? Therefore, half structured interviews were conducted in order to explore their life stories. The four core tasks of practical theological interpretation, according to Richard Osmer, were used as the framework for this article. How to cite this article: Wagner-Ferreira, E.C., 2011, ‘Revisiting the role of woman pastors in the church in Tshwane’, HTS Teologiese Studies/Theological Studies 67(2), Art. #932, 7 pages. DOI: 10.4102/hts.v67i2.932
Developing a South African pedestrian environment assessment tool: Tshwane case study
Patricia N. Albers,Caradee Wright,Jane Olwoch
South African Journal of Science , 2010, DOI: 10.4102/sajs.v106i9/10.187
Abstract: Pedestrians, comprising approximately 60% of the population, are among the most vulnerable road users in South Africa. The roadside environment may be an important factor influencing the nature and frequency of pedestrian fatalities. While there are audit tools for assessing the pedestrian environment in other countries, no such tool exists for South Africa. This study evaluated existing audit tools in relation to South African issues and conditions and developed a South African Pedestrian Environment Assessment Tool (PEAT). PEAT was tested at five sites in the Tshwane Metropolitan Area in Gauteng to assess its applicability. PEAT was simple to use and provided valuable information, however, appropriate measures need to be taken to address fieldworker security, especially for night-time assessments when several roadside factors, such as lighting, should be evaluated. Although it was not the focus of our study, based on our results, we suggest that the lack of pavements, pedestrian crossings and pedestrian lighting are factors that, potentially, could increase pedestrian vulnerability.
Revisiting the role of woman pastors in the church in Tshwane
EC Wagner-Ferreira
HTS Theological Studies/Teologiese Studies , 2011,
Abstract: The purpose of this article was to obtain feedback from women pastors in and around the Tshwane metropole in South Africa on their experiences of their role as pastors. The question at stake was: are woman pastors more often approached for counselling? Therefore, half structured interviews were conducted in order to explore their life stories. The four core tasks of practical theological interpretation, according to Richard Osmer, were used as the framework for this article.
Role of community nurses in the prevention of tuberculosis in the Tshwane Health District of Gauteng  [PDF]
Siphiwe D. Mnisi,Mmapheko D. Peu,Salomé M. Meyer
Curationis , 2012,
Abstract: The objectives of this study were to identify the role of community nurses in the prevention of tuberculosis (TB) and to identify problems experienced by them when fulfilling this role in the Tshwane Health District of Gauteng. A non-experimental, descriptive, quantitative research design method was used to collect data from community nurses. The sample included 59 registered nurses who voluntarily agreed to participate in the study. A questionnaire was used to collect data and quantitative data analysis methods were employed. Various opinions and ideas on the role of community nurses in the prevention of TB and the problems experienced were identified. Based on the results of this research, measures to protect community nurses from contracting TB whilst on duty should be a priority. Government should support TB programmes by providing money to non-governmental organisations and direct observed treatment short course (DOTS) supporters to make follow-up visits to patients possible, thus reducing the number of defaulters. Stringent measures should be taken at all border points to ensure that foreigners are screened for TB, multidrug-resistant TB and extensively drugresistant TB. This study was limited to community nurses in the Tshwane Health District of Gauteng who were registered with the South African Nursing Council (SANC) and therefore this study could not be generalised to registered nurses in the hospital setting or even to clinics in the rest of South Africa.
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