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A vantagem competitiva das na es e a vantagem competitiva das empresas: o que importa na localiza o? The competitive advantage of nations and the competitive advantage of companies: what really matters in location?
Martim Francisco de Oliveira e Silva,Jorge Ferreira da Silva,Luiz Felipe Jacques da Motta
Revista de Administra??o Pública , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/s0034-76122012000300004
Abstract: Há dois enfoques dominantes para explicar o desempenho das empresas: a vis o da Organiza o Industrial e a Vis o Baseada em Recursos, ambos amplamente pesquisados. Entretanto, a rela o entre o desempenho das empresas e a competitividade das na es ainda é pouco explorada. Este estudo buscou verificar se o desempenho das empresas se relaciona ao ambiente de seus países e quais fatores destes s o mais relevantes. Foram encontradas evidências da rela o entre os indicadores de competitividade dos países e o desempenho sustentável de suas empresas. O estudo relacionou de maneira pioneira os conceitos da vantagem competitiva das na es e da vantagem competitiva das empresas, testou empiricamente o modelo do Diamante Competitivo do professor Michael Porter, destacou três variáveis habitualmente negligenciadas na linha de pesquisas das fontes de desempenho de empresas (a Sofistica o dos Compradores, o PIB e as Compras Governamentais) e criou um indicador de desempenho que também traduz sua sustentabilidade, associado à linha da pesquisa da persistência dos retornos extraordinários. There are two dominant paradigms to explain firm performance: the Industrial Organization and the Resource Based View, both extensively studied. The association between firm performance and the competitiveness of nations is still insufficiently explored. This study aimed to verify whether business performance is related to the environment of the countries where they operate and what factors within them are the most relevant. Evidences of the relationship between the nation's competitiveness indicators and the sustainable performance of their firms were found. The study pioneered the approach relating the concept of competitive advantage of nations to the competitive advantage of companies; empirically tested the model of Michael Porter's Competitive Diamond; highlighted three variables, usually neglected in the line of research of the sources of firm performance (Buyers Sophistication, GDP and Government Purchases); and created a new indicator of performance that also reflects its sustainability, which relates to the line of research on the persistence of abnormal returns.
Competitive Advantage of Nations and Multilateral Trade System: How Can Lebanon Benefit from Trade Liberalization without Enhancing Its Strategic Industries?  [PDF]
Georges N. Nehme, Eliane Nehme
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2014.24023
Abstract: International trade theories explain the advantage of nations to adopt a liberal trade model and to participate in the multilateral trade system via liberalizing their systems by eliminating trade quotas, tariff barriers and other forms of protectionism. The influence of international institutions on trade flow, mainly the World Trade Organization (WTO), has been important. The WTO contributed by helping and advising governments so that they would benefit from multilateral agreements by granting preferential treatments for developing countries joining the institution, and making them learn from other countries’ experiences in the accession process. Both liberalizing and protecting local production have advantages and weaknesses; how do existing theories about trade policy explain this landscape? Liberalizing the economy proved to be beneficial for some countries, while others suffered from distasting consequences on domestic production, employment and purchasing power. Some researches explained that large-scale changes in political institutions, especially in the direction of democracy, may be necessary for the kind of massive trade liberalization that has occurred. Changes in preferences cannot be overlooked in some economies while explaining the rush to free trade. The reciprocal impact of trade on domestic policies and the international political system is important. Analyzing the hypotheses about nation’s competitiveness and its dependence on the capacity of its industry to innovate and upgrade deems indispensable. This paper will be testing the relevancy from applying Michael Porter’s diamonds theory and the Heckscher-Ohlin-Samuelson model on developing economies, mainly Lebanon, in order to gain national competitive advantages while having strong regional and international rivals. Do companies gain advantage against the world’s best competitors because of pressure and challenges? Lebanese productive companies are suffering from lack of competitiveness because of weak governmental support and absence of public planning to enhance strategic industries by developing a strong flexible export based model. With a 2.6 billons dollars deficit of its balance of payment, how can Lebanese government join the WTO and liberalize its trade system while avoiding its negative impact on national and social prosperity?
The Scientific Competitiveness of Nations  [PDF]
Giulio Cimini,Andrea Gabrielli,Francesco Sylos Labini
Computer Science , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0113470
Abstract: We use citation data of scientific articles produced by individual nations in different scientific domains to determine the structure and efficiency of national research systems. We characterize the scientific fitness of each nation (that is, the competitiveness of its research system) and the complexity of each scientific domain by means of a non-linear iterative algorithm able to assess quantitatively the advantage of scientific diversification. We find that technological leading nations, beyond having the largest production of scientific papers and the largest number of citations, do not specialize in a few scientific domains. Rather, they diversify as much as possible their research system. On the other side, less developed nations are competitive only in scientific domains where also many other nations are present. Diversification thus represents the key element that correlates with scientific and technological competitiveness. A remarkable implication of this structure of the scientific competition is that the scientific domains playing the role of "markers" of national scientific competitiveness are those not necessarily of high technological requirements, but rather addressing the most "sophisticated" needs of the society.
Broadband Internet and Czech Competitive Advantage  [PDF]
Amir Manzoor
Journal of Emerging Trends in Computing and Information Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: The rapid evolution of telecommunication, World Wide Web, and computing technologies continues to shape the businesses around the globe. In this rapidly changing technological environment, a country’s broadband Internet readiness has become a significant factor of the global competitiveness of a nation. Using a modified Porter’s diamond model, this study compares broadband Internet development in Czech Republic and other OECD countries and investigates various factors that contributed to the different degrees of broadband Internet development in the Czech Republic and other OECD countries. The study finds that the diffusion of broadband Internet does contribute to the global competitiveness of a nation. The study reports findings from the first comparative study of Czech Republic and other OECD countries carried out in the area of broadband Internet competitive advantage.
The Formation of Competitive Advantage in the Enterprise Формирование конкурентных преимуществ на предприятии  [PDF]
Varga Irina F.,Litvin Aleksandra M.
Business Inform , 2013,
Abstract: In the article the basic requirements are analysed to the increase of competitiveness of domestic enterprises that consist in forming and maintenance of proof competitive edges. It is educed that a process of forming of competitive edges of enterprise must be clearly structured, that will give possibility to the enterprise to purchase firmness of him to the competitive edges. Determination actual competitive edges and the prospects of their use and employment of leading positions are analysed on markets. Expediency of introduction of innovations, integrating is reasonable and recommendations are given at the choice of competition strategies on enterprises. It is well-proven that the clear sequence of determination of competitive edges of enterprise will give to them to firmness and stability. В статье проанализированы основные требования к повышению конкурентоспособности отечественных предприятий, которые заключаются в формировании и содержании стойких конкурентных преимуществ. Выявлено, что процесс формирования конкурентных преимуществ предприятия должен быть четко структурированным, что предоставит возможность предприятию приобрести стойкость его конкурентным преимуществам. Определении актуальные конкурентные преимущества и проанализированы перспективы их использования и занятия лидирующих позиций на рынках. Обоснована целесообразность внедрения инноваций, интегрированности и предоставлены рекомендации при выборе конкурентных стратегий на предприятиях. Доказано, что четкая последовательность определения конкурентных преимуществ предприятия предоставит им стойкости и стабильности.
Investigation of Competitive Advantage of the Dairy Industry Cluster: The Case of Rwanda  [PDF]
Antoine Matemane Mahirwe, Long Wei
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management (AJIBM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ajibm.2018.85092
Abstract: This paper explores the dairy industry cluster in Rwanda and its competitive advantage basing on the Porter’s diamond model. Additionally, this study identifies other factors critical to the competitiveness of the dairy industry cluster in Rwanda and includes them to the diamond model to create a multiple diamond model. This study argues that the direction taken to increase milk supply in Rwanda by increasing the number of cattle farmers through the government program known as “One cow per poor family” is not suitable in that it exerts more pressure on already scarce resources such as land. In fact, this study suggests that given the challenges facing the dairy industry, more emphasis should be put on improving efficiency and increasing productivity in the value chain. This study proposes the multiple-diamond model which extends Porter’s Diamond model to include other factors central to the competitiveness of the dairy industry cluster in Rwanda. To test the effect of the proposed multiple-diamond determinants, ARDL test was run. The findings confirmed the effect of trade openness on the dairy cluster industry competitiveness. Development assistance and milk cattle were found to have a negative and significant effect on the dairy cluster industry competitiveness while FDI inflow and market sophistication were found to have non-significant effect. The study concludes by providing recommendations for future studies in this field.
Types of Competitive Advantage and Analysis  [cached]
Wang, Wen-Cheng,Lin, Chien-Hung,Chu, Ying-Chien
International Journal of Business and Management , 2011, DOI: 10.5539/ijbm.v6n5p100
Abstract: The internal sources of competitive advantage cover a wide range of areas. The important competitive advantages behind an organization are not merely determined by its external factors. The internal sources of competitive advantage of a firm have been considered as crucial factors to success. The research looks at the extensive literature in relation to competitive advantage. The formation of main theories in literature review was illustrated by the concepts of competitive advantages through proper management action when managing the structure, process, culture and people of an organization. Therefore, the aim of competitive advantage recognition is connect with resources, capabilities and core competencies of the organization. By means of exploring and understanding the theories in literature review, to underpin the research.
Knowledge Resources and Competitive Advantage  [PDF]
Doris Gomezelj Omerzel,Rune Ellemose Gulev
Managing Global Transitions , 2011,
Abstract: The paper discusses some definitions of knowledge as a potential sourceof competitive advantage. It reviews the literature pertaining to the assessmentof knowledge assets. According to the resource-based view,which links the competitive advantage of organizations with resourcesand capabilities that are firm-specific, and difficult to imitate or substitute,a firm’s competitive advantage is built on a set of strategicallyrelevant resources (Barney 1991; Grant 1991; Peteraf 1993). When firmshave access to similar resources, it is those companies that are able tomaximize the utilization of those resources that attain a competitiveadvantage. Among various strategic resources and capabilities that helpdetermine the extent of competitive advantages, a pivotal role is oftenassigned to knowledge – as both a resource in itself and an integratingfactor that makes other resources and capabilities effective – especiallyin complex and dynamic environments.
Determinants of the National Competitive Advantage (NCA)  [PDF]
Elena Nisipeanu
International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences , 2013,
Abstract: In the late 80’s appeared the competitive advantage’s theory, period during which there were more and more changes in the world economy, which imposed having made use of other theories that explain the flow of goods and services between countries. From these transformations we enumerate: the manifestation of imperfect competition, the existence of economies of scale, intra-industry trade, technical progress, pronounced trends of economic integration etc.From the time of the first studies to date, the literature has abounded in works that have attempted to define and measure competitive advantage at both the national level and industry or enterprise level. At mid-90’s had been founded various specialized institutes in order to clarify the meaning of the term and to classify the economies depending on their competitiveness.
Competitive Priorities and Competitive Advantage in Jordanian Manufacturing  [PDF]
Abdulkareem S. Awwad, Adel A. Al Khattab, John R. Anchor
Journal of Service Science and Management (JSSM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jssm.2013.61008
Abstract:

The purpose of this research was to explore and predict the relationship between the competitive priorities (quality, cost, flexibility and delivery) and the competitive advantage of firms in the Jordanian Industrial Sector. A population of 88 Jordanian manufacturing firms, registered on the Amman Stock Exchange, was targeted using a cross-sectional survey employing a questionnaire method of data collection. The results of the data analysis indicate a significant relationship between competitive priorities and competitive advantage. The research suggests that recognising and nurturing this relationship provides the master key for a firm to survive in a turbulent environment. Therefore, operational and marketing strategies should place emphasis on competitive priorities such as quality, cost, flexibility and delivery to achieve, develop and maintain competitive advantage. This study is one of the first to examine the relationship between the competitive priorities of Jordanian manufacturing firms and their competitive advantage.

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