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Knowledge of reproductive and sexual rights among University students in Ethiopia: institution-based cross-sectional  [cached]
Adinew Yohannes Mehretie,Worku Abebaw Gebeyehu,Mengesha Zelalem Birhanu
BMC International Health and Human Rights , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1472-698x-13-12
Abstract: Background People have the right to make choices regarding their own sexuality, as far as they respect the rights of others. The knowledge of those rights is critical to youth’s ability to protect themselves from unwanted reproductive outcomes. Reproductive health targeted Millennium Development Goals will not be achieved without improving access to reproductive health. This study was aimed to assess knowledge of reproductive and sexual rights as well as associated factors among Wolaita Sodo University students. Methods An institution-based cross-sectional survey was conducted among 642 regular undergraduate Wolaita Sodo University students selected by simple random sampling. A pretested and structured self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Data were entered using EPI info version 3.5.3 statistical software and analyzed using SPSS version 20 statistical package. Descriptive statistics was used to describe the study population in relation to relevant variables. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression was also carried out to see the effect of each independent variable on the dependent variable. Results More than half (54.5%) of the respondents were found to be knowledgeable about reproductive and sexual rights. Attending elementary and high school in private schools [AOR: 2.08, 95% CI: 1.08, 3.99], coming from urban areas [AOR: 1.46, 95% CI: 1.00, 2.12], being student of faculty of health sciences [AOR: 2.98, 95% CI: 1.22, 7.30], participation in reproductive health clubs [AOR: 3.11, 95% CI: 2.08, 4.65], utilization of reproductive health services [AOR: 2.34, 95% CI: 1.49, 3.69] and discussing sexual issues with someone else [AOR: 2.31, 95% CI: 1.48, 3.62], were positively associated with knowledge of reproductive and sexual rights. Conclusion The level of knowledge of students about reproductive and sexual rights was found to be low. The Ministry of Education has to incorporate reproductive and sexual rights in the curricula of high schools and institutions of higher learning.
Effect of emergency oral contraceptive use on condom utilization and sexual risk taking behaviours among university students, Northwest Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study
Belaynew Wasie, Yeshambel Belyhun, Beyene Moges, Bemnet Amare
BMC Research Notes , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1756-0500-5-501
Abstract: A cross-sectional study was conducted in two major universities of Ethiopia from January to May 2011 using structured self administered questionnaire with the aim to assess the effect of introducing oral emergency contraceptive pills on condom utilization and sexual risk taking behaviours among female university students. Study participants were selected by simple random sampling using the list from the associate registrars of each University. Data were entered, cleaned and analyzed using SPSS version 17.0. Bivariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to determine factors associated with condom utilization.a total of 623 students out of 660 were included giving response rate of 94.4%. A total of 103(16.5%) had history of sexual intercourse and nearly half (45.6%) of them had sex before the age of 20?years. Forty (6.4%) students had history of sexually transmitted infections (STI). Sixty seven percent of students had heard about emergency oral contraceptives. One hundred and ninety one (45.7%) of students believe that EOC is effective in preventing pregnancy. Believing that EOC is effective in preventing pregnancy (adjusted Odds ratio, AOR?=?0.22 95% CI 0.06, 0.87), condom prevents STI (AOR?=?10.37, 95% CI 1.73, 62.24) and younger age below 20?years (AOR?=?11.68 95% CI 1.25, 109.19) were statistically significantly associated with condom use.a significant number of students had history of sexual intercourse and used emergency contraception. The belief in the effectiveness of EOC negatively affects condom use. The preference for the pill may make teenagers less prepared to practice STI protective behaviours in specific situations. Therefore, there is an urgent need to educate young people in universities about reproductive health and family planning and skills on how to prevent HIV/STIs including unwanted pregnancy.For women at high risk for HIV acquisition and do not wish to become pregnant, contraceptive choice is a crucial issue. According to stati
Risky sexual behavior and predisposing factors among students of Jimma University, Ethiopia
Gurmesa Tura, Fessahaye Alemseged, Sisay Dejene
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Students of higher institutions are assumed to be exposed to many risky sexual behaviors. However, little has been explored about the magnitude of risky behavior and predisposing factors in the context of higher education institutions in Ethiopia. Thus, the objective of this study was to assess the pattern of risky sexual behaviors and predisposing factors among Jimma University students. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in November 2009 involving quantitative and qualitative methods. The quantitative study was conducted on 1010 students selected by multistage cluster sampling technique. The data were collected using self-administered questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS V.16.0. Multi-variate logistic regression was used to see association between variables. The qualitative part involved 10 focus group discussions and 17 key-informant interviews selected purposively. The qualitative data were analyzed by thematic areas. RESULTS: Among the respondents, 267(26.9%) ever had sexual intercourse. The mean age at first sexual intercourse was 17.7±2.7 years. Most, 75.6%, started sexual intercourse during secondary school. Among whoever had sex, 51.0% had sex in the last 12 months and 28.3% had multiple sexual partners. Consistent condom use with non-regular partner in the last 12 months was 69.1%. Lack of parental control, substance use, peer pressure, campus and outside environment were identified as predisposing factors. CONCLUSION: Risky sexual behaviour such as having multiple sexual partner and sexual practice without condom with non- regular partner exists. The university and local health bodies should work together to address the identified risky behaviours with particular focus on Behaviour change communication.
Assessment of level of knowledge and utilization of emergency contraception among female students of Hawassa University, south Ethiopia  [PDF]
Ejara Tolossa, Birhan Meshesha, Amanuel Alemu Abajobir
Advances in Reproductive Sciences (ARSci) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/arsci.2013.13008
Abstract: Introduction: Emergency contraception is used as an emergency procedure to prevent unintended pregnancy secondary to an unprotected se xual intercourse and method failure. Hence, this study assessed the level of knowledge and utilization of emergency contraception among undergraduate regular female students of Hawassa University, south Ethiopia. Methods: An institution-based cross-sectional survey was conducted among female students of Hawassa University in December 2012. Seven hundred seventy six of the students were sampled by using multistage sampling technique. Pretested structured questionnaire was used to collect the data. Results: The majority 719 (92.7%) of female university students ever had sexual intercourse and 17 (2.2%) experienced forced sex. Eight (47%) of these 17 students experienced unintended pregnancy all of which resulted in an induced abortion. Three hundred seventy nine (72.2%) of the respondents had knowledge about emergency contraceptives and only 41 (10.8%) of them had ever used emergency contraceptives; oral contraceptive pills were the most widely used form of all emergency contraceptives 41 (10.8%). Age, marital status and age at menarche were associated with knowledge of emergency contraception; moreover, residence, year of study and experience of forced sex were found to be predictors of emergency contraception utilization. Conclusion: Female university students had been experiencing high rate of unintended sexual practice and pregnancy, low knowledge level and utilization of emergency contraceptives; moreover, they had no youth-friendly access to the services. Therefore, there is a need for collaborated effort to improve service access and scale up their utilization level to prevent unwanted pregnancy.
Determinants of alcohol drinking and its association with sexual practices among high school students in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Cross sectional study  [PDF]
Dawit Teshome, Teferi Gedif
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2013.36057
Abstract: Introduction: Alcohol drinking and risky sexual practices have become serious public health problem among teenagers and young adults globally, including many developing countries. The available reports are sparse, especially there is a lack of recent and representative data for high school students in developing countries including Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence, identify determinants, and examine the association of alcohol drinking with sexual practices among high school students in Addis Ababa, capital city of Ethiopia. Methods: School based cross sectional study was conducted from November to December 2010. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the association between students’ background characteristics and alcohol use, and alcohol use and sexual practices. Results: Among 2551 students surveyed, lifetime and current (past month) alcohol drinking was reported by 1166 (45.7%) and 676 (26.5%) students, respectively. Having sexual intercourse at least once in their lifetime was reported by 412 (16.2%) with151 (5.9%) of them being sexually active during a month prior to the survey. Having multiple sexual partners (52.5%), drinking alcohol before sexual intercourse (26.4%), and having sexual intercourse without the use of condom (47.3%) were also common among sexually active students. In adjusted logistic regression model, age (18 and 19 and older), living with 2 parents, getting pocket money, having alcohol drinking friends and attending general secondary school (grade 9-10) were positive predictors of current alcohol drinking. Nergative predictors of current alcohol drinking were being Protestant Christian and living with relatives or siblings. Conclusion: Alcohol drinking before sexual intercourse was a major problem among high school students in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Male gender, older age and higher school grade, friends influence, religious affiliation, living with parents and getting pocket money were significant predictors of current alcohol drinking. Educating about substance use and risky sexual behaviors, engaging students in extracurricular activities and restrict access to alcohol to high school students may help in solution of these problems on a local scale.
Pattern of risky sexual behavior and associated factors among undergraduate students of the University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria
JA Imaledo, OB Peter-Kio, EO Asuquo
Pan African Medical Journal , 2012,
Abstract: Introduction: Age at sexual debut had decreased in the developing countries recently. Few documented studies have looked into the pattern of risky sexual behaviour and associated factors among undergraduate students in Rivers state of recent. This study examined the pattern of sexual risky behaviour of undergraduate in University of Port-Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. Methods: A descriptive cross sectional survey was adopted and three hundred students were purposively recruited. Data were collected by a self –administered semi-structured questionnaire and analysed using descriptive and chi-square statistics at 0.05 significant level. Results: The mean age of respondents was 21.3±2.8years; more than half (57.4%) were females. Almost a quarter (24.5%) was each in 200 and 300 level of study respectively and more than a quarter (26.7%) lives alone. Sixty-one percent of the respondents had ever taken alcohol beverage with 36.1% of them were current users. More than half (52.0%) the respondents had either boy/girlfriend and a total of 144 (52.0%) had ever had sexual intercourse; of these 13% reportedly had only one sexual partner in their lifetime; girl/boy friend topped the list of their sexual partner; 48.6% respondents were currently sexually active and 32% used a form of protection during their last sexual activity. The mean age at sexual debut was 17.0± 4.5years. Few (13.4%) have had sex in exchange for gifts and 5.1% of these was with a friend. Higher proportions of respondents who reported lifetime use of alcohol were sexually active (p<0.005). Conclusion: Respondents exhibits risky sexual behavior as more had sex without any form of protection. Public enlightenment programmes and targeted behavioral change interventions are therefore recommended.
Sexual behavior and awareness of Chinese university students in transition with implied risk of sexually transmitted diseases and HIV infection: A cross-sectional study
Qiaoqin Ma, Masako Ono-Kihara, Liming Cong, Guozhang Xu, Saman Zamani, Shahrzad Ravari, Masahiro Kihara
BMC Public Health , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-6-232
Abstract: A self-administered questionnaire survey with cross-sectional design was conducted among 22,493 undergraduate students in two universities in Ningbo, China. Bivariate trend analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis were used to compare sexual behaviors and awareness between grades.Of respondents, 17.6% of males and 8.6% of females reported being sexually active. Condom was reported never/rarely used by 35% of sexually active students in both genders in the previous year. Pregnancy and induced abortion had each been experienced by about 10% of sexually active female students and the female partners of male students, and about 1.5% of sexually active students of both genders reported being diagnosed with an STD. Multivariate analysis revealed that students in lower grades, compared to those in higher grades, were more likely to have become sexually active before university, to have become aware of sex before high school, and to have been exposed to pornographic media before the age of 17 years, and for sexually active respondents of both genders, to have engaged in sex without using a condom.Sexual behaviors of Chinese university students are poorly protected and sexual behaviors and awareness may have been undergoing rapid change, becoming active earlier and more risky. If this trend continues, vulnerable sexual network will grow among them that allow more expansion of sexually transmitted diseases and HIV.Incidence of STD has recently dramatically increased in China. According to the national system of STD surveillance, from 1990–1998, the incidence of the eight STDs increased 3.7 times [1], and in 2004 gonorrhea and syphilis incidence ranked 4th and 5th among 27 notifiable infectious diseases, respectively [2]. At the same time, since the first case of HIV was identified in 1985, reported HIV/AIDS cases have been rapidly increasing in China, especially since 1997. While the increase in the reported cases of HIV could partly reflects expanded surveillance w
Factors Motivating Female Undergraduate Students of Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko to Have Sexual Intercourse
Public Health Research , 2012, DOI: 10.5923/j.phr.20120201.02
Abstract: This study investigated the factors which motivate the female undergraduate students of Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko to have sexual intercourse. Ex-post facto survey research design was used for the study. The population comprised all female undergraduate students of the University from which 210 respondents were randomly selected as sample. Fifteen relevant questionnaire items which were validated by a jury of five experts in Health Education were used for data collection with the help of two-trained research assistants. Responses were coded into frequency tables while simple percentage statistic was applied for analysis. The findings revealed that involvement in sexual intercourse thrive among the female students of the University for reasons which include love, affection, enjoyment, pleasure, fulfillment of womanhood, having babies etc. Sequel to these findings, it was recommended, among other things, that Health Education be introduced in the University and made compulsory for all students.
Attitudes of undergraduate medical students of Addis Ababa University towards medical practice and migration, Ethiopia  [cached]
Deressa Wakgari,Azazh Aklilu
BMC Medical Education , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6920-12-68
Abstract: Background The health care system of Ethiopia is facing a serious shortage of health workforce. While a number of strategies have been developed to improve the training and retention of medical doctors in the country, understanding the perceptions and attitudes of medical students towards their training, future practice and intent to migrate can contribute in addressing the problem. This study was carried out to assess the attitudes of Ethiopian medical students towards their training and future practice of medicine, and to identify factors associated with the intent to practice in rural or urban settings, or to migrate abroad. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in June 2009 among 600 medical students (Year I to Internship program) of the Faculty of Medicine at Addis Ababa University in Ethiopia. A pre-tested self-administered structured questionnaire was used for data collection. Descriptive statistics were used for data summarization and presentation. Degree of association was measured by Chi Square test, with significance level set at p < 0.05. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess associations. Results Only 20% of the students felt ‘excellent’ about studying medicine; followed by ‘very good’ (19%), ‘good’ (30%), ‘fair’ (21%) and ‘bad’ (11%). About 35% of respondents responded they felt the standard of medical education was below their expectation. Only 30% of the students said they would like to initially practice medicine in rural settings in Ethiopia. However, students with rural backgrounds were more likely than those with urban backgrounds to say they intended to practice medicine in rural areas (adjusted OR = 2.50, 95% CI = 1.18-5.26). Similarly, students in clinical training program preferred to practice medicine in rural areas compared to pre-clinical students (adjusted OR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.12-2.99). About 53% of the students (57% males vs. 46% females, p = 0.017) indicated aspiration to emigrate following graduation, particularly to the United States of America (42%) or European countries (15%). The attitude towards emigration was higher among Year IV (63%) and Internship (71%) students compared to Year I to Year III students (45-54%). Male students were more likely to say they would emigrate than females (adjusted OR = 1.57, 95% CI = 1.10-2.29). Likewise, students with clinical training were more likely to want to emigrate than pre-clinical students, although the difference was marginally significant (adjusted OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.00-2.49). Conclusions The attitudes of the majority
Peer Pressure Is the Prime Driver of Risky Sexual Behaviors among School Adolescents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia  [PDF]
Amsale Cherie, Yemane Berhane
World Journal of AIDS (WJA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/wja.2012.23021
Abstract: Background: Understanding ecological factors that influence risky sexual behavior of adolescents is vital in designing and implementing sexual risk reduction interventions in specific contexts. Interventions undertaken without understanding the critical factors may not produce the desired results. Objective: The objective of this study was to identify the factors associated with adolescent risky sexual behavior among school adolescents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods: This cross-sectional study was done among randomly selected school adolescents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Data were collected by an anonymous self administered questionnaire. Risky sexual behavior was assessed by asking question about sexual activity, consistent condom use and faithfulness to a single partner. Logistic regression analysis was done to identify factors related to sexual behavior using the ecological framework. Result: Overall 377(10.6%) of the 723 sexually active students were involved in risky sexual practices. Risky sexual behavior was significantly and very strongly associated with perception of peers' involvement in sexual intercourse [AOR = 11.68 (95% CI: 8.76 - 15.58)]. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that peer pressure is the most important factor associated with risky sexual behavior among school adolescents in Addis Ababa. Interventions aimed at reducing sexual behavior among school adolescents should target adolescents as a group rather than individually.
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