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Prevalence of Exercise Induced Asthma in Female School Students
Hamid Marefati,Helimeh Nikbine,Mohammad Hossein Boskabady
Iranian Journal Of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology , 2011,
Abstract: The prevalence of exercise induced asthma (EIA) in Iran is not known. In the present study the prevalence of EIA among female students of guidance school in the city of Mashhad was evaluated. A total of 1690 female students aged 12-14 years in ten randomly selected schools in north east of Iran (Mashhad) completed an asthma symptoms- specific questionnaire. One hundred forty four randomly selected students including 49 symptomatic and 95 asymptomatic cases participated in a 6 minutes free run test (until reaching 70-75% of MHR (maximum heart rate) for evaluating EIA. Pulmonary function tests (PFT) were measured before (baseline), immediately, 5 minutes and 15 minutes after exercise. The prevalence of asthma symptoms among the studied students was 12.54%. There was not significant difference in any of PFT values between asymptomatic and symptomatic students. The results of exercise test showed that totally 61.22% of symptomatic students responded to exercise test (their post-exercise PFT values decline more than 15%) while only 16.82% of asymptomatic students were responders to exercise (p<0.001). However, in both asymptomatic and symptomatic responder students, all PFT values declined significantly after exercise compared to baseline values (p<0.05 to p<0.001) and there was not any significant difference between two groups.The results showed that although higher number of symptomatic students showed EIA, some asymptomatic students also sowed EIA.
Journal of Research in Medical Sciences , 2000,
Abstract: Introduction. Asthma is the most common chronic disease in children. Unfortunately there are not exact epidemiologic data concerning the prevalence of this disorder in Iranian children. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of asthma or respiratory symptoms in Isfahan Junior high school children. Methods. From 1998 Oct. to 1999 May. 3986 children from urban junior high schools children were selected by a proportional random cluster sampling. A self administered questionnaire prepared by International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISSAC) modified by several supplementary questions was distributed among the selected children. The response rate was 98.5 percent (N=3924). Of these children, 2588 pupils who had at least one positive answer referring to respiratory symptoms were invited to AL-Zahra medical center for further evaluation, but 1710 pupils (66 percent of the invited) attended the clinic and underwent complete medical interview, physical examination and post-exercise pulmonary function testing. Those children who failed to attend the clinic were examined at their schools (774 cases) and 104 absent pupils were not examined. Our criterion for the diagnosis of asthma was the positive history of wheezing and dyspnea. Results. The overall prevalence of asthma was 19.6 percent with a male to female ratio of 1.7:1 (P<0.0001). The frequencies of wheezing ever in life and sleep disturbed by wheeze were 31.7 percent and 9.5 percent, respectively. Wheeze and rhoncus on chest auscultation while the children were examined in clinic or school was recorded in 4.2 percent and 3.5 percent of the population, respectively. Pulmonary function tests revealed FEV1:5,80 percent of predicted value (prd) in 5.9 percent, FEF 25-75£70 Percent prd in 9.6 percent and FEF75£70 percent prd in 20.5 percent of tested children. The three later findings correlated to history of wheezing and dyspnea (P < 0.0001). Discussion. The prevalence of asthma in the students of the junior high schools of Isfahan is more than average rates reported in many parts of the world, and it seems necessary to pay more attention to poorly controlled air pollution in Isfahan as an industrial city.
The prevalence of asthma and allergic disorders among school children in Gorgan  [cached]
Hadi Bazzazi,Mohammed Gharagozlou,Mehrdad Kassaiee,Afshin Parsikia
Journal of Research in Medical Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The prevalence of allergy and asthma among children is increasing in many countries. However, such inclination has not been completely cleared in North of Iran. This study was carried out to evaluate the prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases in school children in Gorgan and also to evaluate the association between allergies and sex, family history of atopic disorders, and personal symptomatic atopy. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study and the study population included 2800 school children aged 12 to 13 (53% female and 47% male). All participants completed an ISAAC (International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood) written questionnaire. RESULTS: Among the selected children, 7% were asthmatic, 19% had eczema during the last 6 months, and 35.3% had rhinitis. Family history of allergy included 8.4% asthma, 22.1% rhinitis and 12% eczema. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of asthma is higher in boys compared with girls. There was a strong relation between family history of atopy and allergic diseases and asthma in children.
Prevalence of Asthma in Elementary School Age Children in Iran- A Systematic Review and Meta Analysis Study  [PDF]
Abolfazl Mohammadbeigi,Jafar Hassanzadeh,Ali Mousavizadeh
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: Asthma is a common chronic disease of childhood which causes considerable morbidity. Asthma affects 1 in 13 school-age children and is a leading cause of office and emergency department visits, hospitalizations, and school absenteeism. Estimating the prevalence of asthma in the community is important in assessing the impact of asthma at the level of population. Since the pooled prevalence of asthma in Iranian elementary school age children (6-12 years old) was not identified, we decide to conduct a meta-analysis study to estimate the prevalence of asthma in elementary school age children in Iran. In order to gather the data, we searched a number of international electronic sources such as Pub Med, Embase, science direct, and ISI for English articles, and Iranian National Knowledge Infrastructure (scientific information) sources such as Iranmedx, Iran-doc, and SID for Persian articles from February 1995 to January 2010 to access the data. We used the words childhood, asthma, prevalence, and Iranian for searching relevant papers and used a data extraction form for the extracted data. The outcome in this Meta analysis study was response to the question, Ever had asthma, based on the ISSAC program questionnaire. Eleven relevant articles were included for the Meta analysis. The pooled prevalence for girls, boys, and the two genders was obtained as 3.2% (CI; 2.5 to 3.9%), 4.3% (CI; 3.5 to 5.1%) and 3.9% (CI; 3.2 to 4.7%), respectively. The pooled prevalence of asthma in Iranian elementary school age children is low in comparison to the other reports.
Chronic productive cough in school children: prevalence and associations with asthma and environmental tobacco smoke exposure
Edward R Carter, Jason S Debley, Gregory R Redding
Cough , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1745-9974-2-11
Abstract: We performed a cross sectional survey of 2397 Seattle middle school students, 11–15 years old, using written and video respiratory-symptom questionnaires. We defined CPC as – daily cough productive of phlegm for at least 3 months out of the year; current asthma as – yes to "Have you had wheezing or whistling in your chest in the past 12 months?" and yes in the past year to any of the four video wheezing/asthma video scenarios; and ETS exposure as exposed to tobacco smoke at least several hours each day. We used multilogistic regression to examine relationships between CPC, asthma, and ETS exposure and included in the model the potentially confounding variables race, gender, and allergic rhinitis.The prevalence of CPC was 7.2%. Forty-seven percent (82/173) of children with CPC met criteria for current asthma, while only 10% (214/2224) of those without CPC had current asthma. Current asthma had the strongest associated with CPC, odds ratio (OR) 6.4 [95% CI 4.5–9.0], and ETS was independently associated with both CPC, OR 2.7 [1.8–4.1] and asthma, OR 2.7 [1.5–4.7].In a population of young teenagers, CPC was strongly associated with report of current asthma symptoms and also with ETS exposure. This suggests that asthma and ETS exposure may contribute to CPC in children. However, this study was not designed to determine whether asthma was the actual cause of CPC in this population of children.Asthma is a recognized cause of persistent cough in both adults [1,2] children [3], but cough productive of sputum for more than three months out of the year, referred to as chronic productive cough (CPC), is not considered common in children with asthma. The NHLBI guidelines do not discuss productive cough as a separate sign [4], and little is known about the prevalence of CPC and its causes in children.Chronic productive cough is a hallmark of the rare conditions cystic fibrosis, ciliary dysmotility, and bronchiectasis, but it is possible that asthma and ETS exposure lead to CPC as
The Association Between Community Stressors and Asthma Prevalence of School Children in Winnipeg, Canada  [PDF]
Tyler P. Pittman,Candace I. J. Nykiforuk,Javier Mignone,Piush J. Mandhane,Allan B. Becker,Anita L. Kozyrskyj
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph9020579
Abstract: It is generally surmised that community stressors have an incubating effect for a variety of diagnoses on maternal and child health. This is of public health significance, as children of mothers facing long-term distress were found to have a 60% higher risk for asthma diagnosis at age 7 in Manitoba, Canada. Our objective was to determine the association of community stressors with childhood asthma prevalence in Winnipeg, Canada from participants who completed the Study of Asthma, Genes and the Environment (SAGE) survey administered in 2002–2003 to a birth cohort from 1995. Measures of community socioeconomic makeup and community disorder with rank ordinalized by quintile at the census tract level were obtained from the 1996 Canada Census. Crime data (annual incidence per 10,000 persons) by neighbourhood profile for 2001 was provided by the Winnipeg Police Service. Dichotomous caregiver report of child asthma along with other indicators from the geocoded SAGE survey allowed linkage to 23 neighbourhood profiles. Multilevel logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate the effect of community stressors on childhood asthma prevalence for birth and non-birth home children ( N = 1472) and children resident of birth homes at age 7 or 8 ( N = 698). After adjusting for individual risk factors, children resident of birth homes in a high thefts over $5,000 neighbourhood profile were twice as likely (Adjusted OR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.11–3.81) to have report of asthma compared to children in a lower thefts over $5,000 profile, with community thefts over $5,000 explaining over half of the observed neighbourhood variation in asthma.
The Association of PM2.5 and Surface Ozone with Asthma Prevalence among School Children in Japan: 2006-2009  [PDF]
Amin Nawahda
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.510A2001

Researches on asthma have found that air pollution increased asthma prevalence among sensitive age groups, including school children, and exposed them to the recognized health impacts. The aim of this study is to examine the association between elevated annual mean concentration of PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 micrometers) and surface ozone and asthma prevalence among school children in Japan from 2006 to 2009. Annual rates of asthma prevalence among preschool and school children (5 to 11 years) are obtained from the database of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology—Japan (MEXT). Data on the concentrations of PM2.5 and surface ozone were obtained from 1,183 stations of air quality monitoring distributed in 47 prefectures. Annual means of these concentrations were compared to annual variations in asthma prevalence by using Pearson correlation coefficient. We found different associations between the annual mean concentration of PM2.5 and surface ozone and the annual rates of asthma prevalence among preschool and school children from 2006 to 2009. The positive values of the correlation coefficient in prefectures such as, Gumma, Shimane, and Niigata, are consistent with the previous knowledge. However, significant inverse associations were found in many prefectures. Our study suggests that the association between elevated concentrations of PM2.5 and surface ozone and asthma prevalence among school children in Japan is not strong enough to assume concretely a plausible and significant association.

Prevalence of asthma symptoms and allergic diseases with ISSAC method in children, Shiraz 2009  [cached]
Jafar Hassanzadeh,Fatemeh Basiri,Abolfazl Mohammad-Beigi
Zahedan Journal of Research in Medical Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Background: Asthma is the most important chronic disease in children and the most common cause of school absenteeism. Its prevalence has been raised due to increased environmental and industrial. This study were designed and implemented to estimate the prevalence of asthma and other allergic diseases in Shiraz children.Materials and Method: A cross sectional study was carried out in 3000 male and female students that selected multistage sampling method in 2009. Data were collected based on ISSAC standard questionnaire. After entering data into the SPSS software the prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases was calculated. Statistical analysis carried out with chi-squared test at 0.05 significant levels. Results: Prevalence of asthma, rash, eczema and atopic diseases in the total 3000 participated students were 3.8%, 10.4%, 18.3% and 42% respectively. Prevalence of rash, eczema and atopic diseases, runny eyes and wheezing after exercise in both sexes showed significant differences (p<0.05) but there were no significant difference between two sex in asthma, hay fever, impaired speaking disorder, runny nose and dry cough (p>0.05).Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that the prevalence of asthma in Shiraz children is less than some other cities. However, acceleration in trend of asthma in recent years would be a threat and this phenomenon requires serious attention of authorities and health policymakers
Prevalencia del asma en escolares chilenos: Estudio descriptivo de 24.470 ni os. ISAAC-Chile Prevalence of asthma in Chilean school age children: Descriptive study in 24.470 children  [cached]
Javier Mallol V,Eliana Cortez Q,Lidia Amarales O,Ignacio Sánchez D
Revista médica de Chile , 2000,
Abstract: Background: There is little information about the prevalence of asthma in Latin American children. Aim: To determine the prevalence of asthma among Chilean school age children. Subjects and methods: The prevalence of respiratory symptoms related to asthma in schoolchildren aged 7 and 13 years, coming from South Santiago, Central Santiago, Valdivia and Punta Arenas, was determined using the methodology of the International Study on Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISMC). A random sample of school children aged 6-7 and 13-14 years from each locality was selected. This resulted in 24)470 surveyed children (11,723 aged 6-7 years and 12,747 aged 13-14 years). Results: The current prevalence of wheezing ("wheezing in the last 12 months") ranged from 16.5% to 20.ó% in children aged 67 years, and from 6.8% to 11.7% in children aged 13-14 years. The cumulative prevalence of asthma ("asthma ever"), ranged from 9.7% and 16.5% in the 6-7 years group and from 7.3% to 12.4% in those aged 13-14 years. Conclusions: This study found much higher figures for prevalence of respiratory symptoms related to asthma in school children than those previously reported in this country, with a significant variability between centers (p<0.05). The prevalence of asthma in Chilean schoolchildren is as high and variable as that reported in industrialized countries
Agreement Between Written and Video Asthma Symptoms Questionnaires in School Children in Urmia, Iran
Mohammad Hossein Rahimi Rad,Mohammad Esmail Hejazi
Iranian Journal Of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology , 2007,
Abstract: The prevalence of asthma remains difficult to determine with precision with no absolute or gold standard for diagnosis. International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) developed video questionnaire for epidemiological studies with less reliance on understanding written asthma questionnaire. The aim of this research was to determine the agreement between the ISAAC written and video questionnaires (AVQ3.0) on respiratory symptoms and reported asthma. We studied 3000 children aged 13-14 years in Urmia, Iran who completed sequentially the ISAAC written and video questionnaires (AVQ3.0) at school. The agreement between responses to the two questionnaires for reported wheeze ever, current wheeze, wheeze on exercise, and nocturnal wheeze (the latter three questions relating to symptoms in the previous 12 months), and to any combination of the latter three questions was examined by using concordance and kappa coefficients as measures of agreement. The prevalence of wheeze ever, current wheeze, wheeze on exercise, and nocturnal wheeze were significantly lower based on responses to the video questionnaire compared to the written questionnaire. Although concordance between video and written questionnaires was high (75% to 93%) for related questions, agreement measured by the kappa statistic for each question was only poor i.e. 0.22, 0.21, 0.13 for resting wheeze, exercise induced wheeze, and nocturnal wheeze respectively. We conclude that the video questionnaire yields lower reported prevalence rates for asthma symptoms, and that there is poor agreement between responses to the two questionnaires in Iranian children.
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