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Teacher perceptions of the effectiveness of teacher appraisal in Botswana
Pedzani Monyatsi, Trudie Steyn, Gerrit Kamper
South African Journal of Education , 2006,
Abstract: The major aim of teacher appraisal is to develop teachers in order to improve their delivery in schools. The effectiveness of the process of teacher appraisal is, however, dependent on the perceptions of the teachers themselves. Since the expansion o f the education system of Botswana in the 1970s and 1980s, as a result of the cardinal reforms, there has been concern about quality. One of the quality assurance measures introduced was teacher appraisal. The current teacher appraisal scheme in Botswana was introduced in 1992 as a non-threatening, valid, and extensive system to develop the individua l and the school. In this article we address the following question: What are teachers' perceptions of the effectiveness of the current system of teacher appraisal as practised in Botswana secondary schools? Both quantitative and qualitative methods of research were employed to address the question. The teachers' perceptions of the effectiveness of their appraisal are categorised according to the following key terms: teacher performance; motivation of teachers; working relationships; teacher training on appraisal; “an axe ready to chop teachers”; and “no purpose”. South African Journal of Education Vol. 26(3) 2006: 427–441
Young Adults’ Perceptions of Cigarette Warning Labels in the United States and Canada  [cached]
Michelle O’Hegarty, PhD,Linda L. Pederson, PhD,Gayane Yenokyan, MD, MPH,David Nelson, MD, MPH
Preventing Chronic Disease , 2007,
Abstract: IntroductionFor the past 20 years, there have been no changes to the text-only cigarette warning labels in the United States. During this same time period, other countries placed large graphic warning labels on cigarette packages. The purpose of this study was to investigate the reactions of U.S. young adult smokers and nonsmokers aged 18 to 24 years to Canadian cigarette label text and graphic warnings. The study focused on determining their perceptions and the potential impact of Canadian labels on smoking, and study participants were asked for suggestions for modifications of U.S. cigarette warning labels so they would be effective for smoking deterrence and cessation.Methods During January and February 2002, 11 focus groups consisting of 54 smokers and 41 nonsmokers were conducted in the Detroit metropolitan area. Current smokers were defined as those who had smoked a cigarette within the past 30 days. Participants were asked about their knowledge and perceptions of current U.S. cigarette warning labels and their impressions of Canadian cigarette warning labels.AnalysisA content analysis and a word index were applied to the transcripts of all focus groups to identify and clarify themes and domains that appeared in group discussions and to compare results across different groups.ResultsFocus group participants reported that Canadian cigarette warning labels were more visible and informative than U.S. cigarette warning labels. Messages perceived to be relevant to smokers were considered effective. Education level did not appear related to how participants responded to warning labels. There were some differences for warning labels that had sex-specific messages.DiscussionWarning labels are one component of comprehensive tobacco control and smoking cessation efforts. Stronger warnings on cigarette packages need to be part of a larger U.S. public health educational effort.
The cost and impact of male circumcision on HIV/AIDS in Botswana
Bollinger Lori A,Stover John,Musuka Godfrey,Fidzani Boga
Journal of the International AIDS Society , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1758-2652-12-7
Abstract: The HIV/AIDS epidemic continues to be a major issue facing Botswana, with overall adult HIV prevalence estimated to be 25.7 percent in 2007. This paper estimates the cost and impact of the draft Ministry of Health male circumcision strategy using the UNAIDS/WHO Decision-Makers' Programme Planning Tool (DMPPT). Demographic data and HIV prevalence estimates from the recent National AIDS Coordinating Agency estimations are used as input to the DMPPT to estimate the impact of scaling-up male circumcision on the HIV/AIDS epidemic. These data are supplemented by programmatic information from the draft Botswana National Strategy for Safe Male Circumcision, including information on unit cost and program goals. Alternative scenarios were developed in consultation with stakeholders. Results suggest that scaling-up adult and neonatal circumcision to reach 80% coverage by 2012 would result in averting almost 70,000 new HIV infections through 2025, at a total net cost of US$47 million across that same period. This results in an average cost per HIV infection averted of US$689. Changing the target year to 2015 and the scale-up pattern to a linear pattern results in a more evenly-distributed number of MCs required, and averts approximately 60,000 new HIV infections through 2025. Other scenarios explored include the effect of risk compensation and the impact of increasing coverage of general prevention interventions. Scaling-up safe male circumcision has the potential to reduce the impact of HIV/AIDS in Botswana significantly; program design elements such as feasible patterns of scale-up and inclusion of counselling are important in evaluating the overall success of the program.
The geography of HIV/AIDS prevalence rates in Botswana
Kandala NB, Campbell EK, Rakgoasi SD, Madi-Segwagwe BC, Fako TT
HIV/AIDS - Research and Palliative Care , 2012, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/HIV.S30537
Abstract: eography of HIV/AIDS prevalence rates in Botswana Original Research (2517) Total Article Views Authors: Kandala NB, Campbell EK, Rakgoasi SD, Madi-Segwagwe BC, Fako TT Published Date July 2012 Volume 2012:4 Pages 95 - 102 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/HIV.S30537 Received: 04 February 2012 Accepted: 28 March 2012 Published: 18 July 2012 Ngianga-Bakwin Kandala,1 Eugene K Campbell,2 Serai Dan Rakgoasi,2 Banyana C Madi-Segwagwe,3 Thabo T Fako4 1University of Warwick, Warwick Medical School, Division of Health Sciences; Populations, Evidence and Technologies Group, Warwick Evidence, Coventry, UK; 2Department of Population Studies, University of Botswana, 3SADC Secretariat, Directorate of Social and Human Development and Special Programmes, 4Vice Chancellor's Office, University of Botswana, Gaborone, Botswana Background: Botswana has the second-highest human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection rate in the world, with one in three adults infected. However, there is significant geographic variation at the district level and HIV prevalence is heterogeneous with the highest prevalence recorded in Selebi-Phikwe and North East. There is a lack of age-and location-adjusted prevalence maps that could be used for targeting HIV educational programs and efficient allocation of resources to higher risk groups. Methods: We used a nationally representative household survey to investigate and explain district level inequalities in HIV rates. A Bayesian geoadditive mixed model based on Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques was applied to map the geographic distribution of HIV prevalence in the 26 districts, accounting simultaneously for individual, household, and area factors using the 2008 Botswana HIV Impact Survey. Results: Overall, HIV prevalence was 17.6%, which was higher among females (20.4%) than males (14.3%). HIV prevalence was higher in cities and towns (20.3%) than in urban villages and rural areas (16.6% and 16.9%, respectively). We also observed an inverse U-shape association between age and prevalence of HIV, which had a different pattern in males and females. HIV prevalence was lowest among those aged 24 years or less and HIV affected over a third of those aged 25–35 years, before reaching a peak among the 36–49-year age group, after which the rate of HIV infection decreased by more than half among those aged 50 years and over. In a multivariate analysis, there was a statistically significant higher likelihood of HIV among females compared with males, and in clerical workers compared with professionals. The district-specific net spatial effects of HIV indicated a significantly higher HIV rate of 66% (posterior odds ratio of 1.66) in the northeast districts (Selebi-Phikwe, Sowa, and Francistown) and a reduced rate of 27% (posterior odds ratio of 0.73) in Kgalagadi North and Kweneng West districts. Conclusion: This study showed a clear geographic distribution of the HIV epidemic, with the highest prevalence in the east-central districts. This study pro
Validation of AIDS-related mortality in Botswana
Taffa Negussie,Will Julie C,Bodika Stephane,Packel Laura
Journal of the International AIDS Society , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1758-2652-12-24
Abstract: Background Mortality data are used to conduct disease surveillance, describe health status and inform planning processes for health service provision and resource allocation. In many countries, HIV- and AIDS-related deaths are believed to be under-reported in government statistics. Methods To estimate the extent of under-reporting of HIV- and AIDS-related deaths in Botswana, we conducted a retrospective study of a sample of deaths reported in the government vital registration database from eight hospitals, where more than 40% of deaths in the country in 2005 occurred. We used the consensus of three physicians conducting independent reviews of medical records as the gold standard comparison. We examined the sensitivity, specificity and other validity statistics. Results Of the 5276 deaths registered in the eight hospitals, 29% were HIV- and AIDS-related. The percentage of HIV- and AIDS-related deaths confirmed by physician consensus (positive predictive value) was 95.4%; however, the percentage of non-HIV- and non-AIDS-related deaths confirmed (negative predictive value) was only 69.1%. The sensitivity and specificity of the vital registration system was 55.7% and 97.3%, respectively. After correcting for misclassification, the percentage of HIV- and AIDS--related deaths was estimated to be in the range of 48.8% to 54.4%, depending on the definition. Conclusion Improvements in hospitals and within government offices are necessary to strengthen the vital registration system. These should include such strategies as training physicians and coders in accurate reporting and recording of death statistics, implementing continuous quality assurance methods, and working with the government to underscore the importance of using mortality statistics in future evidence-based planning.
Lauretta Wamunza,Benzies Boadi,Stephen Mutula
Lex et Scientia , 2007,
Abstract: Presents part of the findings of a study that was carried out at the University of Botswana to determine in general how HIV/AIDS information is disseminated to and used by undergraduate students. Both qualitative and quantitative approaches were used. A survey design was used to study a population of 9000 plus undergraduate students. Questionnaires and interviews were used to collect data. SPSS was used to analyse quantitative data while qualitative data was analysed using thematic categorization.Key findings revealed that the HIV/AIDS information disseminated to students include information on behaviour change; information on HIV/AIDS prevention; transmission and treatment. The means of disseminating information to students include the use of multiple channels such as the university Health and Wellness Centre, Lectures, peer groups, seminars/workshops, students meetings, the University Clinic and the library. The study found that the most common media used to disseminate information to students include video, print, CDs and verbal means. Finally, factors that affect access to and use of HIV/AIDS information by students include: religious orientations, substance abuse, low income levels, multiple relationships, age and gender.There is need for the University of Botswana to review its overall approach of disseminating HIV/AIDS information to students in order to make it more effective. Moreover, strong liaison among agencies involved in the fight against the spread of HIV/AIDS at the University is needed. Furthermore, a more rigorous research into issues of students’ attitudes and values in relation to HIV/AIDS is needed. Similarly, more efforts are needed to create awareness and educate students on the dangers associated with substance abuse, multiple partners and practicing unprotected sex. The need to encourage testing for HIV/AIDS among students is needed so that appropriate interventions can be put in place.The world over, HIV/AIDS has borne devastating effects on social, political and economic front of largely all countries, with Africa suffering most from the negative effects of the pandemic. Botswana has one of the highest prevalence rates of HIV/AIDS in the world. Government, the private sector, civil society and education institutions in Botswana are engaged one way or the other in the fight against the HIV/AIDS pandemic. HIV/AIDS in Botswana affects the most productive age groups, between twenty-five and forty years of the population. This results in a shortage of skilled labour needed for development and seriously reduces the level of product
Parents’ Participation in Public Primary Schools in Botswana: Perceptions and Experiences of Headteachers  [cached]
Nkobi Owen Pansiri,Philip Bulawa
International Education Studies , 2013, DOI: 10.5539/ies.v6n5p68
Abstract: The idea of involving parents in the school system is universal and as old as the history and philosophy of education itself. This study investigated the public school headteachers’ experiences and perceptions about the level of parental involvement in the public primary school system in Botswana. The theories guiding this study are that of Epstein’s three spheres of influence and Hoover-Dempsey and Sandler’s model of three level construct. A quantitative design through a medium of a questionnaire for data collection was employed. Out of a total 745 headteachers of public or government primary schools, 63.4% responded to the questionnaire. An important result of the study is that there is minimal parental support especially in rural and remote areas and in boarding primary school system in Botswana. Three recommendations of this study are, the creation of a parent education programme, a policy for the support and participation of parents of children in boarding schools, and further research to tap on the voices of the parents.
Menopausal Perceptions and Experiences of Older Women from Selected Sites in Botswana  [PDF]
Njoku Ola Ama, Enock Ngome
Advances in Sexual Medicine (ASM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/asm.2013.33009
Abstract: Objective: To assess the menopausal perceptions and experiences of older women from selected sites in Botswana. Design: This study used snowball sampling to recruit 444 older women in four health districts of Botswana. Trained research assistants administered a structured questionnaire to determine respondents’ menopausal symptoms, perceptions and knowledge of menopause and sexual experiences. Multiple logistic regression procedures were used to evaluate the association of socio-demographic characteristics with knowledge of menopause and factor analysis was used to cluster menopausal symptoms. Results: Participants had low levels of knowledge and awareness of menopause. The three most common changes identified were weakening of bones (78%), changes in sex drive (69.6%), and difficulty working (56.2%). The majority of respondents perceived menopause as freedom from menstrual cycles (85%) and cost saving (65%). Employment status was significantly associated with knowledge of menopause. The mean age at menopause was 48.9 years. With an average life expectancy of 54.5 years, there remains about 6 years of postmenopausal life. Recommendation: Public health care systems in and beyond Botswana should mobilize resources and take measures to improve older women’s awareness and knowledge about menopause-related changes through educational training and guidance to maintain active, healthy lives.
Perceptions of door-to-door HIV counselling and testing in Botswana
K Kroeger, A Taylor, H Marlow, DT Fleming, V Beyleveld, MG Alwano, MT Kejelepula, KB Chilume, DK Smith, TH Roels, PH Kilmarx
SAHARA J (Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS Research Alliance) , 2011,
Abstract: Prevalence of HIV infection in Botswana is among the highest in the world, at 23.9% of 15 - 49-year-olds. Most HIV testing is conducted in voluntary counselling and testing centres or medical settings. Improved access to testing is urgently needed. This qualitative study assessed and documented community perceptions about the concept of door-to-door HIV counselling and rapid testing in two of the highest-prevalence districts of Botswana. Community members associated many positive benefits with home-based, door-to-door HIV testing, including convenience, confidentiality, capacity to increase the number of people tested, and opportunities to increase knowledge of HIV transmission, prevention and care through provision of correct information to households. Community members also saw the intervention as increasing opportunities to engage and influence family members and to role model positive behaviours. Participants also perceived social risks and dangers associated with home-based testing including the potential for conflict, coercion, stigma, and psychological distress within households. Community members emphasised the need for individual and community preparation, including procedures to protect confidentiality, provisions for psychological and social support, and links to appropriate services for HIV-positive persons.
Healthcare Providers' Perceptions of the Sexual and Reproductive Health Needs (Including Family Planning) of Elderly Women from Selected Sites in Botswana  [PDF]
Njoku Ola Ama, Enock Ngome
World Journal of AIDS (WJA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/wja.2012.23020
Abstract: Much of the sexual and reproductive health services and service delivery including family planning target women of child bearing ages (15 - 49 years) and sometimes men. Hardly are there programmes/interventions that specifically target the needs of the elderly women (50 years and above), yet this group has serious sexual and reproductive health needs as many of them are still sexually active. This cross-sectional study obtained the views of a stratified random sample of 169 healthcare providers (doctors, nurses and pharmacists) from four selected sites, Gaborone, Selibe Phikwe, Barolong and Kweneng East health districts in Botswana on how the healthcare system in the selected sites is meeting the SRH/FP needs of the elderly women. The study found out that while overwhelming majority of the healthcare providers feltthat the healthcare system has no programme that specifically target the SRH/FP needs of this significant others and their SRH/FP needs are not being met ,less than 15% indicated that Pap smear screening as well as screening of cervical cancer were on-going. Although there are SRH/FP services available in the healthcare system, the elderly women are minimally accessing these services. Only condom, combined oral contraceptives, progestogen-only pills, treatment of STIs, screening for HIV/AIDS and screening for cervical cancer are accessed and information is also limited to these services. Reasons given by the healthcare providers for the non-accessibility of these services were cultural diversity (80%), people's sexual behavior and perceptions about sex (79%), lack of knowledge about the desired SRH/FP services (76%), religion (73%) and gender issues (62%). The study, advocates as part of policy options to mitigate the obstacles to accessing SRH/FP services, the expansion of counseling programmes, screening and treatment for breast cancer, public awareness campaigns, production and circulation of appropriate educational materials, effective training of healthcare providers and the establishment of separate clinic days for the elderly women' SRH/FP services.
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