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Utilización del aclaramiento ganglionar Use of lymphatic node clearance
Sebastián Quintero,Luis Jorge Lombana,Luis Fernando Jaramillo,Yuli Patricia Ramírez
Revista Colombiana de Cirugía , 2008,
Abstract: El aclaramiento ganglionar es una técnica por medio de la cual se logra disolver la emulsión y decolorar los tejidos grasos corporales con el fin de identificar fácilmente las estructuras ganglionares. Mediante esta técnica se logró identificar hasta el 100% de los ganglios adicionales en el estudio de las piezas anatomopatológicas de cáncer colorrectal. La técnica tuvo una importancia trascendental en el subgrupo de pacientes con tratamiento neoadyuvante que es el de mayor dificultad en el estudio convencional de patología. El 94% de los ganglios identificados con el aclaramiento eran menores de 5 mm. Existió un cambio de estadificación en 10% de los casos incluidos en el estudio piloto. Lymphatic node clearance is the technique that dissolves the emulsion and removes the color of the fat tissues for the easy identification of lymph node structures. By means of this technique it has been possible to identify up to 100% of the additional nodes in the study of colorectal cancer specimens. This technique has had capital importance in the subgroup of patients having neoadjuvant chemotherapy, the one that poses greater difficulties in the pathology study. 94% of nodes identified by the clearance method were 5 mm or less in diameter. Change in staging occurred in 10% of the cases included in this pilot study.
The effects of pneumoperitoneum and controlled ventilation on peritoneal lymphatic bacterial clearance: experimental results in rats
Casaroli, Armando Angelo;Mimica, Lycia M. J;Fontes, Belchor;Rasslan, Samir;
Clinics , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S1807-59322011000900020
Abstract: objective: to evaluate the effect of pneumoperitoneum, both alone and in combination with controlled ventilation, on peritoneal lymphatic bacterial clearance using a rat bacterial peritonitis model. method: a total of 69 male wistar rats were intraperitoneally inoculated with an escherichia coli solution (109 colony-forming units (cfu)/ml) and divided into three groups of 23 animals each: a (control group), b (pneumoperitoneum under 5 mmhg of constant pressure), and c (endotracheal intubation, controlled ventilation, and pneumoperitoneum as in group b). the animals were sacrificed after 30 min under these conditions, and blood, mediastinal ganglia, lungs, peritoneum, liver, and spleen cultures were performed. results: statistical analyses comparing the number of cfu/sample in each of the cultures showed that no differences existed between the three groups. conclusion: based on our results, we concluded that pneumoperitoneum, either alone or in association with mechanical ventilation, did not modify the bacterial clearance through the diaphragmatic lymphatic system of the peritoneal cavity.
Clearance-inducing antibodies are responsible for protection against the acute phase of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in mice
Umekita, L.F.;Ramos, D.P.;Mota, I.;
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research , 1997, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-879X1997001000009
Abstract: a study was conducted on mice infected with strains y and cl of trypanosoma cruzi. the ability of anti-y and anti-cl sera to induce complement-mediated lysis, immune clearance and protection against the acute phase of the infection was studied using homologous anti-y or anti-cl serum tested with the y or cl strain, or heterologous anti-y serum tested with the cl strain or anti-cl serum tested with the y strain. complement-mediated lysis was induced by both homologous and heterologous antisera but protection was afforded only by homologous antisera. immune clearance was induced by homologous but not by heterologous antisera. antisera with high clearance ability were able to confer protection whereas antisera with high lytic ability were not. these results show a high correlation between the antibody ability to induce clearance and to confer protection and suggest that clearance rather than lysis is responsible for protection against the acute phase of the infection. the mechanism of antibody protection against the acute phase of the infection is discussed.
Clearance-inducing antibodies are responsible for protection against the acute phase of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in mice  [cached]
Umekita L.F.,Ramos D.P.,Mota I.
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research , 1997,
Abstract: A study was conducted on mice infected with strains Y and CL of Trypanosoma cruzi. The ability of anti-Y and anti-CL sera to induce complement-mediated lysis, immune clearance and protection against the acute phase of the infection was studied using homologous anti-Y or anti-CL serum tested with the Y or CL strain, or heterologous anti-Y serum tested with the CL strain or anti-CL serum tested with the Y strain. Complement-mediated lysis was induced by both homologous and heterologous antisera but protection was afforded only by homologous antisera. Immune clearance was induced by homologous but not by heterologous antisera. Antisera with high clearance ability were able to confer protection whereas antisera with high lytic ability were not. These results show a high correlation between the antibody ability to induce clearance and to confer protection and suggest that clearance rather than lysis is responsible for protection against the acute phase of the infection. The mechanism of antibody protection against the acute phase of the infection is discussed.
Mucosal Immunization with the Moraxella Catarrhalis Porin M35 Induces Enhanced Bacterial Clearance from the Lung: A Possible Role for Opsonophagocytosis  [PDF]
Donna M. Easton,Allan W. Cripps,A. Ruth Foxwell,Jennelle M. Kyd
Frontiers in Immunology , 2011, DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2011.00013
Abstract: Moraxella catarrhalis is a significant cause of respiratory tract infection against which a vaccine is sought. Several outer membrane proteins are currently under investigation as potential vaccine antigens, including the porin M35. We have previously shown that the third external loop of M35 was immunodominant over the remainder of the protein for antibody produced in mice against the refolded recombinant protein. However, as this loop is predicted to fold inside the porin channel we also predicted that it would not be accessible to these antibodies when M35 is expressed on the surface of the bacteria in its native conformation. This study investigated the functional activity of antibodies against M35 and those specific for the loop 3 region of M35 in vitro and in vivo. Antisera from mice immunized with M35 or the loop 3-deletion, M35loop3?, recombinant proteins were not bactericidal but did have enhanced opsonic activity, whereas antibodies raised against the loop 3 peptide were not opsoniszing indicating that the immunodominant loop 3 of M35 was not accessible to antibody as we had previously predicted. Mucosal immunization with M35, M35 that had an antigenically altered loop 3 [M35(ID78)] and M35loop3? enhanced the clearance of M. catarrhalis from the lungs of mice challenged with live M. catarrhalis. The in vivo clearance of bacteria in the mice with the M35-derived protein constructs correlated significantly (p < 0.001) with the opsonic activity assessed an in vitro opsonophagocytosis assay. This study has demonstrated that the immunodominant B-cell epitope to loop 3 of the M. catarrhalis outer membrane protein M35 is not associated with immune protection and that M35-specific antibodies are not bactericidal but are opsoniszing. The opsoniszing activity correlated with in vivo clearance of the bacteria suggesting that opsoniszing antibody may be a good correlate of immune protection.
Is disturbed clearance of apoptotic keratinocytes responsible for UVB-induced inflammatory skin lesions in systemic lupus erythematosus?
Esther Reefman, Marcelus CJM de Jong, Hilde Kuiper, Marcel F Jonkman, Pieter C Limburg, Cees GM Kallenberg, Marc Bijl
Arthritis Research & Therapy , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/ar2051
Abstract: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic autoimmune disease characterised by the presence of autoantibodies directed against nuclear and cytoplasmic antigens in combination with a wide range of clinical manifestations. Photosensitivity is one of its manifestations, affecting 30% to 50% of patients [1-3]. Most cutaneous lupus lesions can be triggered by sunlight exposure. Sunlight exposure, especially ultraviolet B light (UVB), can even induce systemic disease activity. UVB is a potent inducer of apoptosis. During the last decade, it has become clear that apoptotic cells play an important role in autoimmunity, in particular SLE [4].During the process of apoptosis, intracellular antigens are expressed on the surface of the apoptotic cell and exposed to the immune system [5]. In susceptible mice and rats, injection of apoptotic cells results in loss of tolerance, autoantibody formation, and even clinical disease [6,7]. In humans, the role of apoptotic cells in the induction of autoimmunity is not yet clear. In established SLE, decreased clearance of apoptotic cells by macrophages [8-10], increased levels of circulating apoptotic cells [11,12], and presence of apoptotic cells in lupus skin lesions [13] have been reported. Whether accumulation of apoptotic cells induces autoimmunity and/or drives the autoimmune disease after tolerance has been broken, has not yet been elucidated.Apoptotic epidermal cells can be recognised in the skin by their pyknotic nuclei and eosinophilic cytoplasm in sections stained with haematoxylin eosin (H&E) and are known as sunburn cells (SBCs) [14]. SBCs can be detected as early as 8 hours after UVB exposure, with maximal numbers being present at 24 to 48 hours [15]. We previously showed that induction of SBCs in the skin of patients with SLE does not differ from that in healthy controls after a single standardised dose of UVB [16].Apoptotic cells are formed in several tissues as part of normal tissue homeostasis or are induced by infl
MDA-5 Recognition of a Murine Norovirus  [PDF]
Stephen A. McCartney,Larissa B. Thackray,Leonid Gitlin,Susan Gilfillan,Herbert W. Virgin IV,Marco Colonna
PLOS Pathogens , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1000108
Abstract: Noroviruses are important human pathogens responsible for most cases of viral epidemic gastroenteritis worldwide. Murine norovirus-1 (MNV-1) is one of several murine noroviruses isolated from research mouse facilities and has been used as a model of human norovirus infection. MNV-1 infection has been shown to require components of innate and adaptive immunity for clearance; however, the initial host protein that recognizes MNV-1 infection is unknown. Because noroviruses are RNA viruses, we investigated whether MDA5 and TLR3, cellular sensors that recognize dsRNA, are important for the host response to MNV-1. We demonstrate that MDA5?/? dendritic cells(DC) have a defect in cytokine response to MNV-1. In addition, MNV-1 replicates to higher levels in MDA5?/? DCs as well as in MDA5?/? mice in vivo. Interestingly, TLR3?/? DCs do not have a defect in vitro, but TLR3?/? mice have a slight increase in viral titers. This is the first demonstration of an innate immune sensor for norovirus and shows that MDA5 is required for the control of MNV-1 infection. Knowledge of the host response to MNV-1 may provide keys for prevention and treatment of the human disease.
Mucosal approaches in Neisseria Vaccinology  [PDF]
Pérez O,del Campo J,Cuello M,González E
Vaccimonitor , 2009,
Abstract: Meningococcal B strains accounts for some 72% and 28% of meningococcal diseases in infants and toddlers in Europe and the USA, respectively. Nevertheless, meningococcal diseases are rare in Cuba owing to the wide spread program on antimeningococcal vaccination in the country. Finlay Institute is one of the pioneering organizations in Neisseria Vaccinology mainly by its contribution to N. meningitidis serogroup B outer membrane-based bivalent vaccine, VA-MENGOC-BC . This vaccine was given intramuscularly in more than 60 million doses corresponding 10.7 millions of them to Cuban young adults, children, and infants. However, most dangerous or commensally Neisseria strains enter and establish in the mucosa, where the secretory (S) IgA is the main specific guardian and is mainly induced by mucosal routes. However, few mucosal vaccines exist principally due to the absent of mucosal adjuvants. We develop a Finlay Adjuvant (AF) platform based in outer membrane vesicles (Proteoliposome, PL) and its derivate Cochleate (Co). AFPL1 derived from serogroup B N. meningitidis is a potent Th1/CTL driving parenteral adjuvant. AFCo1 is a potent mucosal adjuvant. Therefore, we sought to go deeper in the possible mucosal cross recognition between N. meningitidis serogroups and Neisseria species and explore a concurrent mucosal and parenteral immunization strategy (SinTimVaS) in order to develop suitable mucosal vaccines. Experiments were conducted in Balb/c or C57Bl6 mice with mucosal and systemic immunization using AFCo1 and AFPL1. Human sera and saliva were also analyzed for cross cognition. Mucosal cross recognition at SIgA level in human saliva between N. meningitidis serogroups B, A, C, Y, and W135 were observed. This SIgA cross recognition response was also observed between pathogenic (N. meningitidis serogroup B, N. gonorrhoeae) and non-pathogenic strains (N. flava, N. lactamica). The possible influence of meningococcal vaccination against Gonorrhea was also explored. A proprietary Single Time Vaccination Strategy combining simultaneous mucosal and parenteral doses was developed. N. meningitidis and N. gonorrhoeae show significant cross immune response, and mucosal immunization with AFCo1 to obtain immunity against both strains may be a useful strategy to combat both infections in humans. Single Time Vaccination Strategy could be important to increased human vaccination coverage and herd immunity protecting both systemic and mucosal environments.
Induction of Influenza-Specific Mucosal Immunity by an Attenuated Recombinant Sendai Virus  [PDF]
Thuc-vy L. Le,Elena Mironova,Dominique Garcin,Richard W. Compans
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0018780
Abstract: Many pathogens initiate infection at the mucosal surfaces; therefore, induction of mucosal immune responses is a first level of defense against infection and is the most powerful means of protection. Although intramuscular injection is widely used for vaccination and is effective at inducing circulating antibodies, it is less effective at inducing mucosal antibodies.
The Development of an AIDS Mucosal Vaccine  [PDF]
Xian Tang,Zhiwei Chen
Viruses , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/v2010283
Abstract: It is well known that mucosal tissues contain the largest surface area of the human body and are the front line of natural host defense against various pathogens. In fact, more than 80% of infectious disease pathogens probably gain entry into the susceptible human hosts through open mucosal surfaces. Human immunodeficiency virus type one (HIV-1), a mainly sexually transmitted virus, also primarily targets the vaginal and gastrointestinal mucosa as entry sites for viral transmission, seeding, replication and amplification. Since HIV-1 establishes its early replication in vaginal or rectal mucosal tissues, the induction of sufficient mucosal immunity at the initial site of HIV-1 transmission becomes essential for a protective vaccine. However, despite the fact that current conventional vaccine strategies have remained unsuccessful in preventing HIV-1 infection, sufficient financial support and resources have yet to be given to develop a vaccine able to elicit protective mucosal immunity against sexual transmissions. Interestingly, Chinese ancestors invented variolation through intranasal administration about one thousand years ago, which led to the discovery of a successful smallpox vaccine and the final eradication of the disease. It is the hope for all mankind that the development of a mucosal AIDS vaccine will ultimately help control the AIDS pandemic. In order to discover an effective mucosal AIDS vaccine, it is necessary to have a deep understanding of mucosal immunology and to test various mucosal vaccination strategies.
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