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THE OSCE AND THE PROBLEM OF HUMAN RIGHTS
Cristian BEN?E
Societate ?i Politic? , 2011,
Abstract: The main purpose of this article is to analyze themechanisms developed by the Organization for Security and Co-operation inEurope (OSCE) in order to protect the human rights. The OSCE, whichoriginally began as a series of meetings in Helsinki under the name of theConference on Security and Co-operation in Europe (CSCE), now includes fifty-sixparticipating states from throughout Europe, as well as the Confederation ofIndependent States, Canada, and the United States. The first part of this articledescribes the historical evolution and the structure of the OSCE and the secondpart focuses on the specific issues related to the protection of human rights.
Defending Human Rights in Africa: The Case for Minority and Indigenous Rights
Cynthia Morel
Essex Human Rights Review , 2004,
Abstract: The main purpose of this article is to provide insight into the defence of human rights in Africa from a non-governmental organization (NGO) perspective. This perspective is based on the experience of Minority Rights Group International (MRG), which has been actively working with communities on the African Continent for over three decades, and which has more recently become involved in advocacy and litigation before the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights. The article will first discuss the importance of securing the recognition and protection of minorities in Africa. Attention will then be given to the litigation work that MRG has initiated in collaboration with the Centre for Minority Rights Development, based in Kenya. Finally, the article will attempt to place NGO work within the broader context of recent developments within the African system. Thoughts on the opportunities and remaining obstacles from a practitioner’s perspective will also be shared.
The march of the Mehteran Rethinking the human rights critiques of counter-terrorism  [cached]
Can ?zta?
Utrecht Law Review , 2011,
Abstract: Since 9/11 counter-terrorism laws adopted by Western democracies have been criticised intensively, producing a large body of theoretical and practical analysis. However, the material focusing on these issues through the lens of racism is limited. Thus the human rights critiques of counter-terrorism laws remain inadequate. One of the more obvious reasons for this gap in the literature is that the discriminatory dimension of counter-terrorism policies and laws and the subtle (sometimes institutional) racism involved is not adequately considered. Another reason is related to the dilemmatic role of human rights. Since early modernity the legal system and the values of Europe/the West is imposed on the 'other'. Previously this was done through colonialism and empire building; today, it is realised through the liberal capitalist economic system heralding democratic government based on 'universal' human rights. Like before, the 'other' resist this imposition (along with the democratic system based on human rights), through a vaguely defined term - 'terrorism'. In reaction, counter-terrorism measures and laws, which are known to violate human rights, are enacted in defence of a system which defines itself through a commitment to human rights values. This paper intends to discuss the dual role of human rights, which criticise and affirm counter-terrorism measures.
Building the Fourth Pillar: Defence Rights at the Special Court for Sierra Leone  [PDF]
Rupert Skilbeck
Essex Human Rights Review , 2004,
Abstract: The author considers the conflict in Sierra Leone and the creation of the Special Court for Sierra Leone to bring to trial those who bear the greatest responsibility for the conflict. The provision of defence rights in post-war international proceedings is examined, in the International Military Tribunals, the International Criminal Tribunals and the more recent ‘hybrid’ tribunals in Kosovo, East Timor and Cambodia. Difficulties are identified with these structures. The considerations relevant to the creation of the Defence Office are discussed, together with its mandate, structure and operation. The delay in ensuring a fully operating office at the earliest stage due to budgetary restraints is identified as the key problem not to be repeated.
Immune Defence Factors In Human Milk  [cached]
Kumar Sanjeev,Nath L M,Reddiah V P
Indian Journal of Community Medicine , 1985,
Abstract: Scientific evidence is accumulating to prove the nutritional, anti-infective, anti-fertility, psychosomal and economic advantages of breast-feeding. A number of studies have shown that breast milk protects against diarrheal, respiratory and other infections. Its value in protecting against allergy has also been established. This article reviews the studies on various immune defence factors present in the human milk. The available scientific knowledge makes a very strong case in favour of promoting breast-feeding.
Human Rights and American Traditions  [PDF]
Alexandru Boboc-Cojocaru
International Journal of Social Science and Humanity , 2013, DOI: 10.7763/ijssh.2013.v3.226
Abstract: Since the beginning, the United States has recognized and respected the rights of individuals. Besides serving as custodian of a rich historical and political tradition on human rights, the United States has contributed greatly to the crystallization of International human rights legislation through the establishment of the United Nations Organization and the development of the United Nations Charter. From my perspective, the real dilemma faced by the United States has included so far the issue of solving specific problems related to human rights, the way in which human rights considerations combine with other factors of foreign policy and the way of creating a sustainable public consensus in support of their policy on the realm of human rights. In my opinion it is unlikely that these efforts should ever be entirely solved successfully. That’s why, in this paper, I try to analyze the correlation between moral and pragmatic components of the U.S. policy on human rights in the last 40 years.
Businesses’ human rights responsibilities
Corinne Lewis
Forced Migration Review , 2012,
Abstract: There is no international human rights law standard that expresslyprohibits businesses’ arbitrary displacement of persons. Businessesdo, however, have the responsibility to avoid infringements of humanrights that could lead to displacement and also to take actions toremedy their human rights violations that might lead to displacement.
IMPACT OF PATENT SYSTEM ON HUMAN RIGHTS  [PDF]
MALLIKARJUN ARALAPPA
Golden Research Thoughts , 2012, DOI: 10.9780/22315063
Abstract: Human rights and patent rights are, to a large extent, fields of law that have evolved independently. On the one hand, patent rights consist of statutorily recognized rights, which provide incentives for the participation of the private sector in certain fields and seek to contribute to technological development. Patents are near monopoly rights. This monopoly is offered by society in return for certain concessions such as information disclosure and a limited duration of the rights granted. On the other hand, human rights are fundamental rights, which are recognized by the state but are inherent rights linked to human dignity. Different kinds of links between patent rights and human rights can be identified.
Dignity, Human Rights, and Democracy  [PDF]
Ernesto Garzon Valdes
Rationality, Markets and Morals , 2009,
Abstract: In order to analyze what can plausibly be said about the relationship between dignity, human rights, and democracy, I will propose a basic assumption about human dignity (I) and then formulate five theses concerning the justification of democracy (II) which will allow me to conclude (III) that only when human rights are constitutionally established and effectively implemented democracy can be theoretically and practically justified as a political means to guarantee human dignity.
Human Rights in Islamic Law
Abdel Wadoud Moustafa Moursi El-Seoudi
The Social Sciences , 2013, DOI: 10.3923/sscience.2012.683.688
Abstract: Undeniably, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights Charter adopted by the United Nations in December, 1948 is a great step forward in the history of United Nations in respect human rights issue. However, the rights enumerated therein characterized by deficiencies in conceptualization, flaws in formulation and injustices in application. Being subject to political agendas, economic pressure and culturally biased viewpoints, they often serve the interests of certain organizations and powerful special interest groups. As such, they carry the residues of colonialism and imperialism. This is clear from the ongoing suppression and atrocities inflicted on poor and weak nations without any effective measures being taken by these organizations for their defense and protection. Double standard is applied when it comes to the violation of human rights. Weak states are vigorously pursued whereas powerful are blatantly exempted from prosecution. Islam as a divine and universal guidance lies a comprehensive framework of values that embodies universal human rights which is free of bias and deal with the abuser of the human rights equally regardless the race, religion and color factors, hence provides a universal criterion for human rights. Therefore, this study attempts to analyze the issue of human rights from an Islamic perspective in the light of the purposes of the law and delineate the mechanism for their protection. Using both descriptive and analytical methods the research concludes that Islam provides a comprehensive and practical mechanism for protection of human rights which is just and of universal application, hence is the pioneer of human rights.
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