oalib
Search Results: 1 - 10 of 100 matches for " "
All listed articles are free for downloading (OA Articles)
Page 1 /100
Display every page Item
Prevalence of early childhood malnutrition and influencing factors in peri urban areas of Kabarole district, western Uganda
FM Turyashemererwa, JK Kikafunda, E Agaba
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development , 2009,
Abstract: Uganda has one of the highest levels of childhood stunting in sub-Saharan Africa. It is well documented that the nutritional status of young children is one of the most sensitive indicators of sudden changes in health status and food availability, acting as a proxy indicator of socio-economic development. Kabarole District, the focus of the present study, is one of the most fertile areas in Uganda, with high per capita output of most foods. However, earlier studies in Kabarole District found that over 40% of children below five years of age were stunted. The objective of this study was, therefore, to asses the prevalence of malnutrition and the factors influencing the nutritional status of children below five years of age, in a peri-urban environment in Kabarole District, western Uganda. The study design was a cross sectional descriptive survey, using both qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection. A questionnaire was administered to 93 caretakers of children 6-59 months in randomly selected households, which explored the various factors that could be affecting the nutritional status of the children. Key information was also sought from a focus group discussion of a few selected mothers. Results revealed that stunting was highly prevalent with 41.6% of the children stunted. Under-weight and wasting were established at 15.7% and 3.4%, respectively. Education level of mother/caretaker (p=0.02), age of child (p=0.03), receipt of information on child feeding (p=0.009), illness (p=0.004) and time of introduction of other foods (p=0031) were significantly related to child stunting. On the other hand, household size, number of meals per day and awareness about the causes of malnutrition, were non significantly associated with child stunting. These findings indicate that malnutrition, especially stunting, in this cohort of children in peri-urban areas of Kabalore District, is a big problem. Poor education levels of the mothers/caretakers and poor child feeding practices are some of the factors identified as major contributors to this problem. It is therefore recommended that appropriate nutrition interventions, particularly equipping mothers/caretakers with knowledge and skills in child feeding, child health, sanitation and other best practices for proper childcare, be put in place to address the problem of childhood malnutrition in Kabarole District and other areas in Uganda, and indeed in Sub-Saharan Africa, with similar settings.
User fees, health staff incentives, and service utilization in Kabarole District, Uganda
Kipp,Walter; Kamugisha,Jimmy; Jacobs,Phil; Burnham,Gilbert; Rubaale,Tom;
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2001, DOI: 10.1590/S0042-96862001001100006
Abstract: objective: to determine the impact of user fees on the utilization of health services in a community-based cost-sharing scheme in kabarole district, western uganda. methods: of the 38 government health units that had introduced user-fee financing schemes, 11 were included in the study. outpatient utilization was assessed as the median number of visits per month before and after cost sharing began. findings: after the introduction of cost sharing, overall utilization of general outpatient services, assessed by combining the data from all the participating units, dropped by 21.3%. utilization increased, however, in facilities located in remote areas, while it decreased in those located in urban or semi-urban areas. the increased utilization in remote facilities was considered to be largely attributable to health workers' incentive payments derived from cost-sharing revenues. conclusions: incentive payments led the health workers to offer improved services. other factors may also have been influential, such as an improved drug supply to health facilities and increased public identification with community projects in remote areas.
User fees, health staff incentives, and service utilization in Kabarole District, Uganda  [cached]
Kipp Walter,Kamugisha Jimmy,Jacobs Phil,Burnham Gilbert
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2001,
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of user fees on the utilization of health services in a community-based cost-sharing scheme in Kabarole District, western Uganda. METHODS: Of the 38 government health units that had introduced user-fee financing schemes, 11 were included in the study. Outpatient utilization was assessed as the median number of visits per month before and after cost sharing began. FINDINGS: After the introduction of cost sharing, overall utilization of general outpatient services, assessed by combining the data from all the participating units, dropped by 21.3%. Utilization increased, however, in facilities located in remote areas, while it decreased in those located in urban or semi-urban areas. The increased utilization in remote facilities was considered to be largely attributable to health workers' incentive payments derived from cost-sharing revenues. CONCLUSIONS: Incentive payments led the health workers to offer improved services. Other factors may also have been influential, such as an improved drug supply to health facilities and increased public identification with community projects in remote areas.
Status of Iodine Nutriture and Salt Iodization in Union Territory of Pondicherry, India
Umesh Kapil,Preeti Singh,Priyali Pathak
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2002,
Abstract: Deficiency of iodine causes a wide spectrum of disabilities including the implications on reproductive functions and lowering of IQ levels in school age children. The present study was conducted to assess the status of iodine nutriture and salt iodization in the entire Union Territory of Pondicherry, India. The study was conducted in all the four districts of Pondicherry. In each district 150 salt samples were collected by utilizing the uniform sampling methodology. The iodine content of salt samples was analyzed using the standard iodometric titration method. On the spot casual urine samples were collected from at least 80 children from the same school selected randomly The urinary iodine excretion (UIE) levels were analyzed using the wet digestion method It was observed that 59.7% of the families were consuming iodized salt with more than 5 ppm . It was found that 3 out of 4 districts had adequate iodine nutriture (median UIE levels more than 100 μg/l) possibly due to consumption of iodized salt by majority of the population. This study revealed the success of the salt iodization program in Pondicherry. However, there is a need for strengthening the existing monitoring and distribution system to ensure that adequately iodized salt is available for human consumption to eliminate IDD from the state.
Micronutrient Fertilizers
Syed Manzoor Alam,Saboohi Raza
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2001,
Abstract: This paper deals with the importance of different micronutrient fertilizers regarding the growth and development of plants. There are a few micronutrients, which are very essential for the growth of plants. A shortage of these nutrients will create deficiency symptoms in plants, which ultimately reduce their growth.
Sunflower micronutrient uptake curves
Zobiole, Luiz Henrique Saes;Castro, César de;Oliveira, Fábio Alvares de;Oliveira Júnior, Adilson de;Moreira, Ad?nis;
Ciência e Agrotecnologia , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-70542011000200016
Abstract: most studies in the literature regarding the uptake of micronutrients [zinc (zn), manganese (mn), iron (fe), copper (cu) and boron (b) accumulation] by sunflower are old. for this reason, this work is aimed to establish curves of sunflower micronutrient accumulation in tropical edaphoclimatic conditions. the experiment was conducted in field on rhodic eutrudox, located at the experimental farm of embrapa soja in londrina-pr, using the commercial hybrid brs 191. the experimental design was completely randomized, with four replicates. the experimental units consisted of 14 lines with a spacing of 0.70 meter between lines and 25.0 meters in length, with final density of 42,858 plants per hectare. plants samples were collected every 14 days after emergence. after each collection, plants were divided into petiole, leaf, stem, capitulum and achenes. they were dried until reaching constant weight. then, dry matter was weighed and the concentrations of zn, mn, fe, cu, and b were determined in the vegetal tissue. micronutrient uptake occurred faster in the phase initiated 42 days after emergence (dae). iron was the most absorbed micronutrient, accumulating higher amounts in the achenes as well as in relation to the total absorbed. fe, mn, zn, b and cu concentrations were 38.06, 19.68, 9.20, 8,62 and 4.27 mg plant-1, respectively.
Micronutrient deficiencies in food aid beneficiaries: A review of seven African countries.
N Drorbaugh, CG Neumann
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development , 2009,
Abstract: In order to identify micronutrients likely to be deficient in food aid beneficiary populations and to guide the formulation of food aid products, this review was undertaken to summarize published data about micronutrient deficiencies in food aid beneficiaries as compared to the general population in seven African countries (Niger, Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe). These countries were identified by SUSTAIN as having received significant quantities of United States Public Law 480 (P.L. 480) Title II fortified and blended food aid products from 2001– 2006. Information was drawn from agency reports, personal communications, national survey data, and academic literature, primarily published since the year 2000. Among food aid beneficiaries in these countries, vitamin A and iron deficiencies were most prevalent. Deficiencies in zinc, folate (particularly in pregnancy), vitamins B-12, C, and D, thiamine, riboflavin, and calcium are likely prevalent based on low intake and physical signs of deficiency documented in the literature. In some cases, food aid rations provide insufficient quantity and quality of micronutrients, especially when used over extended periods of time as the sole food source. In nearly all the countries reviewed, deficiencies in vitamin A, iron, iodine, and other micronutrients are also quite common in the general population (those not receiving food aid). Micronutrient status information for food aid beneficiaries came mainly from studies in refugee/emergency settings, with few published studies found documenting the nutritional status of non-emergency food aid recipients. Useful insights were obtained by the review although limited micronutrient data were available for food aid beneficiaries. The micronutrient status of food aid beneficiaries should be monitored, with food aid products formulated to match the deficiencies present. Where possible, the use of anthropometry, simplified dietary assessment methods, and physical inspection are recommended to estimate micronutrient status where biochemical tests are not feasible. Agencies that currently monitor the nutritional status of food aid recipients are urged to make reports available to researchers, relief agencies, and the public.
Morpheme Matching Based Text Tokenization for a Scarce Resourced Language  [PDF]
Zobia Rehman, Waqas Anwar, Usama Ijaz Bajwa, Wang Xuan, Zhou Chaoying
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0068178
Abstract: Text tokenization is a fundamental pre-processing step for almost all the information processing applications. This task is nontrivial for the scarce resourced languages such as Urdu, as there is inconsistent use of space between words. In this paper a morpheme matching based approach has been proposed for Urdu text tokenization, along with some other algorithms to solve the additional issues of boundary detection of compound words, affixation, reduplication, names and abbreviations. This study resulted into 97.28% precision, 93.71% recall, and 95.46% F1-measure; while tokenizing a corpus of 57000 words by using a morpheme list with 6400 entries.
Micronutrient application through seed treatments: a review
Farooq,M; Wahid,A; Siddique,Kadambot H. M;
Journal of soil science and plant nutrition , 2012, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-95162012000100011
Abstract: micronutrients are vital for plant growth and human health. soil and foliar applications are the most prevalent methods of micronutrient addition but the cost involved and difficulty in obtaining high quality micronutrient fertilizers are major concerns with these in developing countries. micronutrient seed treatments, which include seed priming and seed coating, are an attractive and easy alternative. here in this review, we discuss the potential of micronutrient seed treatments for improving crop growth and grain nutrient enrichment. micronutrient application through seed treatments improves the stand establishment, advances phenological events, and increases yield and micronutrient grain contents in most cases. in some instances, seed treatments are not beneficial; however, the negative effects are rare. in most cases, micronutrient application through seed treatment performed better or similar to other application methods. being an easy and cost effective method of micronutrient application, seed treatments offer an attractive option for resource-poor farmers.
Micronutrient application through seed treatments: a review  [cached]
M Farooq,A Wahid,Kadambot H. M Siddique
Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition , 2012,
Abstract: Micronutrients are vital for plant growth and human health. Soil and foliar applications are the most prevalent methods of micronutrient addition but the cost involved and difficulty in obtaining high quality micronutrient fertilizers are major concerns with these in developing countries. Micronutrient seed treatments, which include seed priming and seed coating, are an attractive and easy alternative. Here in this review, we discuss the potential of micronutrient seed treatments for improving crop growth and grain nutrient enrichment. Micronutrient application through seed treatments improves the stand establishment, advances phenological events, and increases yield and micronutrient grain contents in most cases. In some instances, seed treatments are not beneficial; however, the negative effects are rare. In most cases, micronutrient application through seed treatment performed better or similar to other application methods. Being an easy and cost effective method of micronutrient application, seed treatments offer an attractive option for resource-poor farmers.
Page 1 /100
Display every page Item


Home
Copyright © 2008-2017 Open Access Library. All rights reserved.