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Whole-Body Vibration in Automated Residential Solid Waste Collection  [PDF]
Helmut Paschold
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology (OJSST) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojsst.2015.54011
Abstract: Drivers of residential solid waste collection trucks are exposed to a wide variety of physical and health hazards. Automated robotic arm collection methods are intended to eliminate physical and ergonomic hazards associated with manual waste collection. However, whole-body vibration (WBV) exposure is a hazard that may be significant and greater than being found in semi-automated or manual methods. WBV is measured in a pilot field study of automated waste collection trucks during normal operation for nearly eight-hour periods on two consecutive days. All four trials are run under similar route conditions. Vibrations are measured at the seat-driver interface using a tri-axial accelerometer seat pad and portable vibration monitors. Measured WBV levels are compared with prior published data from waste collection trucks and health standards. The average WBV exposure value, corresponding to 0.99 m.s-2 for frequency-weighted r.m.s. acceleration, is above the ISO 2631-1 action value of 0.50 m.s-2 and below a limit value of 1.15 m.s-2 as given in the European Parliament Directive 2002/44/EC. This exposure level suggests the presence of potential health risks.
Devendra Pandey,Barun M Choudhry
International Journal of Bioassays , 2013,
Abstract: Municipal solid waste is mainly generated due to urbanization and development and has emerged as a severe threat to environment. Inappropriate disposal of municipal solid waste may harmfully affect environment and human health. Municipal solid waste management is desired for the solution of the problem of solid waste disposal pertaining to protection of the environment and conservation of natural resources. Gondia Municipal Council’s solid waste management in this study involves the collection of waste from various locations to some common point known as waste collection centre. The collected waste is then transported to nearest available facilities namely landfill site and disposal site. The main aim of this study is to exhibit the route optimization model for fixing collection centers, considering capacity of automobile as 3 tons being used for assortment and the distance between optimized collection centers and disposal facilities of solid waste with potential routes. The least distance locations of waste centers may be utilized by the municipal solid waste management for cost effectiveness with an objective of sustainable development of city. The outcome of the study reveals effective reduction of 22255 meters of distance coved per day by the automobile.
Domestic Separation and Collection of Municipal Solid Waste: Opinion and Awareness of Citizens and Workers  [PDF]
Giovanni De Feo,Sabino De Gisi
Sustainability , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/su2051297
Abstract: The state of the art on Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) management is based on the domestic separation of materials produced. After domestic separation, the resident has to transfer the separated materials to the MSW manager through the hands of collection workers. It is exactly at this stage that an end-use product changes its status and property becomes waste. This paper analyzes and compares the opinions and awareness of citizens and kerbside collection workers on this subject by means of two structured questionnaires in the city of Mercato San Severino (about 22,000 people), in Southern Italy.
Application of GIS in Site Selection for Solid Waste Collection Points in Ikenegbu Extention Layout Owerri
Pat Duru,Njoku Chukwudi Gbadebo
Environmental Research Journal , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/erj.2012.55.61
Abstract: In Nigeria, waste disposal have been ineffective both in the urban and rural areas. Wastes are indiscriminately dumped on open plots of land and particularly along streets rendering the roads impassable and reducing the aesthetic value of the area. Several attempts have been made to solve the problem to no avail. Selection of waste collection points is therefore necessary in other to prevent the indiscriminate dumping of waste which is hazardous to human health. This study used Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to select suitable locations for waste collection points at Ikenegbu extension layout. A database was created and GIS systems were used in the analyses. This resulted in the generation of digital maps which can be very much useful in decision making for waste management or any other earth related problem. These maps were designed (digitized and georeferenced) in AutoCAD land development 2i and analysed with the inputed database in ArcView 3.2a through the usage of its analytical capabilities like buffering, overlay by union, clipping and query operations to determine the most suitable sites for solid waste collection in the area.
GIS Based Mapping and Analysis of Municipal Solid Waste Collection System in Wa, Ghana  [PDF]
Hamidu Abdulai, Rafaat Hussein, Eddie Bevilacqua, Mark Storrings
Journal of Geographic Information System (JGIS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jgis.2015.72008
Abstract: Collection of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) is important in every waste management program. Communal container collection systems appear most prevalent in many developing countries. However, this collection system is associated with problems such as overflow of waste containers, ground dumping at collection sites, and open/indiscriminate dumping at unauthorized places. The spatial distribution of these activities present potential contamination challenges to water resources. Spatial information on Municipal Solid Waste Collection/Dump Sites (MSWCS) is essential for Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) decision-making, including siting and collection route planning, and dumps cleanup. Integration of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Global Positioning Systems (GPS) present a platform to capture, map, and analyze spatial MSWM issues. This study applied GIS and GPS technologies to map MSWCS in Wa town, Ghana. Wa Municipality waste collection system efficiency was analyzed based on spatial availability of communal containers. A GIS model was developed and used to analyze proximity of MSWCS to boreholes drinking water sources. A pollution risk map was also developed to analyze the potential impact of indiscriminate dumps on hand-dug wells and surface water in Wa. The results reveal poor management in a significant number (about 67%) of MSWCS sites. Fifteen percent of mechanized boreholes failed the minimum proximity requirement (≥100 m) of the model. This study findings illustrate that MSWM in developing countries may be improved using GIS and GPS technologies. The approach used for Wa could be replicated in other towns in Ghana and other developing nations with similar MSWM problems to enhance policy and management decision-making.
Measurements of the discharge and turn around time of solid waste collection vehicles in Lagos state
S.G Odewumi
Journal of Environmental Science and Water Resources , 2013,
Abstract: Solid waste management has become a major environmental concern globally. The problem, rather than abate, is increasing as the rate of population growth and urbanisation are increasing. Governments in Nigeria are trying various approaches to deal with this perennial issue. Three of the key factors that affect the efficiency of solid waste managers and therefore the degree of cleanliness of urban centres are: The type of vehicles deployed, their discharge and Turn around times. This study measured the three variables in the solid waste collection operations of Lagos state. Forty discharge and turn around times in minutes were obtained for all the various types of vehicles on two of the three operating Landfill sites in the state; these are Olusoshun- (the biggest) and Solous (the smallest). Statistical package for Social Sciences was used to analyse the data to obtain its descriptive statistics and graphics. The study revealed that the Mammoth Compactor is the fastest in discharge operation with average completion time of 5.53 minutes. Its slowest time ever was 7 minutes and the fastest time recorded for the sampling period was 3 minutes. The second fastest was the 15-ton tipper with an average time of 5.85 minutes. The other vehicles in decreasing order of speed are Dino, and smaller size trucks and pick-ups. The trip frequency of the various types of vehicles ranges from 2-7 depending on type and origin. The study offered suggestions on most appropriate types and operational logistics for greater efficiency in solid waste collections and consequently cleaner urban environment.
A. Jalilzadeh, Y. Rahimi and A. Parvaresh
Iranian Journal of Environmental Health Science & Engineering , 2005,
Abstract: Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a serious environmental hazard and social problem in Iran. Currently a high volume of solid waste is generated every day in the district towns of Iran and unfortunately solid waste management is being deteriorated due to the limited resources to handle the increasing rate of generated waste. Due to this fact that more than 60% of solid waste management cost is usually alocated for purpose collection and transportation of generated solid waste in the city. Analysis of this section and understanding of its effect on the management system could have a great role in reduction the costs and solving many of exist problems. This study illustrate the effectiveness of timing managing an MSW economy and that has been carried out as a case study in Urmia. Results of this research illustrsate that 58.3% in Neisan, 68.7% in Khavar, 61.5% in Benz, 81.3% in Compactor and 59.3% in FAUN 0f each cycle time is pickup time.. Mean of traveling speed for Van, Mini-truck, Truck, FAUN and Compactor was 35,46,41,38 and 42 kilometer per hour respectively. Total spent time for collection and transportation of solid waste were 1:21 hour with Van, 1:23 hour with Mini-truck, 1:29 hour with Truck, 17 minutes with FAUN and 57 minutes with Compactor. Result of this study illustrated Van is the most economic vehicle for solid waste collection system in Urmia city. Generally, priority to usage of solid waste collection vehicles illustrate in below: Truck < Mini-truck < Compactor < Van < FAUN
Kinematic design of lift-tipping mechanism for small solid waste collection truck
YAK Fiagbe, MN Sackey, MY Mensah, EEK Agbeko
Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana) , 2011,
Abstract: A number of small waste collection trucks such as tricycles are in use in a number of developing countries. The use of such technology has been popular in a country like Ghana. This paper presents a design of lift-tipping mechanism for small solid waste collection trucks. A five bar mechanism is developed with one degree of freedom. The mechanism is modelled and tested using Solid Edge software. Results of the system show that a height of 70% of the length of the lifting bar can be attained and a tilt angle more than 40o could be achieved. The actuation of the mechanism could be achieved by employing power screw, hydraulic or pneumatic actuators, and rack and pinion combinations. This mechanism will improve the operation of the collection truck.
A. Omrani,K. Imandel,H. Karimzadegan
Iranian Journal of Public Health , 1998,
Abstract: The main objective of this investigation was to achieve a clear pattern of solid waste collection and disposal in selected hospital and health care establishments in certain cities of Tehran province. This study was done in more than 82 percent of all hospitals with 3017 beds during the year 1996. Solid waste produced per bed was evaluated to be 2.87 kg per day which was 8670 kg per day, for all beds, comprising less than 1% of the total solid waste generated in the same cities during the same period. According to the information gathered in the 84.2% hospitals and health care centres, solid wastes were collected manually by labourers from various sections. Detention time of the waste in 89.5% of the cases was nearly 24 h. Densities of this type of waste were estimated to be 193.18kg/m3 with plastic bag and 247.72 kg/m3 without bag. Physical analysis of the wastes indicated 15.1% plastic and rubbery, 9.6% linen, 12.45% paper and cardboard, 8.5% various types of metals, 1.7% glass and 52.4% other different materials. In Iran, hospital administrations are directly responsible for collection transport and ultimate disposal of hospital wastes. Incinerators installed in 21.1% of the clinical centres, were not operating at all. Overall conclusion is that, solid wastes collection transportation and disposal in Tehran district is not satisfactory, according to the health and management criteria.
Optimizing routes for the collection of urban solid waste: a case study for the city of Joinville, state of Santa Catarina
Thober Coradi Detofeno,Maria Teresinha Arns Steiner
Iberoamericana de Engenharia Industrial , 2010,
Abstract: This paper introduces a methodology to obtain optimal routes for the collection of urban waste. The problem is characterized as arcs coverage and for its development a combination of techniques in the Operational Research area was used. Firstly, the Teitz and Bart heuristic was used to obtain p-medians; from the definition of latter were defined groups (clusters) of demand points by designating these to the medians, by means of the Gillett and Johnson algorithm, adapted. Finally, from the definition of the groups of points, the Chinese Postman Algorithm was used, resulting in the routing (sequencing the demand points to be served) in each of the service groups. The results obtained are presented for a case study of the city of Joinville, State of Santa Catarina.
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