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Microbiological quality of spice used in the production of Kilishi, a traditionally dried and grilled meat product
U Shamsuddeen
Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences , 2009,
Abstract: Study was carried out on the microbiological quality of the spice mix used in the production of Kilishi. Twenty samples were analyzed. The analyses included; aerobic mesophilic bacterial count, staphylococcal count, fungal count, coliform count, detection of E. coli, Salmonella spp and Clostridium perfringens. The result of the analysis showed that the samples had a mean aerobic plate count, staphylococcal count and fungal count of 2.96x108, 1.73x107 , and 1.04x105 cfu/g respectively. Coliform MPN of >2400/g. E. coli was detected in one of the samples, Salmonella spp one sample and Clostridium perfringens from four samples. The counts obtained were higher than the maximum acceptable levels provided by the Food and Agriculture organization (FAO) of the United Nations. It is therefore recommended that strict hygienic measures should be observed during the mixing of the spice in order to reduce the microbial load to an acceptable level.
Effects of Different Solar Drying Methods on Quality Attributes of Dried Meat Product (Kilishi)  [cached]
E. S. Apata,O. O. Osidibo,O. C. Apata,A. O. Okubanjo
Journal of Food Research (JFR) , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/jfr.v2n1p80
Abstract: This study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of four methods of sundrying kilishi after preparation. They included Direct Sundrying Method (DSM) as control, Gujarat Energy Development Agency Method (GEDAM), National Institute of Oceanography Method (NIOM) and Kwatia Drying Method (KDM) each of the methods constituted a treatment viz, A, B, C and D. Meat (Beef) weighing 640 g was purchased and used for this study. The meat was divided into 4 equal parts of 160 g per treatment. They were sliced into length between 0.17 and 0.20 cm in thickness and dried between 4 and 5 hours to reduce the moisture to at least 40% before slurry infusion. The slurry ingredient components were ground and mixed to form a paste. Semi-dried meat were immersed in the slurry for one hour and later stabilized by roasting on charcoal fire for 5 minutes and later dried out in drying media tested in this study. The yield, chemical and sensory properties of kilishi were determined. The results showed that method B gave the highest (P < 0.05) yield of kilishi, chemical attributes as well as sensory properties of kilishi followed by method C. It is suggested that method B and C be developed and produced in commercial quantity for use in drying kilishi in the tropics due to their high efficiency.
Effets de la saison sur les qualités microbiologiques de Kilishi, une viande sèche traditionnelle du Cameroun
Fonkem, DN.,Tanya, VN.,Ebangi, AL.
Tropicultura , 2010,
Abstract: Effects of Season on the Microbiological Quality of Kilishi, a Traditional Cameroonian Dried Beef Product. The microbiological quality of Kilishi, a traditional Cameroonian dried meat, produced in the Northern part of the country, was studied over one-year period. 79 Kilishi samples collected at various selling points were used for microbiological evaluation. The results on the microbiological analyses were then subjected to a statistical analysis using the General Linear Model (GLM) approach to assess environmental factors that affect quality. Final results indicated that the quality of Kilishi was greatly affected (P< 0.001) by the season and location of production though the total bacterial, mould and yeast counts (cfu/g) were lower than the recommended acceptability limit for the total viable bacterial counts of micro-organisms in meat at the point of consumption.
Qualité microbiologique du kilishi (produit carné séché) produit dans la ville de Ngaoundéré (Cameroun)
Mbawala, A.,Daoudou, B.,Ngassoum, MB.
Tropicultura , 2010,
Abstract: Microbiological Quality of Kilishi (Traditional Dried Beef) Produced in Ngaoundere, Cameroon. In order to verify the hypothesis that the total microbial load of kilishi samples and the strain of micro-organism they contain would have an influence on their hygienic quality, twenty-four samples of spiced and non spiced kilishi, a traditional sun-dried beef were collected from seven production and sales points in Ngaoundere (North Cameroon). In this regard, aerobic mesophilic flora, coliforms, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella spp., sulphito-reducing Clostridium, yeast and moulds were counted on kilishi samples that were diluted serially (ten-fold) and inoculated on selective media. Results obtained showed that 33.34% and 50% of the spiced kilishi samples were contaminated by B. cereus and Salmonella spp., respectively, whereas 83.34% of the non spiced kilishi samples were contaminated by these two micro-organisms. Furthermore, the other investigated micro-organisms were found in all kilishi samples, independent of the type of product. The ratio A/B expressed as the mean level of contamination of spiced kilishi (A) to that of non spiced kilishi (B) was determined for each type of micro-organisms counted. The mean value was 0.43 for sulphito-reducing Clostridium, while the highest value was 0.63 for Salmonella spp. and the lowest 0.27 for Bacillus cereus. This confirms that samples of non spiced kilishi were more contaminated by foodborne pathogens than those of spiced kilishi (P< 0.05). The mean levels of contamination by B. cereus and Salmonella spp. found in some kilishi samples (> 102 CFU/g) were higher than the recommended microbiological standards for cooked meat products (absence in 25 g of product), thus presents a risk of foodborne intoxication for consumers.
Microbiological and Nutritional Quality of the Goat Meat by-Product “Sarapatel”  [PDF]
Luciana Brasil,Angela Queiroz,Josevan Silva,Taliana Bezerra,Narciza Arcanjo,Marciane Magnani,Evandro Souza,Marta Madruga
Molecules , 2014, DOI: 10.3390/molecules19011047
Abstract: Goat “sarapatel” is a product made from blood and viscera. For the first time, the microbiological and nutritional quality of “sarapatel” samples ( n = 48) sold under different conditions (in street markets, butcher shops, and supermarkets under refrigeration, frozen or at room temperature) was evaluated. Goat “sarapatel” is a nutritive food, with each 100 g providing, on average, 72 g of moisture, 2 g of ash, 18 g of protein, 9 g of lipids, 2 g of carbohydrates, 282 mg of cholesterol, and high amounts of unsaturated fatty acids and essential amino acids. The analysis of the “sarapatel” samples shows that none of them contain Salmonella spp. or L. monocytogenes. High counts (>104) of total coliforms, thermotolerant coliforms, and sulfite-reducing Clostridium were detected, and coagulase-positive Staphylococcus was found in 31.25% of samples. The storage conditions evaluated (refrigeration, frozen or at room temperature) did not affect the physicochemical quality of the “sarapatel”; however, the unsatisfactory microbiological quality indicates that it is necessary to improve the health-sanitary aspects of the processing and sale of this product.
Nutritional and microbiological evaluation of meat and bone meal produced in the state of Minas Gerais
Sartorelli, SA;Bertechini, AG;Fassani, EJ;Kato, RK;Fialho, ET;
Revista Brasileira de Ciência Avícola , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-635X2003000100007
Abstract: the present study investigated the chemical composition and metabolizable energy levels of ten meat and bone meals (mbm) produced in minas gerais state (experiment i) and evaluated the growth performance of broilers fed with diets containing those mbm (experiment ii). in the first experiment, energy values (apparent metabolizable energy [ame] and corrected apparent metabolizable energy [amen]) of ten different mbm were determined using the traditional method with total collection of excreta. four hundred forty 21 day-old hubbard broilers were used. a reference corn and soybean meal-based diet was replaced in 20% by the feed containing mbm to be tested. a completely randomized experimental design was used with eleven treatments (one reference diet and ten mbm), four repetitions per treatment and 10 birds per repetition (5 males and 5 females). in the second experiment, five mbms from the ten analyzed in experiment 1 were used as phosphorus source and compared to a diet containing bicalcium phosphate. the growth performance of the broilers fed with these diets was analyzed, considering two ages of the onset of mbm inclusion in the diet (1 or 7 days of age). one-day-old hubbard broilers (1,320 birds) were housed in 44 plots with 30 birds per experimental unit. the experiment consisted of 11 treatments in a 5x2 factorial arrangement, with five sources of mbm, two ages for the onset of inclusion, and a reference treatment without addition of mbm. the results obtained showed a great variation in the chemical composition and apparent metabolizable energy of the evaluated meals. no significant differences were found on the performance of broilers fed diets with different mbm or the diet with bicalcium phosphate as phosphorus source. the performance of broilers was not significantly influenced by the onset of mbm inclusion in the diets.
Nutritional and microbiological evaluation of meat and bone meal produced in the state of Minas Gerais  [cached]
Sartorelli SA,Bertechini AG,Fassani EJ,Kato RK
Revista Brasileira de Ciência Avícola , 2003,
Abstract: The present study investigated the chemical composition and metabolizable energy levels of ten meat and bone meals (MBM) produced in Minas Gerais state (Experiment I) and evaluated the growth performance of broilers fed with diets containing those MBM (Experiment II). In the first experiment, energy values (apparent metabolizable energy [AME] and corrected apparent metabolizable energy [AMEn]) of ten different MBM were determined using the traditional method with total collection of excreta. Four hundred forty 21 day-old Hubbard broilers were used. A reference corn and soybean meal-based diet was replaced in 20% by the feed containing MBM to be tested. A completely randomized experimental design was used with eleven treatments (one reference diet and ten MBM), four repetitions per treatment and 10 birds per repetition (5 males and 5 females). In the second experiment, five MBMs from the ten analyzed in Experiment 1 were used as phosphorus source and compared to a diet containing bicalcium phosphate. The growth performance of the broilers fed with these diets was analyzed, considering two ages of the onset of MBM inclusion in the diet (1 or 7 days of age). One-day-old Hubbard broilers (1,320 birds) were housed in 44 plots with 30 birds per experimental unit. The experiment consisted of 11 treatments in a 5x2 factorial arrangement, with five sources of MBM, two ages for the onset of inclusion, and a reference treatment without addition of MBM. The results obtained showed a great variation in the chemical composition and apparent metabolizable energy of the evaluated meals. No significant differences were found on the performance of broilers fed diets with different MBM or the diet with bicalcium phosphate as phosphorus source. The performance of broilers was not significantly influenced by the onset of MBM inclusion in the diets.
Qualitative evaluation of Kilishi prepared from beef and pork
OO Ogunsola, AB Omojola
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2008,
Abstract: Kilishi is an intermediate moisture meat product of the tropics, prepared from sun-dried lean beef infused with spices and defatted groundnut paste (DGP). This study evaluates the quality traits in Kilishi prepared from beef and pork. The proximate composition and the organoleptic characteristics of Kilishi from beef and pork were studied in a completely randomized design. The effect of three different packaging materials [polyvinyl chloride (PVC), aluminium foil (ALF) and plastic container (PC)] on microbial isolates of both Kilishi after 36 week storage at room temperatures were also evaluated. The result revealed that Kilishi from beef and pork differed significantly (P > 0.05) in colour and juiciness. Kilishi from pork gave higher (P < 0.05) values of 3.70 ± 0.32 and 3.93 ± 0.21 as against values of 2.33 ± 0.22 and 2.93 ± 0.30 for Kilishi from beef in respect to colour and juiciness, respectively. Kilishi from beef and pork had similar values (P > 0.05) for moisture, protein and fat while Kilishi from beef gave a higher ash value (P < 0.05) of 8.78 ± 0.13 than Kilishi from pork (6.96 ± 0.24). The ash and protein content of Kilishi were more than those of dried raw meat samples. However, Kilishi from beef and pork gave lower moisture values of 10.00 ± 0.15 and 9.92 ± 0.22% as against 35.85 ± 0.24 and 46.51 ± 0.30% for dried raw beef and pork respectively. In the packaging experiment, five bacteria species were identified. Bacillus spp. constituted the highest while Staphylococcus spp. and Proteus spp. were the least. The foil packaged products gave the highest microbial load.
NUTRITIONAL, HYGIENIC, HEALTH AND ORGANOLEPTIC CHARACTERIZATION OF MEAT OF BOVINE BREED PIEMONTESE  [cached]
C.A. Ghia,D.M. Bianchi,S. Gallina,V.M. Moretti
Italian Journal of Food Safety , 2008, DOI: 10.4081/ijfs.2008.2.65
Abstract: The autochthonous “Piemontese” bovine breed is primarily raised for meat due to the high quality of production. The aim of this study was to investigate the microbiological, nutritional and chemical aspects of samples meat from cattle breeding “Piemontese”.
Effect of groundnut flour substitution on yield, quality and storage stability of kilishii – a Nigerian indigenous dried meat product
VN Mgbemere, MA Akpapunam, JO Igene
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development , 2011,
Abstract: Kilishi, a traditionally sun-dried roasted meat product usually produced using raw meat, Tunkusa (a locally defatted groundnut cake paste), in combination with spices and condiments in the mix was produced after substitution with conventional defatted groundnut flour. This study was undertaken to establish the potential use of conventional defatted groundnut flour in place of Tunkusa in making a better quality and shelf - stable Kilishi. The yield, quality and storage stability of the product were evaluated using standard assay techniques. Yield was estimated as the ratio of weight of Kilishi over the fresh beef. Quality was measured in terms of proximate composition which included protein, fat, carbohydrate, fibre and ash contents, and the amount of calorie obtained from the Kilishi was calculated based on these constituents. Sensory quality attributes were also measured in terms of colour/appearance, flavour, crispiness, texture and overall acceptability. Microbial counts such as total plate, yeast and mould and coliform were measured. Storage stability was evaluated in terms of thiobarbituric acid (TBA), free fatty acid (FFA) and Peroxide value (PV) values prior and following storage in ambient (25-32°C) or refrigerator (7±1°C) for 12 weeks. Yield of the Kilishi (GFK) produced from conventional defatted groundnut flour ingredients was 87.3% compared to 83.7% of traditionally defatted groundnut cake (Tunkusa) Kilishi (TK) (control). The GFK had 12.1% moisture, 51.8% protein, 13.4% fat, 5.1% ash, 2.8% crude fibre and 14.8% carbohydrate compared to TK 11.6%, 49.8%, 11.4%, 5.2%, 3.1%, and 18.9% for these constituents, respectively. GFK also had 387.0 Kcal/100g energy value compared to 377.4 for TK. Both GFK and TK were highly rated in sensory attributes, however, TK had lesser acceptability. Microbial counts were non detectable in the fresh Kilishi products until week 12 and were within standard safe limits (106 CFU/g aerobic and 107 anaerobic counts) thereafter. At week 12, microbial counts were 2.1x101 CFU/g bacteria and 3.0x100 moulds for GFK stored at ambient (25-32°C) condition and 4.5x101 CFU/g bacteria for GFK stored at refrigerator (7±1°C) conditions, whereas TK had 1.6x101 CFU/g bacteria, 1.0x101 moulds and 1.1x101 CFU/g bacteria. Storage for 12 weeks slightly decreased sensory scores, protein and fat contents and also TBA, FFA, PV but moisture increased slightly. It is possible to produce high quality and yield as well as acceptable and shelf stable Kilishi using conventional defatted groundnut flour. Also GFK Kilishi had better quality attributes when compared with TK, Tunkusa Kilishi.
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