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Physicochemical, Nutritional and organoleptic evaluation of cookies from pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) and cocoyam (Xanthosoma Sp) flour blends
LC Okpala, VA Chinyelu
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development , 2011,
Abstract: Cookies were made from pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) and cocoyam (Xanthosoma sagittifolium) flour blends. Pigeon pea flour (PPF) was mixed with cocoyam flour (CF) at ratios of 20:80, 30:70, 40:60, 50:50 and 60:40 respectively. The cookies were evaluated for proximate composition, saponins, oxalate, trypsin inhibitors, in-vitro protein digestibility, in-vitro carbohydrate digestibility, physical and sensory qualities. Standard experimental protocols were employed in the estimation of all indices. The protein contents of the cookies were significantly different (p<0.05) from each other and ranged from 10.89 to 11.60% with cookies from 60:40 PPF to CF having the highest value of 11.60% and cookies 20:80 PPF to CF having the least value of 10.89%. The levels of antinutrients analyzed were low with saponin content ranging from 0.05 to 0.08mg/100g; trypsin inhibitors ranging from 0.08 to 0.11mg/100g and oxalate content between 0.06 to 0.68mg/100g. There were significant differences (p<0.05) observed in the in-vitro digestibility (protein and carbohydrate) with cookies made from 20:80 PPF to CF having the highest protein and carbohydrate in-vitro digestibilities of 64.81% and 67.35%, respectively. Results from the physical evaluation of the cookies revealed that the diameter and spread ratio of the cookies were significantly different (p<0.05) from each other and decreased with increasing levels of pigeon pea flour. Data obtained from the sensory evaluation indicated that the mean scores for taste, colour, general acceptability and texture were generally high for cookies containing at least 50% cocoyam flour. However, cookies made from 20:80 PPF to CF had the highest mean scores for all the parameters assessed and were not significantly (p>0.05)different from the control (100% wheat). It may, therefore be concluded from the strength of this work that cookies produced from 20% pigeon pea flour and 80% cocoyam flour have great potential as they compared favourably with cookies produced from wheat. The use of this composite flour would go a long way in reducing dependency on wheat flour in countries that import wheat.
Formulation and Evaluation of Cookies Containing Germinated Pigeon Pea, Fermented Sorghum and Cocoyam Flour Blends using Mixture Response Surface Methodology
Laura C. Okpala,Eric C. Okoli
Advance Journal of Food Science and Technology , 2011,
Abstract: Cookies were produced from blends of germinated pigeon pea, fermented sorghum and cocoyam flours. The study was carried out to evaluate the effects of varying the proportions of these components on the sensory and protein quality of the cookies. The sensory attributes studied were colour, taste, texture, crispiness and general acceptability while the protein quality indices were Biological Value (BV) and Net Protein Utilization (NPU). Mixture response surface methodology was used to model the sensory and protein quality with single, binary and ternary combinations of germinated pigeon pea, fermented sorghum and cocoyam flours. The sum of the component proportions was always equal to 100%. Results showed that BV and NPU of most of the cookies were above minimum recommended levels. With the exception of cookies containing high levels of pigeon pea flour, cookies had acceptable sensory scores. Increase in pigeon pea flour resulted in increase in the BV and NPU. Regression equations suggested that the ternary blends produced the highest increase in all the sensory attributes (with the exception of colour).
Biological Evaluation of Protein Quality of Extruded Soybean and Plantain Blends
Oluwatooyin Faramade Osundahunsi
Journal of Food Technology , 2013,
Abstract: Soybeans (Glycine max Merr) were dehulled and a batch was fermented before subjecting all to extrusion cooking. Firm unripe (UP) and firm ripe (RP) plantains were also milled and blended together with the soybeans in different proportion of 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% respectively. The developed complements were evaluated for nutritional quality using albino rats as experimental animals. The values of Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER), Food Efficiency Ratio (FER), Net Protein Retention (NPR), Protein Retention Efficiency (PRE) were significantly different in both unripe and ripe plantain without additional protein source. There were negative growth rate in UP and RP relative to all the other blends. All organ weights of UP and some in RP were significantly different from others. There exist variation in the weight of organs in relation to various diets. Although there were no significant differences in the organs of rats fed with blends relative to those fed the casein diet. Non-fermented soybean compared favourably with other blends which is an indication that extrusion cooking could have reduced antinutritional factors in raw soybean.
Evaluation of maize-soybean flour blends for sour maize bread production in Nigeria
MO Edema, LO Sanni, AI Sanni
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2005,
Abstract: Examination of the functional properties of three different flours/meals and two blends of maize meal and soybean-flour (ratios 9:1 and 8:2, maize:soybean) were carried out. Properties examined included amylose content, bulk density, dispersibility, swelling power, water absorption capacity and viscoelastic properties. The effect of the different flour/meal samples on the properties of sour maize bread were evaluated by baking bread samples with the different flours/meals using a mixed starter culture of Lactobacillus plantarum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. All flour/meal samples differed, sometimes significantly (p 0.05) in their functional properties. Significant positive correlations existed among the functional properties of the flours at the 1% level (2-tailed). The maize meal/soy flour blends MSA (maize meal and soybean flour mixed in ratio 9:1) and MSB (maize meal and soybean flour mixed in ratio 8:2) did not differ significantly from each other in functional properties except for amylose content. MSA was adjudged the best flour blend for sour maize bread production as its bread had the highest score for overall acceptability (6.1) and other sensory parameters evaluated.
A Laboratory Study of the Effect of Temperature on Densities and Viscosities of Binary and Ternary Blends of Soybean Oil, Soy Biodiesel and Petroleum Diesel Oil  [PDF]
Oluwafunmilayo A. Aworanti, Samuel E. Agarry, Ayobami O. Ajani
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science (ACES) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/aces.2012.24054
Abstract: The depletion of world petroleum reserves and the increased environmental concerns have stimulated the search for alternative sources for petroleum based fuel. The possibility of using vegetable oils as fuel has been recognized, however, due to its high viscosities and low volatilities makes it inefficient for most combustion engines and thus the need to get them chemically altered or transesterified to obtain fatty alkyl esters of the oil (biodiesel). In this study, binary and ternary blends of biodiesel were produced and the effect of temperature on their viscosity and density was investigated. Biodiesel was produced from soybean oil by transesterification of the oil with methanol using potassium hydroxide as a catalyst at a temperature of 60℃ in a batch reactor. Binary and ternary blends of the soy-biodiesel were prepared with soy bean oil and petroleum diesel fuel, respectively. Viscosities and densities of the binary and ternary blends were measured at different temperatures of 20℃ to 90℃ as to determine the effect of temperature on viscosities and densities of the blends. The properties of the soy-biodiesel produced were compared with ASTM standard and found to be within the limits. The results show that the viscosities and densities of both the binary and ternary blends are temperature dependent. The viscosities of binary and ternary blends decreased nonlinearly with temperature, while their densities decreased linearly with temperature. The variation of temperature with viscosity and density of the blends was correlated and the polynomial equation offered the best correlation between temperature and viscosity, while linear equation gave the best correlation between temperature and density. In conclusion, the efficiency of binary and ternary blends of biodiesel in combustion engines is dependent on the viscosity and density of the blends which are invariably temperature dependent.
Synthesis and field evaluation of synthetic blends of the sex pheromone of Crocidosema aporema (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in soybean
González, Andrés;Altesor, Paula;Alves, Leticia;Liberati, Paola;Silva, Horacio;Ramos, Juan;Carrera, Ignacio;González, David;Seoane, Gustavo;Rossini, Carmen;Castiglioni, Enrique;Gamenara, Daniela;
Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-50532012005000072
Abstract: crocidosema (= epinotia) aporema (walsingham) (lepidoptera: tortricidae) is a bud borer that feeds on soybean and forage legumes. its economic importance is restricted to south america, where it can alternate throughout the year between forage and grain legumes. the sex pheromone of c. aporema females is composed of a 15:1 mixture of (7z,9z)-dodeca-7,9-dien-1-ol and (7z,9z)-dodeca-7,9-dienyl acetate. aiming at the development of a monitoring tool, it was synthesized both components of the pheromone and evaluated male captures in pheromone traps baited with different blends of synthetic pheromone, in an experimental soybean field in uruguay. the conjugated dienes were obtained from 2-pentyn-1-ol and 1,7-heptanediol, by oxidation of the former, wittig coupling and zn-catalyzed reduction of the triple bond. the 1:1 mixture was the most efficient in capturing males. the pheromone traps were attractive for up to 40 days, even with small septum loads (0.1 mg) and low population levels.
Perfomance evaluation of a direct injection engine using different blends of soybean (Glycine max) methyl biodiesel
Nietiedt, Gustavo H.;Schlosser, José F.;Russini, Alexandre;Frantz, Ulisses G.;Ribas, Rodrigo L.;
Engenharia Agrícola , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-69162011000500009
Abstract: diesel fuel is used widely in brazil and worldwide. on the other hand, the growing environmental awareness leads to a greater demand for renewable energy resources. thus, this study aimed to evaluate the use of different blends of soybean (glycine max) methyl biodiesel and diesel in an ignition compression engine with direct injection fuel. the tests were performed on an electric eddy current dynamometer, using the blends b10, b50 and b100, with 10; 50 e 100% of biodiesel, respectively, in comparison to the commercial diesel b5, with 5% of biodiesel added to the fossil diesel. the engine performance was analyzed trough the tractor power take off (pto) for each fuel, and the best results obtained for the power and the specific fuel consumption, respectively, were: b5 (44.62 kw; 234.87 g kw-1 h-1); b10 (44.73 kw; 233.78 g kw-1 h-1); b50 (44.11 kw; 250.40 g kw-1 h-1) e b100 (43.40 kw; 263.63 g kw-1 h-1). the best performance occurred with the use of b5 and b10 fuel, without significant differences between these blends. the b100 fuel showed significant differences compared to the other fuels.
Effect of Sprouting on Cookability of Cocoyam Tubers and Physicochemical Properties of Cocoyam Flours
Evelyn Njideka Bede
Journal of Food Technology , 2013, DOI: 10.3923/jftech.2012.151.155
Abstract: The effect of sprouting on the cookability of cocoyam tubers was investigated. Cultivars of Xanthosoma sagittifolium and Colocasia esculenta were planted. The planted tubers were unearthed after every 2 days and their cooking time determined until complete sprouting was observed. The planted cocoyam tubers were also dried and ground into cocoyam flour after being unearthed every other day. The water absorbtion, oil absorbtion and gelation temperature of these cocoyam flour samples were also determined. The cooking time for all cultivars increased with increase in the days of sprouting. It was observed that all the cocoyam cultivars could no longer cook after full sprouting was observed which occurred within 8-12 days from the day of planting. Physicochemical properties of the cocoyam flour as affected by days of sprouting also showed that gelation temperature increased while water and oil absorption decreased with increase in the days of sprouting.
Storage Stability and Sensory Evaluation of Taro Chips Fried in Palm Oil, Palm Olein Oil, Groundnut Oil, Soybean Oil and Their Blends
C.A. Emmanuel-Ikpeme,C. A. Eneji,U. Essiet
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2007,
Abstract: Taro (Colocasia esculenta) chips fried in Palm Oil (PO), Soybean Oil (SBO), Palm Olein Oil (POO), Groundnut Oil (GO) and in 40:60 w/w blend ratio of palm oil: POO; SBO; GO were stored for 0-5 weeks in dark and in fluorescent light. Chips were subjected to weekly chemical and sensory analysis. Results showed that significant (p<0.05) differences occurred in the organoleptic properties of taro chips fried in the different oil types during storage. Chips fried in palm oil and groundnut oil blend had the most desired flavour, taste and stability. The highest off-flavour rating was for chips fried in soybean oil while chips fried in palm oil: groundnut oil blend had the least rating (p<0.05). The overall acceptability of chips was not significantly (p>0.05) affected by dark storage. Peroxide Value (PV) was highest in soybean oil fried chips (p>0.05) during storage. Peroxide Value (PV) increased at a slower rate in chips fried in palm oil, palm olein oil/blends.
Fatty Acid Effect on Carcass The Influence of Various Blends of Dietary Fats Added to Corn-Soybean Meal Based Diets on the Fatty Acid Composition of Broilers  [PDF]
P.W. Waldroup,A.L. Waldroup
International Journal of Poultry Science , 2005,
Abstract: Studies were conducted to determine the influence of the fatty acid composition of the dietary fat supplement on the fatty acid composition of the adipose tissue of broilers. Samples of lard, tallow, poultry oil, and soybean oil, representative of the major source of fats and oils in poultry diets in the United States, were blended in various combinations and fed at 6.34% of the diet in corn-soybean meal broiler finisher diets fed 35 to 56 d of age. Samples of adipose tissue were subjected to fatty acid analysis and regression analysis was used to develop equations for predicting carcass fatty acid composition from the composition of the dietary fat supplement. Highly significant R2 values were observed, indicating that these equations can be used to predict the influence that a particular blend of dietary fatty acids will have upon changes in the fatty acid composition of the adipose tissue of broilers fed diets supplemented with these fats. If sources with markedly different fatty acid structures such as coconut oil, linseed oil, or fish oil are used in constructing the fat blends, these equations may not be applicable.
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