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Stabilization of Waste Pet Bottles with Gypsum  [PDF]
Sedat Karaman,Sirri Sahin,Hikmet Gunal,Ibrahim Orung
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2006,
Abstract: The aims of this study were to determine the physical and mechanical features of gypsum composite material added waste PET bottles and investigate possible use of this material in agricultural constructions. Samples were prepared by mixing gypsum with waste PET bottles 0-2, -4 and 0-4 mm diameter. Density, water absorption, heat conduction, bending and compressive strengths of composite materials were determined. The results indicated that increasing the proportion of waste PET bottles added in gypsum influences density and heat insulation feature positively, but it decreases bending and mechanical resistance. It is possible to build more economical and better insulated constructions by using this composite material for coating walls and ceilings and flooring roofs.
Technological Procedure for Recycling of PET Waste for Sustainable Environment Concept Achievement
Ali I. Al-Mosawi, Shaymaa Abbas Abdulsada
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104327
In this research, polyethylene terephthalate bottles (PET) waste was added to styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) to manufacture road bumps, as a technological procedure for recycling this PET waste, in order to maintain a clean and sustainable environment. Polyethylene terephthalate bottles were cut as grooved strips and added to bump SBR batch with various percentages (0 - 100 pphr). Mechanical tests were performed before and after the addition of PET waste including tensile strength, hardness, and resilience. Nanoparticles of carbon black, zinc oxide and sulfur were used, and compare the results with samples with micro particles additions. The result shows that the developed and manufactured bump SBR in this research conforms to the mechanical characteristics of the original bump model especially with nanoparticles additives, and the best results obtained with the nanoparticles additions.
Preparation and Characterization of Oligomer from Recycled PET and Evaluated as a Corrosion Inhibitor for C-Steel Material in 0.1 M HCl  [PDF]
Ali H. Yasir, Alaa S. Khalaf, Moayad N. Khalaf
Open Journal of Organic Polymer Materials (OJOPM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojopm.2017.71001
Abstract: Polyethylene terephthalate waste (PET) was depolymerized by thiodiglycol into thioglycolyzed product. The product was characterized by FTIR and 1HNMR spectroscopy and the thermal properties (TGA, DTA) showed that the prepared compound was thermally stable until 250°C. The efficiency of the prepared corrosion inhibitor for carbon steel was measured by using acid media (0.1 HCl) as corrosive environment and the inhibitor concentration was (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 ppm). The electrochemical technique used Tafel plot to measure the efficiency of inhibitor. Factors effect on the rate of corrosion like temperature (298, 308, 318, 328 K) and concentration (10, 20, 30, 40, 50 ppm) of inhibitor were studied. From the obtained results many factors were calculated that determined the efficiency of the inhibitor like corrosion rate, charge transfer resistance and inhibitor efficiency. It was observed that the corrosion rate and charge transfer of the carbon steel for the inhibitor increase with increase of temperature and decrease with increase of the inhibitor concentration in the same temperature. The results showed that the inhibitor had high inhibition in reducing the corrosion rate. The inhibition efficiency (% IE) reached 97.1% for the 40 ppm concentration at 308 K.
PET bottle cap inspection method based on linear fitting algorithm

ZHENG Yun-feng,WANG Gui-jin,HE Bei,LI Yan-li,LIN Xing-gang,

计算机应用研究 , 2011,
Abstract: The actual real-time automatic inspection of the PET bottles plays an important role in production. In the current production, shake of the bottle gives a negative influence on the inspection algorithm. This paper aimed at designing an algorithm which could overcome the problem above. Based on this linear fitting algorithm, this paper designed a real-time automatic detection method. Through inspection of the straight line through the cap and the support ring,the method could categorize the defected cap, and overcame the bottle-shaking caused by high-speed production. The accuracy rate reached more than 99% in the experiments on the online production system. Experiments show that this algorithm has good robustness.
Razvoj odvojenoga sakupljanja i recikliranja ambala noga otpada od PET-a u Republici Hrvatskoj / Development of separate collecting and recycling of PET packaging waste in the Republic of Croatia
Polimeri , 2004,
Abstract: Tijekom devedesetih godina pro loga stolje a u Republici je Hrvatskojdo lo do, za okoli , vrlo nepovoljne promjene struktureambala e napu tanjem povratne ambala e te pove anjem uporabenepovratne ambala e velikog volumena. Na razini se dr aveneopravdano zanemarivao problem gospodarenja ambala nim otpadom te je izostala ira dru tvena i, posebice, dr avna podr ka urje avanju nastalih pote ko a. Istodobno su se sve vi e nametaliinteresi proizvo a a, tj. tvrtki koje su imale vlastiti profitni interes upromjeni strukture ambala e prema nepovratnoj i voluminoznoj.Trenutna situacija na podru ju postupanja s ambala nim otpadomod PET-a za Hrvatsku je izrazito nepovoljna jer se taj otpad najve imdijelom odla e na odlagali ta. Obveza je svake suvremene dr avena podru ju gospodarenja otpadom organizacija sustava cjelovitogagospodarenja otpadom. Taj zadatak proizlazi i iz prihva enihme unarodnih konvencija i smjernica. Najnovije spoznaje pokazujuda je i u Hrvatskoj mogu e na rentabilan na in reciklirati PET, ako sevodi ra una o uskla ivanju prihoda i tro kova odvojenoga sakupljanjai recikliranja. To je dinami an proces koji pored ostalogapodrazumijeva i razvoj materijalnoga recikliranja PET-a u Hrvatskoj. / During the 1990s, in the Republic of Croatia a very unfavorablechange took place in the structure of packaging a shift fromrechargeable to non-rechargeable bulk packaging. The problem ofmanaging packaging waste was long neglected and the social andstate support to improve the situation was not forthcoming. At thesame time, the manufacturers, namely, companies that profited from the change of the structure of packaging towards non-rechargeable and voluminous kind pursued their interests.The current situation in the field of PET packaging waste managementin Croatia is very bad, because such waste is mostlydumped into landfills. The duty of every modern state in the area ofwaste management is the setting up of the of the system. That dutyarises from accepted international conventions and guidelines. Thelatest insights show that it is possible to profitably recycle PET inCroatia. In the process, we must try to adjust the costs and benefitsof separate collection and recycling. It is a dynamic process thatleads to the expansion of material recycling of PET in Croatia.
Study of preparation of dibutyl terephthalate by alcoholysis of waste PET catalyzed by diacid ionic liquid

- , 2018, DOI: 10.7511/dllgxb201804002
Abstract: 针对对苯二甲酸直接酯化合成高值增塑剂对苯二甲酸二丁酯(DBTP)存在的原料价高难得,三废排放量大,催化剂用量大、难分离且不可重复利用等问题,以绿色环保、可循环使用的Brnsted-Lewis双酸型离子液体1-(3-磺酸)-丙基-3-甲基咪唑氯铁酸盐\Cl-FeCl3(FeCl3摩尔分数x=0.67)为催化剂,研究了正丁醇醇解廉价易得的废聚对苯二甲酸乙二醇酯(PET)制备增塑剂对苯二甲酸二丁酯的反应.结果表明:在n(PET重复单元)∶n(正丁醇)=1∶3,m(PET)∶m(催化剂)=5∶1,反应温度210 ℃,反应时间8 h的较佳反应条件下,PET醇解率为100%,产物DBTP和乙二醇(EG)收率分别为97.5%和98.2%.同传统催化剂相比,离子液体催化剂的催化性能更高,且重复使用7次其催化性能未见明显降低.傅里叶-红外光谱(FT-IR)分析表明:PET醇解过程由链内酯键断裂和链末端酯键断裂协同完成.
The synthesis of high value plasticizer dibutyl terephthalate (DBTP) with terephthalic acid by direct esterification method has some drawbacks, such as high raw material price, large emission of three industrial wastes, large amount and difficulty in separate and no reusable of catalyst. In order to solve such problems, a new type of environment-friendly and reusable catalyst, named Brnsted-Lewis diacid ionic liquid (IL), is proposed to produce DBTP. It is found that diacid IL 1-(3-sulfonic)-propyl-3-methylimidazolium chloroironinate [HO3S-(CH2) 3-mim]Cl-FeCl3 (molar fraction x of FeCl3 is 0.67) is an efficient catalyst for alcoholysis of low-cost waste polyethylene terephthalate (PET), and the optimum reaction conditions are obtained as follows: n(PET repeat units)∶n(n-butanol)=1∶3, m(PET)∶m(catalyst)=5∶1, reaction temperature 210 ℃ and reaction time 8 h. Under the above reaction conditions, the conversion of PET reaches 100%, and the yields of DBTP and ethylene glycol (EG) are 97.5% and 98.2%, respectively. Additionally, compared with traditional catalysts, the IL catalyst has best performance, and the proposed catalyst separated from the product can be reused for seven times without obvious decrease in its catalytic performance. The mechanism of PET chains scission is proved to be a combination of chain end and random chain scission by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis.
The consequence of excess configurational entropy on fragility: the case of a polymer/oligomer blend  [PDF]
C. Dalle-Ferrier,S. Simon,W. Zheng,P. Badrinarayanan,T. Fennell,B. Frick,J. M. Zanotti,C. Alba-Simionesco
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.103.185702
Abstract: By taking advantage of the molecular weight dependence of the glass transition of polymers and their ability to form perfectly miscible blends, we propose a way to modify the fragility of a system, from fragile to strong, keeping the same glass properties, i.e. vibrational density of states, mean-square displacement and local structure. Both slow and fast dynamics are investigated by calorimetry and neutron scattering in an athermal polystyrene/oligomer blend, and compared to those of a pure 17-mer polystyrene considered to be a reference, of same Tg. Whereas the blend and the pure 17-mer have the same heat capacity in the glass and in the liquid, their fragilities differ strongly. This difference in fragility is related to an extra configurational entropy created by the mixing process and acting at a scale much larger than the interchain distance, without affecting the fast dynamics and the structure of the glass.
Translation by adaptor-helicase cycle in oligomer world  [PDF]
Hayato Tsuda,Osamu Narikiyo
Quantitative Biology , 2013,
Abstract: A mechanism of the translation in oligomer world is proposed. The translation is carried out by a minimum cycle, which is sustained by adaptors and helicases, and the first information processing in oligomer world. We expect that such a cycle actually worked in a primitive cell and can be constructed in vitro. By computer simulation we have shown that a proofreading is achieved by the fluctuation in the cell. It is rather paradoxical that the proofreading is effective for the system consisting of molecular machines with low efficiency.
Role of electrostatic interactions in amyloid beta-protein (Abeta) oligomer formation: A discrete molecular dynamics study  [PDF]
Sijung Yun,Brigita Urbanc,Luis Cruz,Gal Bitan,David B. Teplow,H. Eugene Stanley
Quantitative Biology , 2007, DOI: 10.1529/biophysj.106.097766
Abstract: Pathological folding and oligomer formation of the amyloid beta-protein (Abeta) are widely perceived as central to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Experimental approaches to study Abeta self-assembly are problematic, because most relevant aggregates are quasi-stable and inhomogeneous. We apply a discrete molecular dynamics (DMD) approach combined with a four-bead protein model to study oligomer formation of the amyloid beta-protein (Abeta). We address the differences between the two most common Abeta alloforms, Abeta40 and Abeta42, which oligomerize differently in vitro. We study how the presence of electrostatic interactions (EIs) between pairs of charged amino acids affects Abeta40 and Abeta42 oligomer formation. Our results indicate that EIs promote formation of larger oligomers in both Abeta40 and Abeta42. The Abeta40 size distribution remains unimodal, whereas the Abeta42 distribution is trimodal, as observed experimentally. Abeta42 folded structure is characterized by a turn in the C-terminus that is not present in Abeta40. We show that the same C-terminal region is also responsible for the strongest intermolecular contacts in Abeta42 pentamers and larger oligomers. Our results suggest that this C-terminal region plays a key role in the formation of Abeta42 oligomers and the relative importance of this region increases in the presence of EIs. These results suggest that inhibitors targeting the C-terminal region of Abeta42 oligomers may be able to prevent oligomer formation or structurally modify the assemblies to reduce their toxicity.
Flotation separation of PET from a PET, PVC and PS mixture by the hydrofilization of the PET surface in NaOH solutions  [PDF]
Martin Sisol,?ubica Kozáková,Tomá? Bakalár
Acta Montanistica Slovaca , 2005,
Abstract: Recycling is the most effective method of waste minimization created by the human activity. The idea of waste re-use as a result of environmental, social and economical factors is becoming very relevant in the last decades. The portion of plastics in the municipal waste is growing year by year as also is its use in the wrapping industry. A condition for recycling technologies is the input of highly pure plastics (without undesirable admixtures) suitable for recycling. Various separation technologies can be used which provide separation of particular components of plastic waste and contaminants. Flotation is one of the separation methods used especially for the ore beneficiation but recently is widely also used for the separation of various types of waste. Plastics, which are not possible to be separated by gravitational methods (because they have almost the same density), PET from beverage bottles, PVC from bottles and foils and PS from beverage beakers, were studied. By changing the surface properties of PET from naturally hydrophobic to hydrophilic by the adjustment in a NaOH solution, PET with the recovery of up to 99 % in the non-foamy product and with the product purity of up to 98 % was acquired by the flotation.
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