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S.S. Maske,B.R. Phule
Review of Research , 2012,
Abstract: Cattle are an important economic livestock species contributing greatly to the Indian economy. Solapur district is predominantly an agricultural district with about 70 percent of its population depends on income from agriculture. Animal husbandry is an adjunct to crop agriculture and cattle are kept for motive power for various farm operations, village transport, irrigation, production of manure and milk. The aim of present paper is to study the indigenous cattle breeds and their characteristics in Solapur district of Maharashtra. The entire investigation is based on secondary sources of data have been used obtained from various sources. That data is processed and presented in the form of tables and graphs. From this study khillar, gaolao, devani, gir, lal kandari and dangi indigenous cattle breeds in Solapur district.
Genetic diversity and relationships among indigenous Mozambican cattle breeds
I Bessa, I Pinheiro, M Matola, K Dzama, A Rocha, P Alexandrino
South African Journal of Animal Science , 2009,
Abstract: Three indigenous Mozambican cattle breeds, namely the Angone, Landim and Bovino de Tete were characterized using six proteins, 13 autosomal microsatellite loci and one Y-specific microsatellite locus (INRA124). The Mashona breed from Zimbabwe was also studied to elucidate the origin of the Bovino de Tete cattle. Expected mean heterozygosity ranged from 0.46 - 0.50 in the proteins and from 0.66 - 0.69 in the microsatellites. Population genetic variability was relatively high when compared to other African breeds. Only 4.5% of the total genetic variation could be attributed to the differences among the breeds. DA genetic distances and principal component analysis suggest that Mozambican breeds occupy an intermediate position between Indian Zebu and African taurine cattle. The genetic contribution from Indian Zebu, estimated by mR and average percentage of Zebu diagnostic alleles, was highest in the Angone breed and lowest in the Landim breed. The indicine Y-specific allele was fixed in the Angone breed (classified as Zebu), was found in 62% of the Bovino de Tete breed and was absent in the Landim breed (classified as Sanga). The hybrid nature of these breeds was also revealed by using an admixture model to infer population structure. Cluster analysis correctly assigned individuals to their rightful populations with probabilities ranging from 0.96 to 0.98, using prior population information. The results support the hypothesis of the Bovino de Tete cattle being a result of crossbreeding between Sanga and Zebu breeds. This study presents the first extensive information on the genetic diversity and relationships among Mozambican cattle breeds and with other breeds from different continents.
Genetic relationships between three indigenous cattle breeds in Mozambique
A. Kotze, M. Harun, F. Otto, F.H. Van der Bank
South African Journal of Animal Science , 2000,
Abstract: This study provides the first account of genetic relationships between three indigenous cattle breeds from Mozambique. Forty-two blood group factors and six blood proteins revealed genetic variation of 84% (Angone), 88% (Bovine de Tete) and 90% (Landim) at the loci studied. Average heterozygosity values ranged from 33% for Angone and Bovine de Tete to 35% for the Landim. The genetic distance was greatest between the Landim and both the Bovine de Tete and the Angone breeds, whereas the smallest genetic distance was observed between the Bovine de Tete and the Angone. These results show the intermediate relationship of Bovine de Tete with the Angone and Landim breeds and show that the Bovine de Tete is an admixture of taurine and indicus genes. (South African Journal of Animal Science, 2000, 30(2): 92-97)
Genetic variability of five indigenous Ethiopian cattle breeds using RAPD markers
F Hassen, E Bekele, W Ayalew, T Dessie
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2007,
Abstract: Genetic diversity is the basis for present day diversified living systems and future genetic improvement needs. This diversity should be properly utilized, improved and conserved. Conservation and improvement strategies ought to be based on proper genetic characterization in association with phenotypic characterization. The objective of this work was to assess between and within breed genetic variability of five indigenous Ethiopian cattle breeds (Horro, Sheko, Arsi, Abigar and Guraghe highland) using RAPD markers. The Guraghe highland and Arsi breeds fall under Zebu breed group, the Sheko come from Humpless Shorthorn, the Abigar from the Sanga group and the Horro from Zenga group. Genetic relationships were estimated using three primers which produced 33 loci. The gene diversity obtained in this study was found to be moderate and Analysis of Molecular Variance revealed that within breed genetic variation is much higher than that between breeds. Except few cases, genetic differentiation was highly significant. The smallest genetic divergence was between Guraghe highland and Abigar followed by Guraghe highland and Arsi. Sheko, historically considered to be humpless shorthorn, formed a distinct cluster whereas the remaining breeds formed another cluster. The RAPD markers were found to be useful to distinguish the breeds studied, but they failed to differentiate between Guraghe Highland and Abigar as they did the two zebu breeds -Guraghe Highland and Arsi. The Pearson’s correlation between genetic and geographic distances (r = 0.22) was found to be statistically insignificant (P > 0.05).
Variance component estimation of female fertility traits in two indigenous and two European beef cattle breeds of South Africa
T Rust, E Groeneveld
South African Journal of Animal Science , 2002,
Abstract: Field data for the period 1976 to 1998 from South African and Namibian Afrikaner, Drakensberger, SA Angus and Simmentaler beef cattle breeds was used to investigate two fertility traits, calving rate (CR) and calving success (CS). Calving rate, a lifetime reproduction trait of the dam, was defined as number of calves produced by the dam divided by the age of the dam in years. For CS, a score of one was allocated for successful calvings and zero for failure to calve. All variances were estimated using REML procedures. The heritability estimate for CR was low (0.04) and that for CS was zero for all four breeds. After analysing CS using GFCAT (sire model) a heritability of 0.27 was estimated for the Afrikaner, suggesting that additive genetic variance does exist for CS in southern African beef cattle populations. South African Journal of Animal Science Vol.32(1) 2002: 23-29
Methods for estimation of daily and lactation milk yields from alternative milk recording scheme in Holstein and Simmental cattle breeds
Vesna Gantner,Sonja Jovanovac,Marija Klop?i?,Martino Cassandro
Italian Journal of Animal Science , 2010, DOI: 10.4081/ijas.2009.519
Abstract: The aim of this study was to compare different statistical methods for the estimation of daily and 305-day lactation milk, fat and protein yields of Holstein and Simmental cattle breeds using an alternative milk recording scheme. Data included 6,824 individual test-day milk yield records collected according to the A4 milk recording method on 668 cows reared on 15 family farms. Daily milk, fat and protein yields were estimated using several statistical methods with regard to breed. The 305-day lactation yields were calculated from estimated daily yields using the Test Interval Method. The correlation between estimated and true yields, as well as the mean difference among estimated and true yield were used as the evaluation criteria for estimation methods. The linear regression of daily to partial milk, fat and protein yields while taking into account the interval between successive milkings was shown to be the most accurate model for estimating daily values, either from morning or evening records. The simple doubling of morning or evening records overestimated and underestimated the daily yields, respectively. When 305-day lactation milk, fat and protein yields were compared no difference between evaluated methods were found. Also, a separate estimation of daily and 305-day lactation yields according to breeds did not result in increased estimation accuracy.
Genetic diversity, population structure and relationships in indigenous cattle populations of Ethiopia and Korean Hanwoo breeds using SNP markers  [PDF]
Zewdu Edea,Sang-Wook Kim,Kwan-Suk Kim
Frontiers in Genetics , 2013, DOI: 10.3389/fgene.2013.00035
Abstract: In total, 166 individuals from five indigenous Ethiopian cattle populations – Ambo (n = 27), Borana (n = 35), Arsi (n = 30), Horro (n = 36), and Danakil (n = 38) – were genotyped for 8773 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers to assess genetic diversity, population structure, and relationships. As a representative of taurine breeds, Hanwoo cattle (n = 40) were also included in the study for reference. Among Ethiopian cattle populations, the proportion of SNPs with minor allele frequencies (MAFs) ≥0.05 ranged from 81.63% in Borana to 85.30% in Ambo, with a mean of 83.96% across all populations. The Hanwoo breed showed the highest proportion of polymorphism, with MAFs ≥0.05, accounting for 95.21% of total SNPs. The mean expected heterozygosity varied from 0.370 in Danakil to 0.410 in Hanwoo. The mean genetic differentiation (FST; 1%) in Ethiopian cattle revealed that within individual variation accounted for approximately 99% of the total genetic variation. As expected, FST and Reynold genetic distance were greatest between Hanwoo and Ethiopian cattle populations, with average values of 17.62 and 18.50, respectively. The first and second principal components explained approximately 78.33% of the total variation and supported the clustering of the populations according to their historical origins. At K = 2 and 3, a considerable source of variation among cattle is the clustering of the populations into Hanwoo (taurine) and Ethiopian cattle populations. The low estimate of genetic differentiation (FST) among Ethiopian cattle populations indicated that differentiation among these populations is low, possibly owing to a common historical origin and high gene flow. Genetic distance, phylogenic tree, principal component analysis, and population structure analyses clearly differentiated the cattle population according to their historical origins, and confirmed that Ethiopian cattle populations are genetically distinct from the Hanwoo breed.
Milk fat globules in different dairy cattle breeds Part II: relationship to fatty acid composition
F. Cecchi,M. Martini,C. Scolozzi,R. Leotta
Italian Journal of Animal Science , 2011, DOI: 10.4081/ijas.2003.s1.275
Abstract: Several studies have pointed out that even under similar environmental conditions, fatty acid composition in milk from dairy cattle of different breeds may be not homogeneous (Beaulieu and Palmquist, 2000; Palmquist et al., 1993; Bitman et al., 1995). The higher percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids in Friesian milk, compared to that of Jerseys, may be related to the physical characteristics of fat globules (Timmen and Patton, 1988; Jensen et al., 1991; Scolozzi, 2002). Milk fat globules of heterogeneous dimensions have been described for many years (Walstra, 1969), but it is still uncertain whether a link exists between the morphometric characteristics of fat globules and their chemical composition (Polidori et al., 1995). In this study we proposed to investigate the relationship between milk fatty acid composition and the morphometric characteristics of fat globules.
MEF2A Gene Polymorphisms are Associated with Growth Traits in Chinese Indigenous Cattle Breeds
Fuying Chen,Hong Chen,Juqiang Wang,Hui Niu,Xianyong Lan,Liushuai Hua,Zhuanjian Li,Chuzhao Lei,Xingtang Fang
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/javaa.2010.814.819
Abstract: Myocyte enhancer factor 2A (MEF2A) gene encodes a member of the myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) protein family, which involves in vertebrate skeletal muscle development and differentiation. The important function of MEF2A implies this gene is a potential candidate gene for considering association analysis between polymorphism and growth trait. Sequencing and forced-PCR-RFLP were used to analyze the polymorphisms of the MEF2A gene in 1009 cattle from three Chinese indigenous breeds. Three SNPs (C1598T, G1641A and C1734T) were detected in the cattle MEF2A gene, leading to a missense (P420L) and two silent mutations (E434 E, P465P). The frequencies of 1598CC genotype and the frequencies of allele 1598C varied from 0.884-1.000 in the analyzed population (NY, QC and JX). The genotypic and allelic frequencies of G1641A and C1734T in three populations were 0.034-1.000. The C1598T was associated with body length at 6 and 12 months of cattle. The G1641A was associated with average daily gain at 12 months of cattle. And the C1734T affected the average daily gain and body weight at 6 months of cattle. Those three mutations affected the early growth and development of cattle, which could be potential molecular makers in assistant selection of cattle breeding.
Polymorphism of the Bovine POU1F1 Gene: Allele Frequencies and Effects on Milk Production in Three Iranian Native Breeds and Holstein Cattle of Iran
S. Zakizadeh,M. Reissmann,G. Rahimi,A. Nejati Javaremi
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: The aim of this study was to estimate the allele frequencies in polymorphic site of exon six of POU1F1 gene in three Iranian native and Holstein cattle. Genomic DNA was extracted from 3 Iranian native cattle breeds, including 97 Mazandarani, 87 Sarabi, 112 Golpaygani and also 110 Holstein cattle. A 451 bp fragment of intron 5 and exon 6 were amplified and digested with HinfI restriction enzyme. Frequencies of allele A were 0.37, 0.27, 0.34 and 0.21 for Mazandarani, Sarabi, Golpaygani and Holstein cattle, respectively. Significant differences in genotype frequencies were found between Mazandarani or Golpaygani and Holstein cattle. No significant differences in genotype frequencies were found between Sarabi and Holstein cattle. Transition A to G in nucleotide 1256 is responsible for HinfI(-) allele. No significant association was observed between POU1F1 polymorphism and milk production. Differences in allelic frequency between native Bos indicus breeds (Mazandarani, Golpaygani) and Holstein at the present study might be due to differences in origin breeds, low number of samples and/or as the effect of natural selection in native breeds.
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