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Differential Expression of IL-6 and IGF-II in Guinea Fowl and Chicken  [PDF]
G. Goyal,V. Upmanyu,S.K. Singh,S.K. Shukla
International Journal of Poultry Science , 2010,
Abstract: Differential expression of IL-6 and IGF-II genes were studied in guinea fowl and broiler chicken using semi-quantitative analysis. A 219 bp fragment of IL-6 and 215 bp fragment of IGF-II were amplified in guinea fowl and broiler chicken using chicken specific primers. Semi-quantitative analysis revealed the adjusted Integral Density of 0.853 and 0.051 for IL-6 band in guinea fowl and broiler chicken respectively, revealing 16.62 fold higher IL-6 mRNA expression in LPS induced PBMCs from guinea fowl as compared to that from broiler. However, adjusted Integral Density of IGF-II band was 0.082 and 1.106 for IGF-II band in guinea fowl and broiler chicken respectively, which revealed 13.43 fold increase in IGF-II mRNA expression in LPS induced PBMCs in broiler chicken as compared to that in guinea fowl. Hence, guinea fowl showed higher expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine (IL-6) and lower expression of IGF-II in comparison to broiler chicken. These findings were as per expectation in view of much higher immuno-competence and lower growth rate in guinea fowl in comparison to chicken.
Macrorhabdus ornithogaster in ostrich, rhea, canary, zebra finch, free range chicken, turkey, guinea-fowl, columbina pigeon, toucan, chuckar partridge and experimental infection in chicken, japanese quail and mice
Martins, N.R.S.;Horta, A.C.;Siqueira, A.M.;Lopes, S.Q.;Resende, J.S.;Jorge, M.A.;Assis, R.A.;Martins, N.E.;Fernandes, A.A.;Barrios, P.R.;Costa, T.J.R.;Guimar?es, L.M.C.;
Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-09352006000300001
Abstract: since 2000, macrorhabdus ornithogaster "megabacteriosis" has been diagnosed in the avian diseases laboratory in a diversity of avian species and varied spectrum of disease. the disease in some species (chickens, turkeys, guinea fowls) was clinically characterized by emaciation, prostration, loss of appetite, cachexia and death, with a typically chronic course. a more acute disease was observed in finches (canary-serinus and zebra-taeniopygia) and budgerigars (melopsittacus undulatus). the large rod shaped organism, visible from 100 times magnification, with and without staining, could be detected in sick and also in reasonably normal individuals of some species, such as chickens, turkeys, quails and pigeons. in rheas (rhea americana), ostriches (struthio camelus), canaries, zebra-finches, guinea-fowl (numida meleagris) and budgerigars. the disease was severe, causing to up to 100% mortality. the infection could be detected in some species along with other infectious or disease problems, such as endoparasites (helminths, coccidia) and ectoparasitism (order mallophaga or/and order acarina). the cultivation of m. ornithogaster was successfully achieved in solid and liquid media, originated from chickens (four isolates), guinea fowl (1 isolate), chuckar partridge (1 isolate) and canary (1 isolate). a very interesting finding at microscopy was motility of m. ornithogaster, as detected both in cultures obtained on agar for pathogenic fungi and passaged into thioglycolate broth, as well as on samples observed in wet preparations from in vivo. differences in colony aspects were noted among the isolates. experimental infections were attempted in chicken and japanese quail, using a chicken isolate, allowing the detection of the organism in the proventriculus and liver in apparently normal birds. one chicken isolate was injected intraperitoneally in balb/c mice and resulted in 100% mortality.
Nucleotide Sequence Variation in MHC Class I Region in Guinea Fowl
S.K. Singh,S. Mehra,S.K. Shukla,Vinay Kumar
International Journal of Poultry Science , 2010,
Abstract: The MHC class I gene was amplified, cloned and sequenced in guinea fowl using the primers specific to BF2 gene in chicken. The nucleotide sequence of 571 bp partial CDS of BF2 gene includes 32 nucleotides of signal peptide (exon 1), complete α1 domain (270 nucleotides) and 269 nucleotides of α2 domain. For α1 and α domain no sequence variation was observed within guinea fowl sequences, however, high variability was observed within the other poultry species (15.93-28.03%) except chicken (7.95-9.16%). Between the guinea fowl and other poultry species, the α1 domain showed high nucleotide variability (29.26-43.70%). Among poultry species, guinea fowl showed least variability with chicken and maximum with duck. Among the substitutions, majorities were of non-synonymous (76.27%) with a ration of 1:3 between synonymous to non-synonymous substitutions. Guinea fowl showed lower genetic distances (Kimura 2-parameter) with chicken and quail (0.211-0.215), while with duck and goose, it showed higher genetic distances (0.343-0.350). Phylogenetic tree, based these genetic distances revealed two major clusters, comprising of guinea fowl, quail and chicken in one with guinea fowl as separate branch, while duck and goose in other.
Methods for Cryopreservation of Guinea Fowl Sperm  [PDF]
éva Váradi, Barbara Végi, Krisztina Liptói, Judit Barna
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0062759
Abstract: Conservation of indigenous poultry species is an important part of the new Hungarian agricultural strategy. Semen cryopreservation is the most practical method for the long term storage of poultry genetic material. The objective was to compare four protocols for cryopreservation of guinea fowl sperm (slow and fast programmable, freezing in nitrogen vapor, and pellet) and three cryoprotectants (10% ethylene glycol, 6% dimethyl-formamide and 6% dimethyl-acetamide). The efficiency of the methods was examined by in vitro tests (subjective motility scoring, sperm concentration, morphological and live/dead sperm analysis with eosin-aniline staining). Thereafter, the two most promising methods were tested by artificial insemination of frozen-thawed semen (3 times a week for 3 weeks using 300 million spermatozoa/hen), followed by candling of incubated eggs, assessment of fertilization, embryonic death, and hatching rate. The survival rate of live, intact spermatozoa was greatest (p≤0.05) in pellet method and the slow programmable protocol (with 10% ethylene glycol) (28.6 and 23.5%). The two best protocols (based on in vitro assessment of post-thaw semen quality) were subsequently tested in vivo with artificial insemination. The pellet method yielded a 64% fertility rate compared to slow protocol with only 30% fertility. Regardless, both freezing protocols significantly increased embryonic deaths compared to the control group (16,7; 9,1 and 8,3%, respectively). During the 3-week in vivo trial, fertility increased and early embryonic death decreased over time. According to the results the guinea fowl sperm could tolerate the fast freezing in pellet better than the slower freezing rates and resulted acceptable fertility rate.
Online Journal of Animal and Feed Research , 2012,
Abstract: This study was conducted to evaluate the growth pattern of muscles, bones and fat of guinea fowl. Eighteen day old chicks were reared for 22 weeks and serial slaughters were done every four weeks for evaluation. Results showed that the feed conversion ratio was 1:5, highest feed intake at 13-14 weeks of age and highest weight gain at 8-10 weeks. Carcass yield was 69%. The great mass of muscle was found in the thorax, highest bone percentage was found in the pelvis and the flank had high percentage of fat. Thorax and hind limb had high growth rate when compared with pelvis, wing, neck and flank.
Performance of Guinea Fowl Numida Meleagris Fed Varying Levels of Poultry Droppings  [PDF]
A.I. Adeyemo,O. Oyejola
International Journal of Poultry Science , 2004,
Abstract: Six hundred guinea fowl pullets, 5 week old, were used for a 30 week feeding trial to test the replacement value of poultry droppings (PD) for blood meal, a conventional protein ingredient, in animal feed. Guinea fowl is a wild bird found in the savanna forests of West Africa. There were four dietary treatments namely, 0, 20, 40 and 60% PD replacement of blood meal. The birds were kept in deep litter houses for 20 weeks. Feed and water were offered ad libitum. At the 20th week, 10 birds were randomly selected from each of the four dietary treatments and starved for one day. They were killed in the slaughter house by cutting the neck through the jugular vein. This was used to determine the carcass parameters. The remaining birds were transferred into the layers house, where the following parameters were determined: body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion, age at first lay, Percentage hen day production, egg weight, shell thickness and yolk colour. Results show that body weight gain and feed conversion decreased with the level of PD in the diet. There was no significant difference between the birds in carcass parameters in all the treatments except in oviduct length where its values decreased with the level of PD in the diet and significant differences (P<0.05) were observed among the birds raised on 0 and 60% PD. The birds on 0% PD attained point of lay two weeks earlier than those on 60% PD. And there was a significant difference (P<0.05) between the birds on 0% PD and those on 60% PD diets in age at first lay. However, there was no significant difference among birds raised on diets with PD below 60% PD. Feed intake increased with the level of PD and there was a significant difference (P0<0.05) between those raised on 0 and 60% PD diets. Mortality was very low as only two birds were recorded dead in the 60% PD diet throughout the experimental period. It was concluded that PD can be used to replace blood meal in the diet of guinea fowl up to 40% without any adverse effect on its performance.
Body Mass and Conformation Traits in Four Breeds of Guinea Fowl  [PDF]
K.A. Kozaczynski
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 1998,
Abstract: The records for body mass at one day, one, four, twelve, sixteen, twenty, twenty four weeks of age and conformation traits (Shank length, shank diameter, keel length, breast angle) at four, twelve, sixteen, twenty, and twenty four weeks of age were collected from 114 guinea fowl. There were highly significant differences in body mass between breeds and a significant difference between sexes from 4 weeks of age up to 20 weeks of age. At 24 weeks of age the difference in body mass was significant for breeds but not significant for sex. All the conformation trait measurements were higher for males than for females. A steady increase in shank length, shank diameter and keel length was observed from the 4th to the 20th week of age in all the breeds and sexes. During the study greater average breast measurement angles were recorded for females than males.
Journal of Central European Agriculture , 2011, DOI: 10.5513/jcea01/12.2.907
Abstract: The effects of age and sex of guinea fowl on their dressing percentage, carcass composition, pH value, water holding capacity, colour and sensory properties of meat was determined. At 16 weeks of age, males and females had significantly higher body weights and carcass weights compared to birds at 13 weeks of age. The carcasses of older birds contained more breast muscles, leg muscles and skin with subcutaneous fat, and less wings, with a significant difference for males. At both evaluation times, males compared to females had lower body weight, carcass weight, dressing percentage, content of breast muscles and abdominal fat, and a higher proportion of leg muscles. Older birds had significantly lower redness (a*) values for breast muscles in males and for leg muscles in females.
Journal of Central European Agriculture , 2012, DOI: 10.5513/jcea01/13.4.1106
Abstract: The aim of the study was to determine DNA polymorphism between and within white and grey varieties of guinea fowl. At the end of 12 weeks of age, blood was sampled from 13 white and 16 grey guinea fowl, and DNA was isolated. Genetic similarity between the birds was evaluated using RAPD-PCR technique. PCR with five primers was performed in birds studied. The largest number of bands appeared after electrophoresis with AB1-05 and AB1-09 primers, and the smallest number when AB1-08 primer was used. Genetic similarity between the white and grey varieties of guinea fowl, determined as the mean for the primers used, was 0.97. The coefficient of genetic similarity averaged 0.65 within white variety and 0.64 within grey variety.
Green Bio-Based CaO from Guinea Fowl Eggshells  [PDF]
Mary-Magdalene Pedavoah, Mercy Badu, Nathaniel O. Boadi, Johannes A. M. Awudza
Green and Sustainable Chemistry (GSC) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/gsc.2018.82015
Abstract: Eggshells are among the emerging hazardous waste from the food processing industry. This work sought to valorize waste guinea fowl eggshells. Guinea fowl eggshells (GFEs) were evaluated in the production of CaO for chemical and industrial application. The functionality, thermal stability, elemental composition, phase distribution and surface morphology properties of uncalcined GFEs and GFEs calcined at 700°C, 800°C, 900°C, 1000°C and 1100°C were systematically studied by FTIR, TGA, XRF, XRD and SEM-EDX respectively. The elemental analysis revealed Ca as the main element in the GFEs. The uncalcined GFEs showed intense peaks that corresponded to calcite (CaCO3) phases. These transformed into Ca(OH)2 as the temperature of calcination increased and finally to CaO in the FTIR analysis. In the XRD diffractograms, the main peaks at 2θ values were 29.466° for the uncalcined GFESs and at 37.377° for the sample treated at 1100°C. The phases were confirmed as CaO when compared with JCPDS files. Using the Scherer equation, the CaO crystallite size for the sample calcined at 1100°C was found to be 50.68 nm along the (2 0 0) orientation. All the samples showed multi-step decomposition patterns in the thermogravimetric analyses (TGA), with weight loss of up to 47% for the uncalcined GFEs sample, which was mainly due to the transformation of the calcite (CaCO3) phase to CaO by removal of bound water, organic components, and CO2. Samples calcined at 1100°C showed mainly CaO phases in XRD analyses and fairly stable with 7% loss in weight after treatment at 800°C. SEM images of samples calcined at 900°C were irregular compared to samples treated at 1100°C. EDX data revealed that the surface structure was 100% calcium and oxygen. GFEs are a potential source of pure calcium oxide for various industrial uses.
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